Update: 2006-08-04 05:28 AM -0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Lauraceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Lauraceae 6 entries
• Cinnamomum camphora •  {pa.roat (hsin-na.mwun)} 
• Cinnamomum cassia  • {ta.roat this-kran°po;}
• Cinnamomum inunctum • {ka.ra.wι:}
• Cinnamomum obtusifolium • {na.ling-kyau}
• Cinnamomum tamala  • {this-kran°-po:}
• Cinnamomum zeylanicum  • {thi-hoL this-kra-po:}
• {pa.roat} - Identification controversy
• Cinnamomum spp.

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Cinnamomum camphora

Family: Lauraceae

MMPDB2006: {pa.roat (hsin-na.mwun)}

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated.  Common Names: Japan camphor tree, Payok, Payuk

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 35-0908: {pa.roat}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 263 : {pa.roat ping}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-192: {pa.roat (ta.roat)}
• UHM 15: Pa-yok - Cinnamomum camphora

UKT:
• This plant was listed as {hsing-na. pa.roat} in MMPDB2005
• Naagathein vol 2, p189-192 had given two species with Burmese-Myanmar names {pa.roat} as: {pa.roat-ping} and {pa.roat (ta.roat)} -- the second name had "Chinese" as a qualifier within parentheses . This is usually read in Burmese as {ta.roat pa.roat}.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{pa.roat} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 180
{pa.roat} - n. camphor or naphthalene. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 252

camphor n. 1. An aromatic crystalline compound, C10H16O, obtained naturally from the wood or leaves of the camphor tree or synthesized and used as an insect repellent, in the manufacture of film, plastics, lacquers, and explosives, and in medicine chiefly in external preparations to relieve mild pain and itching. [Middle English caumfre from Anglo-Norman from Medieval Latin camphora from Arabic kāfūr possibly from Malay kapur Sanskrit karpūrah/] -- AHTD

 

Hindi :
• {kyi.ni.ya ka.pur},
Kapoor, Karpura
Sanskrit: Kapoor, Ghausar, Himavalka  

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 35-0908: Camphor
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 263 : Camphor
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-192: not given
• UHM 15: Gum camphor, Laurel camphor


Picture
:
• Leader from Nagathein 2-192
• Photo: left - tree ; right -leaves  : www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/images/600max/html/starr_010419_0038_cinnamomum_camphora.htm
• Photo: lower-left - leaves and berries : "Camphor tree leaves are distinctively fragrant when crushed and ripe berries that are consumed by some bird species. " : www.floridata.com/ref/C/cinn_cam.cfm
• Photo: lower-right - leaves of Cinnamomum camphora T. Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae)  from www.dipbot.unict.it/orto/orto.eng/alfa/c.html

 

Plant identification characters :

• A large much branched evergreen tree attaining a height of 60-100 feet, leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate, entire, coriaceous, acuminate at both ends, shiny on upper surface and glaucous beneath -- UHM

• The camphor tree is a dense broadleaved evergreen that is capable of growing 50-150 ft (15.2-45.7 m) tall and spreading twice that wide with a trunk up to 15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter, though the largest U.S. specimens are only half that size and those in the Caribbean are even smaller. The shiny foliage is made up of alternate 1-4 in (2.5-10.2 cm) oval leaves dangling from long petioles. Each leaf has three distinct yellowish veins. The outer margins of the leaves tend to be somewhat wavy and turn upward. The new foliage starts out a rusty burgundy color, but the leaves soon turn dark green on the upper sides and paler green underneath. New branches emerging from the shallowly fissured grayish brown trunk are smooth and green. Twigs are usually green, but may be tinged with red when young. The inconspicuous tiny cream colored flowers are borne in the spring on branching 3 in (7.6 cm) flower stalks. They are followed by large crops of fruit, comprised of round pea sized berries attached to the branchlets by cuplike little green cones. The berries first turn reddish, then ripen to black. Camphor tree can be readily identified by the distinctive odor of a crushed leaf. -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cinn_cam.cfm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Shan States, Maymyo -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Leaves -- A ketone C10H16O obtained from Cinnamomum camphora . Externally as a liniment and rubefacient. Internally as an antiseptic and carminative. Hypodermically in the form of a sterile solution in oil as a cardiac stimulant. -- UHM

• The whole tree can be used. However, chippings of the upper part of the stem are used not to kill the tree. Chips of the stem are mixed with water for a few days and boiled in big tubs when camphor resin floats on the surface. The molten resin solidifies on cooling. Oil of camphor is steam-distilled from the camphor resin -- edited extract from: www.kamleshayurveda.com

WARNING: Camphor in large doses is toxic to humans. It stimulates the central nervous system and may affect respiration or cause convulsions. In Chinese medicine, camphor is forbidden for pregnant women and those with a deficiency of vital energy or yin. Camphor is a prolific seed producer that apparently does not have serious predators or diseases outside its native range. Seedlings and root sprouts are abundant near mature trees, but individual trees pop up far from seed sources. In Florida, camphor trees appear in undisturbed mesic hardwood forests, upland pine woods, and scrubs, as well as in the vacant lots and fencerows where it is more commonly observed. The Plant Conservation Alliance lists this species as an Alien Invader and it is listed as a Category I invasive exotic species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, which means that it is known to be "invading and disrupting native plant communities in Florida." -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cinn_cam.cfm

