Update: 2012-12-30 09:03 PM +0630

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Lamiaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page:

Family: Lamiaceae 7 entries
Lamiaceae family - general characters
Leucas cephalotes  • {ping.ku-htaip-peit}
Mentha piperita • {pa.roat-é:} / {pak-pa-ming.} /
Mentha sylvestris • {pu-di-na} / {zi-ra-lé:} /   
Mentha viridis • {pu-di-na (tau:)}
Ocimum basilicum • {ping-seim:} / {zi-ra a.hpru} /
Ocimum gigantea • {ba.la.shing}
Ocimum sanctum • {ku.la:pin-sein:}
Leucas spp.
Mentha spp.
Ocimum spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
 Contents of this page

Lamiaceae family - general characters

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

The Lamiaceae is a family yielding a high number of medicinal taxa, especially due to their high content of essential oil.

Important medicinal plants from the family
Lavandula angustifolia Miller (lavender), a mild carminative and spasmolytic.
Melissa officinalis L. (balm), a mild sedative, carminative and spasmolytic.
Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvand (Japanese mint), yields a commonly used essential oil (e.g. for respiratory problems).
Mentha piperita L. (peppermint), a commonly used carminative and spasmolytic and a hybrid between M. spicata L. and M. aquatica L.
Mentha spicata L. (spearmint), commonly used in toothpaste and chewing gum, with mild carminative effects.
 •Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a carminative and spasmolytic.
Salvia officinalis L. (sage), used as a topical antiseptic (gargling) and orally as a carminative and spasmolytic.
Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme), a carminative and spasmolytic.

Morphological characteristics of the family
(Fig. 4.9)
Most of the taxa in this family are herbs or small shrubs with the young stems often being four-angled. All have opposite simple or rarely pinnate leaves. The zygomorphic flowers, with very characteristic shortstalked epidermal glands, are very typical. They are bisexual, with five fused sepals, five generally zygomorphic petals, four or two stamens and two very characteristic fused gynaecia each divided into two partial units developing into a nut with a secondary division into nutlets.

Distribution
This important family with 5600 species is cosmopolitan and has a centre of distribution spanning from the Mediterranean to Central Asia.

Chemical characteristics of the family
Essential oil in the epidermal glands is very common. Some segments of the family are known to accumulate monoterpenoid glycosides (iridoids). Many species also accumulate rosmarinic acid and other derivatives of caffeic acid. Rosmarinic acid (Fig. 4.10) is of some pharmaceutical importance because of its non-specific complement activation and inhibition of the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (leading to an anti-inflammatory effect), as well as its antiviral activity.

Contents of this page

Leucas cephalotes

Family : Lamiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 38-0989 :  {ping.ku-hteip-peit}
• Chklist: Pin-gu-hteik-peik
• LSR 291: {ping.ku-hteip-peit}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 113: Pinku-hteik-peik
• Nagathein 2-245: {ping.ku-hteip-peit}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ping.ku-hteip-peit} - NL - TravPo-M-Dict
{ping.ku-hteip-peit} - NL - Myan-Engl-Dict
{ping.ku-hteip-peit} - NL - Myan-Ortho

Chklist data :
Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Kayah, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Pin-gu-hteik-peik

Hindi :
•  गुमा  (UKT:Nagathein's transliteration in Burmese-Myanmar is {guu-ma})
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 38-0989 :  NG
• Chklist: NG
• LSR 291: NG
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 113: NG
• Nagathein 2-245: NG
• UHM : NL

Picture:
• Leader - Nagathein
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters:

