Update: 2006-08-06 01:57 PM -0700


Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database


compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Disclaimer: Because of the nature of the compilation, there are bound to be errors, and the reader is advised to check the accuracy of the data given. TIL and the authors do not accept responsibility (legal or otherwise) for any inconvenience that might have caused the reader.

Contents of this page:

Family: Myrtaceae 3 entries
• Callistemon lanceolatus • {pa.roat (ka.li-sa.ti-mwun)}
• Eucalyptus globulus • {nghak-hkrauk-pin} / {yu-ka.lis}  
• Melaleuca leucadendron • {ka.lan}
• Callistemon spp.

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Callistemon lanceolatus

{pa.roat (ka.li-sa.ti-mwun)}

Family: Mytaceae

• Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels, Syn: C. lanceolatus, Family: Myrtaceae
-- http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Myrtaceae/Callistemon_citrinus.html

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 35-0909 : {pa.roat:hsi}
• FAO :
• Lθ-seik-shin :
• Nagathein 2-189: {pa.roat.pin} "Camphora officinarum "

UKT: {pa.roat} --   See Identification controversy


English common name used in Myanmar  :
• Bottle brush -- Agri.Dept.2000
• Bottle brush, Lemon bottle brush, Crimson bottle brush

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 2-190 : labeled as "Camphora officinarum"
• Photo: left - Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels, Syn: C. lanceolatus
 -- www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Myrtaceae/Callistemon_citrinus.html
• Photo: right - Callistemon rigidus Makiba-burashimoki Loganiaceae 1436 Japan Kouchi 2002/5/11
 -- http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/shoyaku/PP2003.html


Plant identification characters :

• There are 20 odd species of Callistemon, all native to Australia. The leaves of Callistemon citrinus have a slight lemony flavor when crushed (that's were the name 'citrinus' comes from). It is often sheared to make hedges, in this case it doesn't bloom as much.   Evergreen shrub or small tree, up to 10 to 25 feet tall (3-7.5 m) depending on the variety and the way it is trained; alternate, lethery, light green, elliptic leaves up to 6 inches long (15 cm), 0.5 to 0.8 inch wide (12-20 mm); new growth is pubescent, golden to copper-colored -- http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Myrtaceae/Callistemon_citrinus.html


Distribution in Myanmar :


Part used and uses :


Ethnobotany (Worldwide use) :


Constituents :


Contents of this page

Callistemon spp.

Family: Myrtaceae


Chklist online not available in 2006 June due to Myanmar ISPs' failure.


"CALLI12","Callistemon R. Br.","bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CAAC14","Callistemon acuminatus Cheel","","Myrtaceae"
"CABR38","Callistemon brachyandrus Lindl.","prickly bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CACI15","Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels","crimson bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CALA70","Callistemon lanceolatus (Sw.) DC.",">>Callistemon citrinus","Myrtaceae"
"CACO74","Callistemon comboynensis Cheel","cliff bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CALI24","Callistemon linearis (Schrad. & J. C. Wendl.) Sweet","narrow-leaf bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CAPA72","Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl.) DC.","lemon bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CAPH10","Callistemon phoeniceus Lindley","lesser bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CAPI19","Callistemon pinifolius (J. C. Wendl.) DC.","pine-leaf bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CARI9","Callistemon rigidus R. Br.","bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CARU24","Callistemon rugulosus (D. F. K. Schltdl. ex Link) DC.","scarlet bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CAMA52","Callistemon macropunctatus auct.",">>Callistemon rugulosus","Myrtaceae"
"CASA34","Callistemon salignus (Sm.) Sweet","stonewood","Myrtaceae"
"CASH7","Callistemon shiresii Blakely","","Myrtaceae"
"CASI17","Callistemon sieberi DC.","river bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"
"CASAA2","Callistemon salignus (Sm.) Sweet var. australis Benth.",">>Callistemon sieberi","Myrtaceae"
"CASP30","Callistemon speciosus (Bonpl.) Sweet","gray bottlebrush","Myrtaceae"