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use) :

 

Constituents:

• 1. Leaves contain camphor 0.73 %, camphorol 0.97 % (18). 2. Chiefly a saturated ketone, C10H16O (7) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Cinnamomum cassia

Family: Lauraceae

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. Cited as: Cinnamomum cassia D. Don. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Rakhine, Shan. Common Names: Cassia cinnamon, Indian cassia lignea, Maza, Shing-nam, Thikya-bo

Picture:
• Leader from: Cinnamomum cassia Blume. -- www.illustratedgarden.org/ mobot/rarebooks/pag...
http://digitalis.mobot.org/mrsid/QK99A1K6318831914B1/fullsize/QK99A1K6318831914B1_0390.jpg
• Photo of Cinnamomum aromaticum Ness;  C. cassia -- http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2230e/x2230e47.jpg Click to enlarge

See: Cinnamomum tamala 

{ta.roat this-kran°po;}; (Eng) Chinese cinnamon tree  -- Agri.Dept.2000 25-0651

 

Contents of this page

Cinnamomum inunctum

Family: Lauraceae

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum inunctum Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Shan. Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe, Nak-zik

UKT: Since almost no information is available on C. inunctum on the Internet, I have looked into what Chklist had listed as  {ka.ra.wι:} (Kara-way; Karaway)  in Chklist:
• Cinnamomum impressinervium
• Cinnamomum macrocarpum
• Cinnamomum multiflorum
Searching the three above on the Internet, did not turn up any valuable information

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0046: {ka.ra.wι:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-059: {ka.ra.wι:rwak} as C. tamala
• UHM : NL

UKT: Nagathein 3-462 gave 2 species:
• {this-kra.po: (a.reing: na.ling-kyau} -- (Bengali) {ram-tι~gya-paaht}; (Latin) Cinnamaumum. (clearly a spelling mistake)
• {this-kra.po: (ro:ro: mran-ma} -- (Hindi) {thι-gya.pa-tha.}; (Sanskrit) {ta.ma-la.pat~ta.}; (Latin) Cinnamomum tamala .

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum inunctum Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Shan. Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe, Nak-zikChklist:   Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe, Nak-zik

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
• -- TravPo-M-Dict 004
   UKT's free translation on above: Large tree, leaves use as spice.
• {ka.ra.wι:} -- n. name applied to some trees of Cinnamomun spp.; C. inunctum; C. multiflorum, etc.  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 005
• {ka.ra.wι:rwak} -- leaf of the Cinnamonum tamala used as a spice -- Myan-Engl-Dict 005

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0046: Cinnamon
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-059: Cassia cinnamon (UKT: not reliable because of unreliability of botanical name)
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :

 

Plant identification characters :

• Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Shan.
     Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe, Nak-zik -- Chklist

 

Distribution in Myanmar

• Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Shan.-- Chklist

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :

 

UKT: The following is what turned up on my Google-search for "Cinnamomum macrocarpum"

From: http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/Indian%20Lexicon/cinnamomum.htm

2348.Cinnamon: kar-appu, kar-ppa, kar-pa (Arabic. qarfah, Herodotus: karphea, whence karppu_ram, fr. kar-a sap issuing from trees, gum?) laurus cinnamomum; kar-ppurattailam oil of cinnamon (Ma.lex.) Cinnamomum macrocarpum: tejapatra (Skt.); karuva (Ta.); lavanga (Te.); oil from root bark and leaves: used in rheumatic affections externally; habitat: N. Kanara, Western Ghats and Nilgiris (GIMP, p.65). cf. karuva_ cinnamon tree, cinnamomum zeylanicum; cassia cinnamon, cinnamomum macrocarpum (Ta.lex.) cf. karuva_ (Ma.lex.) Cinnamon and cinnamon oil: Oil of cinnamon is sometimes called in Britain, cassia oil derived from cassia bark. History: References to aromatic barks of the cinnamon type are abundant in the Old Testament and in ancient Greek and Latin writings... cassia was known in China about 2700 BC... 13th century references... to the collection of cinnamon in Ceylon... In Sri Lanka about 26,000 acres are devoted to cinnamon plantation... The shoots are cut and tops and twigs removed with an instrument known as kathe (catty)... about 50 cm. long. About 20kg of quills per acre will be obtained from the first crop, about 4 years after planting... Boys tie the sticks in bundles with coir string and take them to the peeling shed or wadie near the workers' huts... The peeler uses the brass knife known as kochattetalane... He rings the bark at intervals of about 18 in. and makes two longitudinal slits on opposite sides of the shoot, working the knife under the bark... The separated bark is wrapped in coir matting and allowed to 'ferment' overnight. In the process used for the removal of the outer bark a piece of wood of suitable size is supported at one end by a wall or by means of a small tripod of sticks tied together at the apex. Each piece of bark is placed in turn on the stick and held at its upper end by the scraper's foot while the cork and cortex are removed with the curved ('U'-shaped), known as kochath-gane. The process of making up the quills involves the worker sitting with a board and a measuring stick 42 in. long, to which is attached a wooden lifter known as pethi kotuwa... The compound quill is assembled on the board and, when it has reached the required length, the end is cut off with a pair of scissors and it is gently lifted, with the help of the lifter, on to a mat.... Uses: cinnamon is used as a flavouring agent and mild astringent. The oil has carminative properties and is a powerful germicide. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, pp. 446-450). karuva_ cinnamon tree, cinnamomum zeylanicum, ilavan:kappat.t.ai maram; cassia cinnamon, cinnamomum macrocarpum; clove tree, eugenia caryophyllata; karuva_-ppat.t.ai cinnamon, the dry bark of cinnamomum zeylanicum (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) 'The earliest Dravidian word in Greek of which we know the date was karpion, Ctesias's word for cinnamon (as heard from his Persian informants as that of a resinous Indian tree). Herodotus describes cinnamon as "the karpheas (dry sticks) which we after the Phoenicians call kinnamomon." Liddel and Scott say: "the word bears a curious likeness to its Arabic name kerfat, kirfah." This resemblance must, I think, be accidental seeing that Herodotus considered "cinnamon" alone as a foreign word... The word mentioned by Ctesias seems, however, to have a real resemblance to the Arabic word and also to a Dravidian one... This word is... karupu or ka_rppu e.g. Malayalam karappa-(t)-tailam "oil of cinnamon"... other forms of this word are karappu, karuva, karuva_ the last of which is the most common in Tamil... derived from the Tamil-Malayalam word karu (black, pungent)... the latter meaning doubtless supplies us with the explanation of karuppu cinnamon.' (Caldwell). qarfah, kerfat (Arabic); karphea (Greek); karuva_ (Ta.) Ctesias was a physician to a king; he says that the Greeks called it myroroda (unguent roses) and refers to its extra-ordinary smell and fragrance, prized as an unguent... Bishop Caldwell's assumption is that Ctesias referred to cinnamon oil... from Malabar trees... Dr. Gundert's Malayalam-English dictionary inverts Caldwell and traces karappa (Ma.) to Greek karphea through the Arabic qarfah... (loc. cit. R. Swaminatha Aiyar, Dravidian Theories, 1922-23, repr., Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1987. pp.114-116).