Annual herbs, erect; stems stout, shallowly grooved, branchesdiffuse, pubescent. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petioles pubescent; laminae ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse, the margins serrulate, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the upper pubescent, the lower puberulent, the veins more conspicuous. inflorescence verticillasters, axillary, the verticils many-flowered, the verticil bearing axils condensed at the terminal end to form a globose head, pubescent; peduncles absent; bracts lanceolate, many, forming an incolucre, awned, pubescent. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, zygomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 10-lobed, the tubes tubular,  curved, the mouths oblique, villous, 10-ribbed above, the upper half pubescet, the lower glabrous, the lobes triangular, acute, awned, unequal. Corolla synpetalous, bilabiate, the tubes curved, broader above, hairs forming a slightly oblique ring within, about half the tube, the upper lip erect, cucullate, the outer surfaces villous, the inner glabrous, the lower lip 3-lobed, spreading, longer and broader than the upper, the median lobe cuneate, the tip truncate, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2+2, didynamous, the lower pair longer, epipetalous, inserted, the filaments cylindrical, flattened at the bases, ventrally pilose at the middle, the anthers dithecous, ellipsoid, notched at the middle, connivent, confluent, those of the upper pair larger than the lower, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary cuboid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 4-loculed due to false septation, placentation basal with a solitary ovule in each locule, the style strap-shaped, cylindrical at the base, gynobasic, the stigmas 2-fid, subulate, disc 4-lobed, the anterior lobes larger. Fruit of 4 dry nutlets, oblongoid, small, erect, endosperm scanty. Flowering and fruiting periods: October-June -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Grows wild throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses:

Whole plant -- Cathartic; Indigestion; As an expectorant; Jaundice; Oedema. Leaf -- Biliousness; Jaundice; Oedema; Polyuria; Cough; Asthma; Metrorrhagia; Urinary tract infection; Pruritis; Aspermia; Jaundice. Root -- Jaundice. Infusion of plant -- Infantile cough; Rheumatism; Antidote for snake bite. Infusion of fresh: Plant -- Antidote for snake bite. Fruit -- Malaria; As an antipyretic -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Mentha piperita

Family : Lamiaceae

MMPDB2006: {pa.roat (ming-tha)}

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 37-0968: {pak-pa-ming.}
- Agri.Dept.2000 35-0910: {pa.roat é:}
• Chklist: Bala-shin
• LSR 267: disagreement with Chklist..
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-319: {ba.la.shing-ping}
• UHM : NL

UKT: There is no agreement between Chklist and LSR on synonyms.
   M. arvensis, M. piperita, javanica, M. ayoname - cited as synonyms by LSR
However, Chklist recognised M. arvensis and M. piperita as separate plants.
Similarly, USDA-NRCS does not list M. piperita as a syn. of M. arvensis .

ba.la.shing-ping

UKT: The name {ba.la.shing} is probably a coined word which came into use only after World War I and before World War II. I would placed it in the 1930s, when an oral freshener manufactured by Tiger Balm Co. (now based in Singapore) became popular. The brand name was {ba.la.shing} and its main odour was due to menthol. I, as a child (I was born in the 1930s), was quite fond of it. I would have to consult my peers to find out who applied the name {ba.la.shing} to Ocimum gigantea and {ba.la.shing-ping} to Mentha piperita .
• Official Myanmar Dictionary did not list .
   - TravPo-M-Dict 215

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries: not listed as {pa.roat é:}, nor {ming-thau:} in:
-- TravPo-M-Dict and Myan-Engl-Dict

Chklist data :
Mentha arvensis L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Field mint, Pusi-nan
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Holmes. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Pusi-nan
Mentha piperita L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Bala-shin, Peppermint

Hindi :
Sanskrit

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 35-0910: Peppermint; Mint oil
• Chklist: Bala-shin
• LSR 267: disagreement with Chklist.
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-319: Peppermint
• UHM : NL

Picture :
• Leaders:
left -  http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_profile.cgi&symbol=MEPI
right - from King's American Dispensatory, 1898, http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-pipe.html
• Photo left - leaves http://www.amg.gda.pl/~orl/kolekcje%20na%20WWW/Mentha%20x%20piperita-zdj..jpg
•Photo right - http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_profile.cgi&symbol=MEPI

 

Plant identification characters :