Contents of this page

Eucalyptus globulus

Family: Myrtaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0391:    {nghak-hkrauk-pin} / {yu-ka.lis}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 363 :
    {yu-ka.lis ping (priΡ-loan:°-chum:tha)}
• Nagathein 1-357:    {nghak-hkrauk-pin} /   {yu-ka.lis}
• UHM 24: Hnget-chauk-pin

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries: NL as   {nghak-hkrauk-pin}
  {yu-ka.lis} - -TravPo-M-Dict 260
  {yu-ka.lis} - n. eucalyptus - Myan-Engl-Dict 383

• {ka-pu-ma-rum} -- Nagathein

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0391:  Australian fever tree; Blue gum tree
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 363 : Australian fever tree
• Nagathein 1-357:  Blue Gum tree
• UHM 24: Blue gum, Australian Fever tree, Iron bark tree


• Leader: Drawing from: http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=48&surveynumber=182
• Photo: left - http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=48&surveynumber=182 ; right -  www.anbg.gov.au/emblems/tas.emblem.html
• Photo of a stand of trees   from www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Eucalyptus_globulus.html


Plant identification characters :

•  A very tall tree with ash-gray bark, leaves 20-25cm. long, falcate, rather thick, opposite on younger branches and alternate on older ones and whit flowers. -- UHM

• Tasmanian Blue Gum is a tall, straight tree growing to 70 metres in height and 2 metres in trunk diameter under favourable conditions. The rough, deeply furrowed, grey bark is persistent at the base of the trunk but above this level it is shed in strips leaving the branches and the greater length of the trunk smooth-barked. The broad juvenile leaves, borne in opposite pairs on square stems, are about 6 to 15 cm long and covered with a blue-grey, waxy bloom. This is the origin of the common name 'blue gum'. The mature leaves are narrow, sickle-shaped and dark shining green. They are arranged alternately on rounded stems and range from 15 to 35 cm in length. The buds are top-shaped, ribbed and warty and have a flattened operculum bearing a central knob. The cream flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils and produce copious nectar which tends to yield a strongly flavoured honey. The woody fruits range from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. Numerous small seeds are shed through valves which open on the top of the fruit. -- www.anbg.gov.au/emblems/tas.emblem.html

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Taunggyi, Kalaw, Shan States, Maymyo. -- UHM


Part used and uses :

• The dried scythe-shaped leaf. Used as Stomachic, carminative, expectorant, rubefacient, antiseptic and antiperiodic. -- UHM

• The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, or Blue Gum-tree, (nat. ord. Myrtaceae), a native of Australia, now grown in California, Italy, etc. It contains Tannic Acid, a Volatile Oil, a fatty acid, and a resin which is resolvable into Turpene, Cymol, etc. The oil consists of three oils, which distil over at different temperatures, the first product being called Eucalyptol. Physiological Action. It promotes appetite and digestion, stimulates the flow of saliva, gastric juice, and the intestinal secretions; increases the heart’s action, and lowers the arterial tension. In large doses it causes great muscular weakness, lowered temperature, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, diarrhoea, and if continued will irritate and congest the kidneys. It reduces the size of an enlarged spleen, and has anti-malarial properties, absorbing noxious germs, as well as enormous quantities of water from the soil, and by its emanations purifying the atmosphere in its vicinity. It is largely cultivated in malarial districts for these properties, and has rendered habitable a portion of the deadly Roman Campagna. It is destructive to low forms of life. ... Eucalyptus is diaphoretic, and a stimulating expectorant. It is eliminated by the skin, bronchial mucous membrane and kidneys, imparting its odor to the breath and urine, being more or less irritant at the points of elimination. The Oil and its derivatives are described under Antiseptic Oils. Therapeutics. Eucalyptus is well administered in — Chronic Catarrhal Affections —of the genito-urinary organs, the broncho-pulmonary mucous membrane, and the bladder, especially the latter. Bronchitis, acute and chronic—in the former after the most acute stage. Asthma,—the leaves smoked in combination with Stramonium, Belladonna. Chronic Gastric Catarrh,—and other conditions of the intestinal canal which favor the development of parasites. Cachexia, and Convalescence,—as a tonic and stimulant. Stomatitis and Tonsillitis—a decoction of the leaves, locally. Ulcers,—as a disinfectant, it destroying low forms of life. Hysteria, Chorea, etc.,—in debilitated persons. Malaria,—as a reconstructant, Eucalyptus is better than Quinine. Intermittent Fever,—in which Eucalyptus has some utility, especially in obstinate cases, where it is desirable to stop the use of Quinine.