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Cinnamomum obtusifolium 

syn. Cinnamomum bejolghota ?

Family: Lauraceae

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Hman-thein, Lulin-gyaw, Maza, Nakzik, Na-lin-gyaw, Tauku-ywe, Thit-kyabo

UKT: There are not many Internet websites on C. obtusifolium. The following is scanty information from:
• Cinnamomum obtusifolium A Chev (Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch-Hamex Neas) Sweet) -- www.apafri.org/fsiv/_private/main_el_files/Use%20Indigenoustree/025-Used-IT.htm
• Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet, Lauraceae. Engl.: wild cassia. Bot. syn.: Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees. -- http://www.henriettesherbal.com/php/get.php?id=14584

• Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 32-0851: {na.ling-kyau} • Agri.dept.2000 32-851
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 231: {na.ling-kyau}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 3-462: NL as {na.ling-kyau}.
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {na.ling-kyau}/ {lu.ling-kyau}
-- TravPo-M-Dict 160
-- TravPo-M-Dict 284
- {na.ling-kyau} - n. See {lu.ling-kyau} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 221
- {lu.ling-kyau} - n. tree, the roots of which are ground into a paste and used for relieving aches and pains, Cinnamonum obtusifolium -- Myan-Engl-Dict 426

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :

• Agri.Dept.2000 32-0851: NG not given
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 231: NG
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 3-462: NL as {na.ling-kyau}.
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from: http://www.pt.ac.th/ptweb/studentweb/tree_jungwat/j54%20copy.jpg

 

Plant identification characters :

• Large-sized tree species, height  up to 30m, breast-high diameter up to 60-70cm. Bark silvery grey, smooth, slightly fragrant. Young branches dark green in colour. Leaves single, alternate, basal veins 3, conspicuous, upper surface glabrous, lower surface brilliantly green, slightly fragrant. Leaf 8-10cm long, 4-6cm wide. Inflorescence apical. Perianth 6-lobed, oblong, tomentose on both sides. Stamens in three whorls, staminodes 3, anther 4-celled pistil with ovoid glabrous ovary: Style as long as ovary, big stigmata. Fruit ovoid, green when young, blackish green when ripe, flesh pale purple, one-seeded, coat pale brown.  -- www.apafri.org/fsiv/_private/main_el_files/Use%20Indigenoustree/025-Used-IT.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents /

 