• This herb is a perennial, with procumbent, ascending, branched, reddish stems, quite smooth, or fringed, with a few spreading hairs, furrowed and quadrangular, and 2 or 3 feet in height. The leaves are ovate-oblong, or somewhat lanceolate, rounded at the base, deep-green, smooth or hairy on the underside, serrate, and borne on ciliated petioles. The flowers are in whorls, small, and purplish; upper floral leaves small, lanceolate-subulate, shorter than the flowers. The whorls are few, lax, uppermost in a short, oblong, obtuse, reddish spike; lowermost remote, with the cymes shortly stalked. Bracts subulate, outer ones as long as the calyx. Pedicels quite smooth. Calyx 5-toothed, teeth hispid, subulate, erect. The corolla is 4-cleft, tubular, with the broadest segment emarginate. Stamens 4, awl-shaped, straight, and distant; anthers with 2 parallel cells. Achenia smooth (L.—W.—G.)
   Peppermint is indigenous to England, and has been extensively cultivated in various parts of Europe and throughout the United States. It grows wild in damp places and flowers from July to September. In order to preserve the fragrance of this plant, the roots require to be reset triennially, perhaps oftener. Care must also be taken to keep out the weeds, especially Erigeron canadense, Linné; Erechtites hieracifolia, Rafinesque, and Ambrosia trifida, Linné. The entire herb is medicinal; it should be collected as soon as the flowers begin to develop, and be carefully dried in the shade. The whole plant has a peculiar, aromatic, diffusive odor, and an agreeable, warm, burning, bitter taste, followed by a feeling of coolness during inhalation. These properties are more marked in the fresh than in the dried plant. Both the odor and taste are retained when the plant is dried, and may be reserved for a long time. The U. S. P. describes it as follows: "Leaves about 5 Cm. (2 inches) long, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply serrate, glandular, nearly smooth, the few hairs containing crystals of menthol in one or more thin cells; branches quadrangular, often purplish; flowers in terminal, conical spikes, with a tubular, 5-toothed, often purplish calyx, a purplish, 4-lobed corolla, and 4 short stamens; odor aromatic; taste pungent and cooling"—(U. S. P). -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898, http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-pipe.html

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

• Peppermint is a powerful diffusive stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, and weak anodyne. It undoubtedly possesses marked antiseptic properties. Used in the treatment of gastrodynia, flatulent colic, hysteria, spasms or cramps of the stomach, to allay the griping of cathartics, to check nausea and vomiting, and to disguise the unpleasant taste of other medicines. Equal parts of the essence and alcohol, used by atomization, relieve the cough of bronchitis and pneumonia. The fresh herb, bruised and applied over the bowels, will often allay sick stomach, and is efficient in cholera infantum. The same kind of application sometimes relieves headache. The infusion may be drank freely; but the most usual form of administration is the essence, made by dissolving 1 fluid drachm of the oil in 1 fluid ounce of alcohol. Dose, from 10 to 60 drops, in sweetened water.
   Specific Indications and Uses.—Gastrodynia, flatulent colic, and difficult digestion -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898, http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-pipe.html

Constituents :

• Its virtues are due to a volatile oil (see Oleum Menthae Piperitae), which is contained in little vesicles existing throughout the plant, and visible in the leaves; the oil may be obtained by distillation with water. The plant also contains tannic acid, as its infusion becomes dark-green with ferric salts. Its virtues are taken up in infusion by water, and still better by alcohol. As regards the treatment and distillation of peppermint plants, see two interesting papers by W. M. L. Weills, Proc. Penn. Pharm. Assoc., 1887, p. 147, and A. M. Todd, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1888, p. 328. -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898, http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-pipe.html

Contents of this page

Mentha sylvestris

Family : Lamiaceae

syn. M. spicata -- USDA-NRCS

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 23-0583: {zi-ra-lé:}
- Agri.Dept.2000 36-0936: {pu-di.na}
• Chklist: NL
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-213: {pu-di-na}
• UHM 32: Pudina

Myanmar-Script Spelling
•Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{pu-di-na} -    -- TravPo-M-Dict 185
  {pu-di-na} - n. mint, Mentha avensis -- Myan-Engl-Dict 259

Chklist data :
Not listed. However, USDA-NRCS gives:
"MESY","Mentha sylvestris L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"

Hindi:
• {po-di-na} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 23-0583: Wild mint ( {zi-ra-lé:})
- Agri.Dept.2000 36-0936: Spearmint, wild mint ( {pu-di.na})
• Chklist: NL
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-213: {pu-di-na}
• UHM 32: Pudina