A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing by Sam’l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L., 1902.  www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/potter-comp/eucalyptus.html 



• 1. Up to 6 percent of a colourless pale yellow volatile oil of which 70 percent or more is Eucalyptol. 2. d-pinene and other terpenes. 3. Resins. 4. A bitter principle. 5. Tannin. 6. Eucalyptic acid. 7. Calcium oxalate. -- UHM

Contents of this page

Melaleuca leucadendron

Syn. Leuca leuchdeadron

Family: Myrtaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0053:  {ka.lan}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• Nagathein 1-064: {ka.lan} {ka-kyu-pwut}
• UHM 31: Kalan

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {ka.lan}
-   -- TravPo-M-Dict 006
UKT note: {ka.lan} is not listed in Myan-Engl-Dict
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries  {ka-kyu-pwut}
-   -- TravPo-M-Dict 007
- cajuput tree, Melaleuca leucadendron -- Myan-Engl-Dict 008


English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : Field cajuput
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• Nagathein : Cajuput tree
• UHM 31: Cajuput oil, oil of Cajeput


• Leader Nagathein 1-064
• Colour drawing -  http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html#des


Plant identification characters :

• Evergreen trees with pale buff, spongy bark, elliptic or oblong leaves, axillary spikes of creamy white flowers and capsular fruits. -- UHM

• The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white,on a long spike. The leaves have a very aromatic odour and the oil is distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, and is volatile and stimulating with an aroma like camphor, rosemary, or cardamom seeds; taste bitter, aromatic and camphoraceous. Traces of copper have been found in it, hence the greenish tint; it should be stored in dark or amber-coloured bottles in a cool place. Cajuput oil is obtained from Melaleuca leucadendron, Roxburgh, and the minor Smith, but several other species of Melaleuca leucadendron are utilized such as M. hypericifolia, M. veridifolia, M. lalifolia, and others. The Australian species M. Decussata and M. Erucifolia are also used. The oil is fluid, clear, inflammable, burns without residue, highly volatile. The trace of copper found may be due to the vessels in which the oil is prepared, but it is doubtless sometimes added in commerce to produce the normal green tinge when other species have been used which do not impart it naturally -- http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html#des


Distribution in Myanmar:

• Mergui. -- UHM

Part used and uses:

• The volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, rectified by steam distillation. Used as stimulating expectorant, urinary antiseptic, anthelmintic, internally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism etc. and as a parasiticide in various skin diseases. -- UHM

• Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, stimulant, antiseptic, anthelmintic. Highly stimulant, producing a sensation of warmth when taken internally, increasing the fullness and rapidity of the pulse and sometimes producing profuse perspiration. Used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, as an antiseptic in cystisis and as an anthelmintic for round worms, also used in chronic rheumatism. Applied externally, it is stimulant and mildly counter-irritant and is usually applied diluted with 2 parts of olive oil or turpentine ointment. Used externally for psoriasis and other skin affections. Adulterants: oils of Rosemary and Turpentine, impregnated with camphor and coloured. --  http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html#de


• 1. Root yields crystalline melaleucin; 2. Cajuputol which is identical with Eucalyptol and Cineol 50-60 percent; 3. A terpineol; 4. l-pinene; 5. Traces of valeraldehyed and benzaldehyde. -- UHM

• The principal constituent of oil is cineol, which should average 45 to 55 per cent. Solid terpineol is also present and several aldehydes such as valeric, butyric and benzoic. --- http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html#des

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • FAO : • Lθ-seik-shin : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file