Contents of this page

Cinnamomum spp

Family: Lauraceae

• Chklist

Results of search for 'Cinnamomum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 22 Apr 2006.
• Cinnamomum aubletii Lukmanoff. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide
• Cinnamomum bamoense Lukmanoff. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
• Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
• Cinnamomum birmanicum Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mon, Unknown
• Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
     Common Names: Japan camphor tree, Payok, Payuk
• Cinnamomum cecidodaphne Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing.
     Common Names: Nepal camphor, Sassafras
• Cinnamomum cupulatum Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Unknown.
• Cinnamomum ellipticifolium Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
• Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mandalay, Sagaing.
     Common Names: Kyun-gado, Taw-seik-nan-gyi
• Cinnamomum glauciphyllum Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Unknown.
• Cinnamomum helferii Lukmanoff. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Cinnamomum hkinlumense Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Unknown.
• Cinnamomum impressinervium Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing.
     Common Names: Karaway, Karawe, Maza
• Cinnamomum inunctum Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Shan.
     Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe, Nak-zik
• Cinnamomum kingdon-wardii Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Unknown.
• Cinnamomum lucens Miq. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Taninthayi, Unknown.
• Cinnamomum macrocarpum Hook. f. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Yangon.
      Common Names: Kara-way, Karawe. See UKT's note
• Cinnamomum multiflorum Wight. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mandalay, Mon. Common Names: Karawe
• Cinnamomum nalangway Kosterm. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Unknown. Common Names: Nalingway
• Cinnamomum nitidum Blume. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kayin, Mon, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Na-lin-gyaw, Nasha-gyi
• Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Hman-thein, Lulin-gyaw, Maza, Nakzik, Na-lin-gyaw, Tauku-ywe, Thit-kyabo
• Cinnamomum pachyphyllum Kosterm. Cited as: Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Mon, Mon, Taninthayi, Unknown. Common Names: Hman-thin, Maza-la
• Cinnamomum parthenoxylon Meissner. Habit: Tree .Distribution: mon, Taninthayi. Common Names: Karawe, Martaban camphor, Sinkosi, Thit-lai-nyin
• Cinnamomum pauciflorum Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Shan
• Cinnamomum rougierii Lukmanoff. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide
• Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. Cited as: Cinnamomum cassia D. Don. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Rakhine, Shan. Common Names: Cassia cinnamon, Indian cassia lignea, Maza, Shing-nam, Thikya-bo
• Cinnamomum tavoyanum Meissner. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi. Common Names: Hmanthin-po, Tauktu-ywe
• Cinnamomum verum Presl. Cited as: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi. Common Names: Ceylon cinnamon, Cinnamon, Hman-thin, Thi-ho-thit-kya-bo, Thit-kya-bo.
• Neocinnamomum caudatum (Nees) Merr.. Cited as: Cinnamomum caudatum Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay. Common Names: Panen

UKT's note: Many plants in Chklist, could not be found on the Internet. For some only scanty information is available. My interest is in {na.ling-kyau} and {ka.ra.wι:}, for both of which I could get only scanty information.

• USDA-NRCS-data:
"CINNA2","Cinnamomum Schaeffer","cinnamon","Lauraceae"
"CIAR8","Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees","cassia","Lauraceae"
"CICA18","Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume",">>Cinnamomum aromaticum","Lauraceae"
"CIBU2","Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & Th. Nees) Nees ex Blume","Padang cassia","Lauraceae"
"CICA","Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl","camphortree","Lauraceae"
"CACA52","Camphora camphora (L.) Karst.",">>Cinnamomum camphora","Lauraceae"
"LACA12","Laurus camphora L.",">>Cinnamomum camphora","Lauraceae"
"CIEL2","Cinnamomum elongatum (Vahl ex Nees) Kosterm.","laurel avispillo","Lauraceae"
"PHEL","Phoebe elongata Vahl ex Nees",">>Cinnamomum elongatum","Lauraceae"
"CIME9","Cinnamomum mexicanum (Meisn.) Kosterm. [excluded]","","Lauraceae"
"PHME15","Phoebe mexicana Meisn. [excluded]",">>Cinnamomum mexicanum","Lauraceae"
"CIMO3","Cinnamomum montanum (Sw.) Bercht. & J. Presl","avispillo","Lauraceae"
"PHMO5","Phoebe montana (Sw.) Griseb.",">>Cinnamomum montanum","Lauraceae"
"CISE2","Cinnamomum sessilifolium Kanehira","cinnamon","Lauraceae"
"CITA2","Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.","indian bark","Lauraceae"
"CIVE2","Cinnamomum verum J. Presl","cinnamon","Lauraceae"
"CIZE2","Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume [excluded]","","Lauraceae"

Agri.Dept.2000 (abbr: NG = not given) (UKT: the active links will take you to the corresponding species.)
• Cinnamomum camphora (fam) Lauraceae: {pa.roat}; (Eng) Camphor -- Agri.Dept.2000 35-0908
• Cinnamomum cassia (fam) Lauraceae: {ta.roat this-kran°po;}; (Eng) Chinese cinnamon tree  -- Agri.Dept.2000 25-0651
• Cinnamomum granduliferum (fam) Lauraceae: {kyun:ka.to:}; (Eng) NG -- Agri.Dept.2000 10-0260
• Cinnamomum iners (fam) Lauraceae: {mhan-thing:}; (Eng) NG -- Agri.Dept.2000 49-1290
• Cinnamomum inunctun (fam) Lauraceae: {ka.ra.wι:}; (Eng) Cinnamon -- Agri.Dept.2000 02-0046
• Cinnamomum malabathrum (fam) Lauraceae: {tau:kran°po:}; (Eng) Country cinnamon  -- Agri.Dept.2000 27-0714
• Cinnamomum obtusifolium  (fam) Lauraceae: {na.ling-kyau}; (Eng) NG -- Agri.Dept.2000 32-0851
• Cinnamomum tamala (fam) Lauraceae: {this-kran°po:}; (Eng) Cinnamon -- Agri.Dept.2000 61-1625
• Cinnamomum zeylanicum  (fam) Lauraceae: {thi-hoL-this-kra.po:}; (Eng) Ceylon cinnamon -- Agri.Dept.2000 58-1559