Common names used elsewhere:
• Marsh Mint., spearmint, wild mint ,
• horsemint (1. a coarse American plant of the Mint family (Monarda punctata). 2. In England, the wild mint (Mentha sylvestris). -- http://dict.die.net/mentha%20sylvestris/

Picture:
• Leader drawing from the Linnean herbarium (S-LINN), Dept. of Phanerogamic Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History (S)  http://linnaeus.nrm.se/botany/fbo/m/menth/mentsyl1.html.en . Click on the figure to enlarge.
• See drawings from the Linnean herbarium (S-LINN), Department of Phanerogamic Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History (S)  http://linnaeus.nrm.se/botany/fbo/m/menth/mentsyl1.html.en . Click on the figures   to enlarge.

 

Plant identification characters

• A herbaceous perennial with a pungent smell, 0.3-0.9m high, with aerial leafy stolons, leaves sessile, lanceolate to oblong, acute, coarsely dentate, smooth above, glandular below, flowers small, calyx hairy. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Wild in Kalaw, widely distributed all over Southern Shan States. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• The dried leaves. Used as carminative and flavouring agent. -- UHM

 

Constituents:

• 0.18-0.2 percent of an essential oil comparable to peppermint oil derived from the official Mentha piperita. (4) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Mentha viridis

syn: "MEVI7","Mentha viridis L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae" - USDA-NRCS

Family : Lamiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• Chklist: NL
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-213: {pu-di-na (tau:)}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
•Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{pu-di-na} -    -- TravPo-M-Dict 185
{pu-di-na} - n. mint, Mentha avensis -- Myan-Engl-Dict 259

Chklist data :
Not listed. However, USDA-NRCS gives:
"MESY","Mentha sylvestris L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MEVI7","Mentha viridis L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"

Hindi :
• {ma.ha-ri po-di-na} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• Chklist: NL
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-213: NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from King's American Dispensatory, 1898: "The leaves and tops of Mentha viridis, Linné"—(U. S. P.). (Mentha sylvestris, var. glabra, Koch.). Nat. Ord.—Labiatae. COMMON NAME: Spearmint. ILLUSTRATION: Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 202.   http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-viri.html

 

Plant identification characters :

"Leaves about 5 cm. (2 inches) long, subsessile, lance-ovate, acute, serrate, glandular, nearly smooth; branches quadrangular, mostly light-green; flowers in terminal, interrupted, narrow, acute spikes, with a tubular, sharply 5-toothed, calyx, a light-purplish 4-lobed corolla, and 4 rather long stamens; odor aromatic; taste pungent" — (U. S. P.). -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898.
    Spearmint is a creeping-rooted, herbaceous plant, with erect, branching, quadrangular, smooth stems, 1 or 2 feet high. The leaves are subsessile, ovate-lanceolate, unequally serrated, and smooth; those under the flowers all bract-like, rather longer than the whorls; these last and the calyces hairy or smooth. The flowers are pale purple. Spikes cylindrical and loose. Whorls approximated, or the lowest or all of them distant; peduncles smooth, round, and shining. The calyx is bell-shaped and 5-toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped (L.—W.). -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898: http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-viri.html

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

• The carminative, antispasmodic, and stimulant properties of spearmint are somewhat inferior to those of peppermint; its principal employment is for its diuretic and febrifuge virtues. As a febrifuge, it is superior to peppermint, and may be used freely in warm infusion. The cold infusion is beneficial in high color, or scalding of urine, difficult micturition, etc.; it may be used alone or in combination with marshmallow root. In fact, it is one of the best of simple diuretics, and acts nicely with potassium acetate. A saturated tincture of the fresh herb with gin has been found serviceable in gonorrhoea, strangury, suppressed urine, gravel, and as a local application to painful hemorrhoids. The oil is diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, and rubefacient, and is used externally in rheumatic and other pains. Dose, same as peppermint.
   Specific Indications and Uses. Scanty secretion of urine with frequent desire to urinate; simple nausea.
-- King's American Dispensatory, 1898: http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-viri.html

• Spearmint (Herba menthae acutae[vel Romanae]) is an European herb, but like the preceding species of mint, is extensively cultivated in various moist places in this country on account of its oil, and for domestic use. It flowers in July and August; the whole herb is medicinal, and should be gathered for medicinal use during dry weather and previous to the full development of the flowers. If gathered to procure its oil, it should be done after the flowers have become developed, and before the ripening of the seeds, It has a strong, peculiar, aromatic odor, and an aromatic, faintly bitter taste, followed by coolness in the mouth during inhalation. When the plant is carefully dried, these properties are preserved for a long time. Its virtues are due to a volatile oil (see Oleum Menthae Viridis), which may be obtained by distillation with water. Alcohol extracts its virtues, also water by infusion. It contains a little tannin. -- King's American Dispensatory, 1898: http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-viri.html

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Ocimum basilicum

Family : Lamiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 23-0584 : {zi-ra a.hpru}
- Agri.Dept.2000 41-1080 : {ba.la.shing (mré-pran.)}
• Chklist: Pin-sein, Zi-yar-aphyu
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 114: Pin-sein; pin-pwa
• Nagathein 2-242: {ping-seim: (ping-pwa:)}
• UHM : NL

UKT: The word {ba.la.shing} used together with {ping} to give the compound word {ba.la.shing ping} literally meaning the "plant of {ba.la.shing} is used by Nagathein 2-319 for Mentha piperita -- (Eng) Peppermint.

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{ping-saim:} - / -- TravPo-M-Dict 189
{ping-saim:} n. basil, Ocimum canum -- Myan-Engl-Dict 267

 

Chklist data :
Ocimum basilicum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Common basil, Pin-sein, Sweet basil, Zi-yar-aphyu

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : Sweet basil
• Chklist: Common basil, Sweet basil
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 114: Basil; Common Basil; Sweet Basil: Common Sweet Basil.
• Nagathein 2-241: NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from Plant Image Collection - Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/pubs/CUSNH/ContList.htm, http://persoon.si.edu/PlantImages/imageFrames.cfm?CFID=108246&CFTOKEN=71101787
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers and fruits, right -- close up of flower. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• An annual herb, suffrutescent; younger stems quadrangular, hispid, green. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate, the bases obtuse or cuneate, the margins serrate or sometimes obscurely toothed, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, glabrescent on the veins and along the margins. Inflorescences terminal, rarely axillary, spiciform racemes of verticillasters, the verticils 6-flowered, 3 each in a reduced cincinnus. Flowers pendant, ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, campanulae, obscurely bilabiate, the upper lip uncut, orbicular, larger and broader than the lower, the lower lip 4-fid, ovate-lanceolate, awned, the 2 middle awns longer than the upper lip, pubescent. Corolla synpetalous, bilabiate, the tubes short, cylindrical, the upper lip 4-fid, erect, the lower lip uncut, cucullate, white, pubescent, pilose at the base of the upper lip and the cucullate part of the lower. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2+2, didynamous, epipetalous, the filaments of the posterior pair longer than those of the anterior ones, attached to the middle of the corolla tube, those of the anterior pair to the base of the upper lip, declinate, slightly exserted, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, confluent, papillose, bisefixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary 4-lobed, 2-carpelled, syncarpous 4-loculed due to false septation, the placentation basal with one ovule in each locule, nectariferous disc 4-lobed, the style 1, gynobasic, purple, the stigma 2-fid, subulate. Fruit of 4 dry 1-seeded nutlets, enclosed within persistent and accrescent calyx, the stigma nutlets ellipsoid, obscurely muricate; seeds ellipsoid, black, endosperm scanty, fleshy. Flowering and fruiting periods: October-December.-- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses:

Whole plant -- Appetizer; Heartburn; Antiseptic; Carminative; Biliousness; Expectorant; Pyrexia; Heart disease; Pruritis; Leprosy; Emesis; Heals carbuncles; Antidote for poisons; Blood disease. Seed -- Oedema; To allay thirst. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents:

 