Nagathein
   Nagathein 3-458 to 463, listed under the Burmese-Myanmar {this-kra.po:} 5 species: ; ; ; ; . Of the five, {this-kra.po: (a.reing: na.ling-kyau} was listed without an explicit botanical name.
• Cinnamomum camphora  (fam) NG: () {pa.roat (ta.roat)}; (Eng) NG - Nagathein 2-192
• Cinnamomum cassia (fam) NG: {this.kra.po:(ta.roat)}; (Eng) NG -- Nagathein 3-458
• Cinnamomum iners (fam) NG: {this-kra.po: (tau-mhan-king:)}; (Eng) NG -- Nagathein 3-459
• Cinnamomum tamala (fam) NG: {ka.ra.wι: rwak}; (Eng) Cassia cinnamon -- Nagathein 1-059
• Cinnamomum tamala (fam) NG: {this-kra.po: (ro:ro: mran-ma)}; (Eng) NG -- Nagathein 3-462
• Cinnamomum zeylanicum  (fam) NG:   {this-kra.po: (thin:bau:)}; (Eng) NG - Nagathein 3-459

In some Burmese-Myanmar names of these species, you will find two words, one being {this-kran°-po:}, and the other, the adjective (affix; prefix; suffix) that describes a property. When the adjective describes an intrinsic property of the noun, it follows the noun and when it describes an extrinsic property, it precedes the noun. Among the species of {this-kran°-po:}, you will find the name {tau: this-kran°po:} Agri.Dept.2000 27-0714. Linguistically, the word {tau:} by itself means "jungle", implying that it is "wild", "lowly", or of an inferior quality. When you change the word order to {this-kran°po: tau:}, it no longer means a {this-kran°-po:}.  Here, {tau:} becomes the main noun and {this.kran.°-po:} the adjective, and the two words {this-kran°po: tau:} mean "a forest of Cinnamon trees". However, when {tau:} is put within parentheses -- {this.kran°po: (tau:)}, it means exactly the same as {tau: this-kran°po:} See UKT note: Burmese-Myanmar adjectives

UKT: Nagathein 3-462 {this-kra.po: (a.reing: - na.ling-kyau)} did not have a proper scientific name: it had only a misspelled genus with no species name. The Bengali name and Nepali names were given as {raam-tιj-paaht} and {ba.ra.hseing-go-li.}, respectively.
   Sorting Cinnamomum names gave the following names for C. tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. :
• Mahpat, Tej pat (Assamese) • Tejpata (Bengali) • Thitchabo (Burmese), • Tamaal patra (Gujarati), • Tej pat (Hindi), with English names: ENGLISH : Indian Bay-leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Tejpat (India).
   Thus, based on Bengali name, I have come to the conclusion that {this-kra.po: (a.reing: - na.ling-kyau)} mentioned by Nagathein is most likely C. tamala .
   Since Nagathein 3-462 had already identified C. tamala  (with Sanskrit name {ta.ma-la.pat~ta.}, and Hindi name {the-gya.pa-tha.}) as () {this-kra.po: (mran-ma)} , I will have to conclude that {this-kra.po: (a.reing: - na.ling-kyau)} and () {this-kra.po: (mran-ma)} are either the same or closely related. Nagathein further described both plants as "trees" and that they belong to {ka.ra.wι:} species. The only difference was {this-kra.po: (a.reing: - na.ling-kyau)} has larger leaves than () {this-kra.po: (mran-ma)}. The leaves of the latter were used as a condiment by Myanmar as {ka.ra.wι: rwak}.

UHM
• Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees (fam) Lauraceae; Payok; (Eng) Gum camphor, Laurel camphor -- UHM 15
• Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (fam) Lauraceae; Na-lin-gyaw; (Eng) True cinnamon, Cortex Cinnamoni -- UHM 16

UKT: U Hla Maw identified Na-lin-gyaw (UKT's transcript: {na.ling-kyau}) as Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. My question at this point is: was he correct.
   Nagathein did not list {na.ling-kyau}) as such. However, he listed {this-kra.po: (a.reing: na.ling-kyau} (Nagathein 3-462) He did not give either Sanskrit nor Hindi name, but gave only Bengali and Nepali names: {raam-tιj-paaht} and {ba.ra.hseing-go-li.}. He did not give the botanical name in full, but only as "Cinnamaumum".
   Nagathein 3-459 identified Cinnamomum zeylanicum as {this.kra.po: thin:bau:} and gave both Sanskrit and Hindi names: {da-ru.hsi.ta} and {la-la.kyi.ni}. On the same page, Nagathein listed {this.kra.po: (tau:mhan-king:)} with Hindi name {gyin-li da-la.kyi.ni}. We note that the Burmese-Myanmar affix {tau:} and Hindi-Myanmar {gyin-li} both means "jungle" meaning "wild". If we are to take the cue from Hindi names {kyi.ni}, Nagathein realised that {this.kra.po: thin:bau:} and {this.kra.po: (tau:mhan-king:)} are closely related. He further noted for {this.kra.po: (tau:mhan-king:)}
    meaning that {this.kra.po: (tau:mhan-king:)} is the same as {thin:bau: this-kra.po:}
   The word {thin:bau:} meaning <ship> was generally used as a prefix for goods introduced from the West. The affix {thin:bau:} can be used either as a prefix or as a suffix.
   At present I am of the opinion that UHM was mistaken because what is sold on the Myanmar market as {this.kra.po:} and {na.ling-kyau} have different characteristic smells, and {this.kra.po:} has the smell of cinnamon.
   cinnamon The dried aromatic inner bark of certain tropical Asian trees in the genus Cinnamomum, especially C. verum and C. loureirii, often ground and used as a spice. -- AHTD (American Heritage Talking Dictionary)

 

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Cinnamomum tamala

Family: Lauraceae

Data from Chklist: Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. Cited as: Cinnamomum cassia D. Don. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Rakhine, Shan. Common Names: Cassia cinnamon, Indian cassia lignea, Maza, Shing-nam, Thikya-bo

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1625: {this-kran°-po:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 459: {this-kra.po:}
• KS-TMN 117: Karaway
• Nagathein 3-462 {this-kra.po: (ro:ro: mran-ma)}
• UHM : NL

Data from Agri.Dept.2000:
• {ta.roat this-kran°po;}; Cinnamomum cassia; (Eng) Chinese cinnamon tree  -- Agri.Dept.2000 25-0651
• {this-kran°-po:}; Cinnamomum tamala; (Eng) Cinnamon -- Agri.Dept.2000 61-1625

UKT: What Nagathein 3-462 had given were two species; the first one being "Cinnamaumum" -- obviously a spelling mistake. What could it be? However, the second was clearly "Cinnamomum Tamala".

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {this-kran°-po:}
 -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 334
- n. cinnamon, Cinnamonum tamala -- Myan-Engl-Dict 513

UKT: The spelling {this-kran°-po:} is commonly misspelled as {this-kra.po:} and pronounced as {this-gya-bo:}.

Hindi:
• {thι-gya.pa-tha.} -- Nagathein 3-462
Sanskrit:
• {ta.ma-la pat~ta.} -- Nagathein 3-462 

English common name used in Myanmar  :
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1625: Cinnamon
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 459: Ceylon cinnamon
• KS-TMN 117: Cassia cinnamon; Indian Cassia Lignea
• Nagathein 3-462 : NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/cinn_11.jpg
• Photos:left - habit with flowers; right -habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• An evergreen tree, bark slightly rough, dark brown or greyish brown, lenticels prominent. Leaves opposite to sub-opposite, simpe; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate to broadly ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to oblique, the margins entire, the margins entire, the tip acute to slightly acuminte, 3-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the lower glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, axillary ones few; peduncles quadrangular, the main peduncles longer than the leaves, flowers lax; bracts deciduous. Flowers bracteolate, deciduous, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Perianth synphyllous, campanulate, 6-lobed, 2-seriate, the lobes elliptic, sericeous, cream colored, the tubes short, accrescent and persisting as a cupule at the base of fruit. Androecium polyandrous, stamens in 4 whorls of 3 each, adnate to the perianth tube, the first and the second whorls opposite the petals, inserted, introrse, the third whorl alternate the petals, extrorse, the filament bases of the third whorl bear 2 organe coloured sessile glands, the fourth whorl of 3 staminodes, the filament bases villous, the anthers 4-celled, basifixed, dehisce by flap-like valves opening upwards. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, sessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovule solitary, apical pendulous, the style thick and stout, the stigma discoid. Fruit a drupe, elliposid, apiculate, the basal prominent; seed 1, elliposid, hard, glabrous, non-endospermic. Flowering period: October-December. Fruiting period: January-March. -- KS-TMN
•  A tree with ovate to lance-ovate, 3-5 nerved evergreen, coriaceous, aromatic leaves which are shiny green on the upper surface, glaucous and reticulate below -- UHM on {na.ling-kyau}

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Grows wild in tropical nad subtopical Myanmar, upto 4000ft. -- KS-TMN
• Tavoy, Mergui, forests of Tanasserim. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Leaf and bark -- Pruritis; Gonorrhoea; Sinusitis; Heart disease; Carminative; Indigestion; Gastrointestinal colic; Diarrhoea; Gastric distention; Cough; Antidote for poisons. Leaf -- Aethritis; Gastrointestinal Colic; Asthma; Cough; Antidote for snake venom and opium intoxication. Bark -- Oedema.  -- KS-TMN

• Dried inner bark of the shoots of copiced trees. Used as Aromatic, mild astingent (7) -- UHM

 

Constituents:
• 1. Volatile oil up to 1 % containing 55-65 % Cinnamic aldehyde 2. 4-8 % Eugenol 3. Caryophyllene, 1-Phellandrene, p-Cymene, Benzaldehyde, Pinene, Methyl-n-amyl ketone, Nonylic aldehyde, l-Linalool, resin, mucilage, starch, tannin, Calcium oxalate.-- UHM on {na.ling-kyau}

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Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Family: Lauraceae

• Cinnamomum verum Presl. Cited as: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi. Common Names: Ceylon cinnamon, Cinnamon, Hman-thin, Thi-ho-thit-kya-bo, Thit-kya-bo.