Contents of this page

Ocimum gigantea

Family : Lamiaceae

UKT:
• Searching the Internet with search engine "Google" on 2005 Oct 19 did not bring up any match. Similarly, searching the Smithsonian Institution web-site, http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/pubs/CUSNH/ContList.htm, drew only negative result. Also, the Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database on Ocimum, from Univ. of Melbourne,  http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Ocimum.html , did not mention " Ocimum gigantea".
• Searching the Internet with search engine "Google" on 2006 Apr 21, using double-quoted "Ocimun gigantea" brought up the message:
   [Your search - "Ocimum gigantea" - did not match any documents]
Searching again using the double-quoted "Giant basil" brought up mostly horse-racing documents!
• Chklist did not mention "Ocimum gigantea". See Chklist on Ocimum species.
   This probably shows that the use of the botanical name " Ocimum gigantea" by Agri.Dept.2000 41-1079 was not appropriate.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 41-1079 : {ba.la.shing} Ocimum gigantea -- (Eng) Giant basil
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-319 : {ba.la.shing ping} -- Mentha piperita -- (Eng) Peppermint
• UHM : NL

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 35-0910 listed Mentha piperita fam: Labiatae, (Eng) Pepperment, Mint oil, as {pa.roat-e:}

Official Myanmar Dictionaries  did not list . It listed on pg.215 as:
     -- TravPo-M-Dict 215
- Myan-Engl-Dict

UKT: The name {ba.la.shing} is probably a coined word which came into use only after World War I and before World War II. I would placed it in the 1930s, when an oral freshener manufactured by Tiger Balm Co. (now based in Singapore) became popular. The brand name was {ba.la.shing} and Its main odour was due to menthol. I, as a child (I was born in the 1930s), was quite fond of it. I would have to consult my peers to find out who applied the name {ba.la.shing} to Ocimum gigantea and {ba.la.shing-ping} to Mentha piperita .
See also {pa.roat} Identification controversy

 

Contents of this page

Ocimum sanctum

Family : Lamiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 03-0066:  {ku.la:ping-seim:}
  Agri.Dept.2000 37-0976:  {ping-seim: nak}
• Chklist: Kala-pi-sein, Pin-sein-net
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-239:  {ping-seim:kri: (nak-hpru)}
  NL as {ku.la:ping-seim:}
• UHM 36: Kala-pin-sein

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ku.la:ping-seim:} - NL - TravPo-M-Dict
{ku.la:ping-seim:} - NL - Myan-Engl-Dict
{ku.la:ping-seim:} - NL - Myan-Ortho
{ping-seim:} -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 189
{ping-seim:} - n. basil. Ocimum canum  - Myan-Engl-Dict 267

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 37-0976 listed O. sanctum also as {ping-seim-nak} literally meaning the "black basil".

Chklist data :
Ocimum sanctum L. Cited as: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Holy basil, Kala-pi-sein, Pin-sein-net, Sacred basil

 

Hindi: {tu.la.hsi} - Nagathein
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 03-0066:  Sacred basil
- Agri.Dept.2000 37-0976:  Basil
• Chklist: Holy basil, Sacred basil
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-239:  NG
• UHM 36: Sacred basil

Picture:
• Leader from www.tropilab.com/holy-bas.html
• Photo from http://davesgarden.com/pf/showimage/11616/
Click to enlarge.

Plant identification characters :

• A much branched, erect, herbaceous annual, 30-60cm, high, stems and branches usually purplish, sub quadrangular, sometimes woody below, softly hairy, flowers in racemes, nutlets subglobose or broadly oblong, slightly compressed, nearly smooth, pale red-brown. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Cultivated in gardens. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Dried Leaves. Used as expectorant, juice used in catarrh and bronchitis, infusion of the leaves as a stomachic in gastric disorders, carminative, refrigerant, febrifuge. -- UHM

Constituents:

• Leaves yield 0.7% essential oil containing: eugenol 71.3% ; carvacrol 3.2% ; methyl eugenol 20.4% ;  caryophyllrne 1.7% -- UHM

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Leucas spp.