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 58-1559: {thi-hoL this-kra-po:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN 118: Thit-kyan-bo; Thiho-thit-kyan-bo; Hman-thin.
• Nagathein 3-459:    {this-kra.po: (thin:bau:)}; (Eng) NG
• UHM 16: Na-lin-gyaw

UKT: UHM was probably wrong in describing C. zeylanicum as "Na-lin-gyaw", but right to given the English name as " True cinnamon".

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {na.ling-kyau}/ {lu.ling-kyau}
-- TravPo-M-Dict 160
-- TravPo-M-Dict 284
- {na.ling-kyau} - n. See {lu.ling-kyau} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 221
- {lu.ling-kyau} - n. tree, the roots of which are ground into a paste and used for relieving aches and pains, Cinnamonum obtusifolium -- Myan-Engl-Dict 426

• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {this-kran°-po:}
 -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 334
- n. cinnamon, Cinnamomum tamala -- Myan-Engl-Dict 513

 

Hindi :
• {la-la.kyi.ni} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit :
• {da-ru.hsi.ta} -- Nagathein 

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 58-1559: Ceylon cinnamon
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN 118: Cinnamon; Ceylon cinnamon.
• Nagathein 3-459:  NG
• UHM 16: True cinnamon; Cortex Cinnamoni

 

Picture :
• Leader : www.life.uiuc.edu/ib/363/image/cinnamon.jpg
• Photos:left -- habit with flowers,right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• An evergreen tree; moderate sized; bark smooth, thick, greyish brown to yellowish brown, lenticles prominent, young parts glabrous, buds sericeous. Leaves opposite or subopposite, rarely alternate near the inflorescence axis, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to slightly oblique, the margins entire, the tips subacute or slightly acuminate, 3- to 5-costate, reticulate glabrous, very coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary paniculate cymes; peduncles quadrangular, the main peduncles longer than the leaves, flowers lax; bracts deciduous. Flowers bracteolate deciduous, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Perianth synphyllou, campanulate 6- to 8-lobed, 2-seriate, the lobes unequal, oblong or obovate, sericeous, cream or ivory-white, the tubes short, accrescent and persisting as a cupule at the base of fruit. Androecium polyandrous, stamens in 4 whorls of 3 each, adnate to the perianthe tube, the first and the second whorls opposite the petals, inserted, introrse, the third whorl alternate the petals, extrorse, the filament bases of the third whorl bear 2 orange colored sessile glands, the fourth whorl of 3 staminodes, the filament base villous, the anthers 4-celled, basifixed, dehisce by flap-like valves opening upwards. Pistill 1, ovary ovoid, sessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovule solitary, apical pendulous, the style thick and stout, the stigma discoid. Fruit a drupe, oblongoid, subtended by accrescent perianth tube at the base only, deciduous or often persistent, minutely apiculate, dark purple; seed 1, narrowly ovoid, pendulous, testa membranous, glabrous, non-endospermic. Flowering period: April-June. Fruiting period: June-September -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild; common in the coastal regions of lower Myanmar upto 3000ft  -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Bark -- Cholecystitis; Laryngitis; Heartburn; Dysentery; Aphrodisiac; Abdominal tumour; Heart disease; Antiseptic; Pruritis; Cough; Influenza; Indigestion. Seed oil -- Haemostatic; Gastric distention; Loss of appetite; Emesis; Diarrhoea; Tinnitus; Tooth-ache.  -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

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{pa.roat} - Identification Controversy

by UKT:

The first time I became aware of the controversy over the Burmese-Myanmar word {pa.roat} was in the early 1950s, when I, as a budding chemist, was trying to reconcile what was available on the Rangoon (Yangon) market and what I was learning in the Rangoon University. There were two entirely different materials available in the Burmese markets: {pa.roat.loan:} and {pa.roat.pra:} which literally means the "ball {pa.roak}" and the "slab {pa.roak}". The "ball {pa.roak}" is naphthalene ball, and the "slab {pa.roak}" is camphor in small slabs or lumps available in Burmese apothecary shops, {pa.ra.hsι: hsaing}, which are usually found in local bazaars. If you would like to buy Western medicines you would have to go the pharmacies where no Myanmar indigenous medicine was available.

Once in the apothecary shop, you will be faced with uncertainty again. The Burmese-Myanmar name {pa.roat} is applied to entirely two different white solids: camphor and menthol. If you ask for {pa.roat}, it is likely that you will get camphor, but if you qualify it as the "cool {pa.roak}" or {pa.roat-aι:} you are likely to get menthol. However, if you ask for {pa.raot-hsi}, you are bound to get a balm in a small wide mouth container made either of glass or tin which you will use as an embrocation to rub your weary foot.

Since the word {pa.roat} has been applied to a multitude of plants and materials, I will have to trace this word, linguistically, first. {pa.roat} comes from the Pali word {kap~pu-ra.}. From Pali, through Sanskrit, the word finally comes to be 'camphor'. The chemical compound, camphor, is obtained from the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora fam. Lauraceae. Because the compound has a sweet smell and medicinal properties, it is probable that all sweet smelling medicinal plants (with smells similar to, or, assumed to be similar to camphor has been named {pa.roat} with varying qualifiers. It is noteworthy that ginger has a name very close to {kap~pu-ra.} -- {ka.hpa-ri.}. Since, phlegm is known in Pali as {ka.hpa.}, it makes me wonder whether the Ancients have been using plants with "camphor-like" smells since times immemorial to treat common cold and fevers.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{pa.roat} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 180
{pa.roat} - n. camphor or naphthalene. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 252

{pa.roat} - {kap~pu-ra.} in Pali -- {lθύ-ti-paN~Πi.ta.} U Maung Gyi, {pa-Li.a.Bi.Daan-hkyap} [Pali Dictionary], BE 1327, p.157

camphor n. 1. An aromatic crystalline compound, C10H16O, obtained naturally from the wood or leaves of the camphor tree or synthesized and used as an insect repellent, in the manufacture of film, plastics, lacquers, and explosives, and in medicine chiefly in external preparations to relieve mild pain and itching. [Middle English caumfre from Anglo-Norman from Medieval Latin camphora from Arabic kāfūr possibly from Malay kapur Sanskrit karpūrah/] -- AHTD

The late Shin Nagathein, the author of the series of books which I am referring to as Nagathein, was a Buddhist monk. He was also an indigenous medicine practitioner. He had applied the word {pa.roat} to two entirely different species of plants: Camphora officinarum  (2-189: Hindi - {ka.pur})  and Cinnamomum camphora  (2-192: Hindi {kyi.ni.ya ka.pur}). Cinnamomum camphora was listed with a qualifier within parentheses as "Chinese" -- which would be read as {ta.roat pa.roat}.

It should be noted that Shin Nagathein was not a careful writer, and in many instances he would spelled the same word differently - demanding extra care in transcribing the names he had given.

Another Burmese author, U San Hla in his Nanayana Nutritional Encyclopedia (in Burmese), 1960, p602 listed {pa.roat}as Camphora officinarum Bash.

The name Camphora officinarum is probably an older name which has been replaced by Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm. An Internet site: www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/pictures/p04/pages/cinnamomum-camphora.htm listed the following: camphor, camphor laurel, camphor tree, camphor tree, Japanese camphor. Deu.: Kampfer, Kampferbaum, Campher. Suom.: kamferipuu. Sven.: kamfertrδd. Pharm.: laurel camphor. Bot. syn.: Camphora camphora (L.) Karst., Camphora officinarum Bauh., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm., Laurus camphora L.

The Agricultural Department (Agri.Dept.2000) applied the name {pa.roat} to a total of five species, three of which are: {pa.roat} - Cinnamomum camphora ; {pa.raot-hsi} - Callistemon lanceolatus ; {pa.roat-aι:} --  Mentha piperita . The name {pa.roat-aι:} is given to two more plants with qualifiers within parentheses as "avensis" {a:ving:sis} -- M. avensis and "ayonami" {ae-ho-na-mi} -- M.ayonami . Because of uncertainties, I am presenting {pa.roat} according to their genera:
1. {pa.roat (hsin-na-mwun)} -- Cinnamomum  camphora fam. Lauraceae
2. {pa.roat (ka.li-sa.ti-mwun)} -- Callistemon lanceolatus fam. Myrtaceae
3. {pa.roat (ming-tha)} -- Mentha piperita fam. Lamiaceae

As if just to make the confusion worse, some Burmese authors spelled the Burmese-Myanmar word differently, if not erroneously: {pa.roap} -- see spelling mistake in the drawing in Nagathein who spelled the word {pa.roat} in one place and {pa.roap} in another (vol 2 pg193).

Internet links to some 25 species and varieties of Mentha at
www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Lamiaceae/Mentha.html 
01 Mentha aquatica (Water Mint, Marsh Mint, Wild Mint) |
02 Mentha aquatica var. 'Citrata' (Orange Mint, Bergamot Mint) |
03 Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
04 Mentha niliaca (Egyptian Mint) |
05 Mentha piperita (Peppermint) |
06 Mentha pulegium (Penny Royal) |
07 Mentha requienii (Corsican Mint) |
08 Mentha spicata (Spearmint) |
09 Mentha suaveolens (Apple Mint) |
10 Mentha arvensis var. canadensis synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
11 Mentha arvensis var. glabrata synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
12 Mentha arvensis var. lanata synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
13 Mentha arvensis var. sativa synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
14 Mentha arvensis var. villosa synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
15 Mentha arvensis ssp. borealis synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
16 Mentha arvensis ssp. haplocalyx synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
17 Mentha canadensis synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
18 Mentha citrata synonym of Mentha aquatica var. 'Citrata' (Orange Mint, Bergamot Mint) |
19 Mentha gentilis synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
20 Mentha glabrior synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
21 Mentha penardii synonym of Mentha arvensis (Golden Apple Mint) |
22 Mentha perilloides synonym of Perilla frutescens (Shiso, Beefsteak Plant) |
23 Mentha piperita var. citrata synonym of Mentha aquatica var. 'Citrata' (Orange Mint, Bergamot Mint) |
24 Mentha rotundifolia synonym of Mentha suaveolens (Apple Mint) |
25 Mentha sylvestris synonym of Mentha niliaca (Egyptian Mint)

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • FAO : • Lθ-seik-shin : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file