Family: Lamiaceae

Results of search for 'Leucas' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 3 Aug 2006.
Leucas aspera Spreng. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Shan, Yangon. Common Names: Taw-hnan, Taw-pin-sein
Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Kayah, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Pin-gu-hteik-peik
Leucas ciliata Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin.
Leucas collettii Prain. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm. Cited as: Leucas flaccida R. Br., Leucas mollissima Wall., Leucas mollissima var. angustifolia Wall., Leucas mollissima var. scaberula -, Leucas mollissima var. strigosa Wall. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Mandalay, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon, Yangon. Common Names: Taw-hnan-gale
Leucas helferi Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi
Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin
Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi. Common Names: Taw-hnan
Leucas ovata Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay
Leucas pilosa Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing
Leucas teres Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay
Leucas zeylanica R. Br. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Yangon. Common Names: Taw-hnan

USDA-NRCS

"LEUCA3","Leucas R. Br.","leucas","Lamiaceae"
"LEMA7","Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) Ait. f.","whitewort","Lamiaceae"

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Mentha spp.

Family: Lamiaceae

Results of search for 'Mentha' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 18 Apr 2006.
Mentha aquatica L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Marsh mint, Pusi-nan, Water mint
Mentha arvensis L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Field mint, Pusi-nan
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Holmes. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Pusi-nan
Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Horse mint, Pusi-nan, Wild mint
Mentha piperita L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Bala-shin, Peppermint
Mentha spicata L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Budi-nan, Garden mint, Pusi-nan, Spearmint

USDA-NRCS

"MENTH","Mentha L.","mint","Lamiaceae"
"MEAQ","Mentha aquatica L.","water mint","Lamiaceae"
"MECI2","Mentha citrata Ehrh.",">>Mentha aquatica","Lamiaceae"
"MEPIC","Mentha ×piperi L. var. citrata (Ehrh.) Boivin (pro nm.)",">>Mentha aquatica","Lamiaceae"
"MEPIC2","Mentha piperita L. ssp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.",">>Mentha aquatica","Lamiaceae"
"MEAR4","Mentha arvensis L.","wild mint","Lamiaceae"
"MEARB","Mentha arvensis L. ssp. borealis (Michx.) Taylor & MacBryde",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARH","Mentha arvensis L. ssp. haplocalyx Briq.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARC","Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis (L.) Kuntze",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARG","Mentha arvensis L. var. glabrata (Benth.) Fern.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARL2","Mentha arvensis L. var. lanata Piper",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARS3","Mentha arvensis L. var. sativa auct. non Benth. [misapplied]",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEARV","Mentha arvensis L. var. villosa (Benth.) S.R. Stewart",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MECA7","Mentha canadensis L.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEGE2","Mentha gentilis L.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEGL","Mentha glabrior (Hook.) Rydb.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEPE8","Mentha penardii (Briq.) Rydb.",">>Mentha arvensis","Lamiaceae"
"MEGR2","Mentha ×gracilis Sole (pro sp.) [arvensis × spicata]","gingermint","Lamiaceae"
"MECA4","Mentha cardiaca (S.F. Gray) Gerarde ex Baker",">>Mentha ×gracilis","Lamiaceae"
"MEGE6","Mentha gentilis auct. non L. [misapplied]",">>Mentha ×gracilis","Lamiaceae"
"MEGEC","Mentha ×gentilis L. var. cardiaca (Gerarde ex Baker) Boivin (pro nm.)",">>Mentha ×gracilis","Lamiaceae"
"MEMU6","Mentha ×muelleriana auct. non F.W. Schultz [misapplied]",">>Mentha ×gracilis","Lamiaceae"
"MEPI","Mentha ×piperita L. (pro sp.) [aquatica × spicata]","peppermint","Lamiaceae"
"MEAQC","Mentha aquatica L. var. crispa (L.) Benth.",">>Mentha ×piperita","Lamiaceae"
"MECR6","Mentha crispa L.",">>Mentha ×piperita","Lamiaceae"
"MEDU","Mentha dumetorum Schultes",">>Mentha ×piperita","Lamiaceae"
"MEPU","Mentha pulegium L.","pennyroyal","Lamiaceae"
"MERE7","Mentha requienii Benth.","mint","Lamiaceae"
"MERO2","Mentha ×rotundifolia (L.) Huds. (pro sp.) [longifolia × suaveolens]","","Lamiaceae"
"MESP3","Mentha spicata L.","spearmint","Lamiaceae"
"MECO7","Mentha cordifolia auct.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MELO8","Mentha longifolia auct. non (L.) Huds. [misapplied]",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MELOM2","Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. var. mollissima (Borkh.) Rouy",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MELOU2","Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. var. undulata (Willd.) Fiori",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MESPL","Mentha spicata L. var. longifolia L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MESPS3","Mentha spicata L. var. spicata L. [superfluous autonym]",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MESY","Mentha sylvestris L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MEVI7","Mentha viridis L.",">>Mentha spicata","Lamiaceae"
"MESU5","Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.","apple mint","Lamiaceae"
"MERO","Mentha rotundifolia auct. non (L.) Huds. [misapplied]",">>Mentha suaveolens","Lamiaceae"
"MEVE2","Mentha ?×verticillata L. [aquatica × arvensis]","","Lamiaceae"
"MESA6","Mentha sativa L.",">>Mentha ?×verticillata","Lamiaceae"
"MEVEP","Mentha ×verticillata L. var. peduncularis (Boreau) Rouy (pro nm.)",">>Mentha ?×verticillata","Lamiaceae"
"MEVI6","Mentha ×villosa Huds. (pro sp.) [spicata × suaveolens]","","Lamiaceae"
"MEAL4","Mentha alopecuroides Hull",">>Mentha ×villosa","Lamiaceae"
"MENE2","Mentha nemorosa Willd.",">>Mentha ×villosa","Lamiaceae"
"MEVIA","Mentha ×villosa Huds. (pro sp.) var. alopecuroides (Hull) Briq. (pro nm.)",">>Mentha ×villosa","Lamiaceae"

Agri.Dept.2000

Mentha arvensis -- Labiatae -- {pa.roat-é: a-bang:sis} 35-0911
Mentha ayonami -- Labiatae -- {pa.roat-é: ho-na-mi} 35-0912
Mentha piperita -- Labiatae -- {pa.roat-é:} 35-0910
Mentha piperita -- Labiatae -- {pak-pa-ming.} 37-0968
Mentha sylvestris -- Labiatae -- {pu-di.na} 36-0936
Mentha sylvestris -- Labiatae -- {zi-ra-lé:} 23-0583

UKT: The name {ba.la.shing} is probably a coined word which came into use only after World War I and before World War II. I would placed it in the 1930s, when an oral freshener manufactured by Tiger Balm Co. (now based in Singapore) became popular. The brand name was {ba.la.shing} and its main odour was due to menthol. I, as a child (I was born in the 1930s), was quite fond of it. I would have to consult my peers to find out who applied the name {ba.la.shing} to Ocimum gigantea and {ba.la.shing-ping} to Mentha piperita .
Official Myanmar Dictionaries: did not list .
They listed / -- TravPo-M-Dict 215 and Myan-Engl-Dict 312

Contents of this page

Ocimum spp.

Family : Lamiaceae

Results of search for 'Ocimum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 19 Apr 2006.
Ocimum americanum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Hoary basil, Pin-sein
Ocimum basilicum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Common basil, Pin-sein, Sweet basil, Zi-yar-aphyu
Ocimum exsul Collett & Hemsl. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Shrubby basil
Ocimum gratissimum L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Shrubby basil
Ocimum sanctum L. Cited as: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Holy basil, Kala-pi-sein, Pin-sein-net, Sacred basil

USDA-NRCS

"OCIMU","Ocimum L.","basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCBA","Ocimum basilicum L.","sweet basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCAM2","Ocimum americanum L.",">>Ocimum basilicum","Lamiaceae"
"OCCA5","Ocimum campechianum P. Mill.","least basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCMI2","Ocimum micranthum Willd.",">>Ocimum campechianum","Lamiaceae"
"OCCA4","Ocimum canum Sims","hoary basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCAM3","Ocimum americanum auct.",">>Ocimum canum","Lamiaceae"
"OCGR","Ocimum gratissimum L.","African basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCVI","Ocimum viride Willd.",">>Ocimum gratissimum","Lamiaceae"
"OCKI2","Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke","hoary basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCTE2","Ocimum tenuiflorum L.","holy basil","Lamiaceae"
"OCSA","Ocimum sanctum L.",">>Ocimum tenuiflorum","Lamiaceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( •Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file