Update: 2006-08-02 08:17 AM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page:

Family: Caesalpiniaceae 12 entries
• Caesalpiniaceae family - general characters
• Caesalpinia bonducella • {ka.laim}
• Caesalpinia crista • {ka.laim}
• Caesalpinia nuga • {hsu:kauk}
• Caesalpinia sepiara  •  {hsu:kram:po:}
• Cassia alata • {mθ-za.li (thing:bau:)}
• Cassia angustifolia • {pwι:keing:} 
• Cassia elongata • {pwι:keing:} 
• Cassia fistula  • {ngu.}
• Cassia glauca Lam. • {priΡ-pan:Ρo}
• Cassia occidentalis • {ka.sau.poap}
• Cassia siamea  • {mθ-za.li}
• Cassia tora  • {dan.kywθ:} , {tan.kwyθ:} {tan.kywθ:}
• Caesalpinia spp.
• Cassia spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Caesalpiniaceae family - general characters

• Caesalpiniaceae - family general characters

This family was formerly part of the Leguminosae (or Fabaceae) and is closely related to two other families: the Fabaceae (see below) and the Mimosaceae (not discussed). Many contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. This symbiotic relationship is beneficial to both partners (for the plant, increased availability of physiologically usable nitrogen; for the bacterium, protection and optimal conditions for growth).

Important medicinal plants from the family
• Cassia senna L. and C. angustifolia Vahl (Senna), used as a cathartic.

UKT: • Cassia angustifolia • {pwι:keing:} 

Morphological characteristics of the family
(Fig. 4.5)
Nearly all of the taxa are shrubs and trees. Typically the leaves are pinnate. The free or fused calyx is composed of five sepals, the corolla of five generally free petals, the androecium of ten stamens, with many taxa showing a reduction in the number of stamens (five) or the development of staminodes instead of stamens. The flowers are zygomorphic and have a very characteristic shape if seen from above, resembling a shallow cup.

Distribution
The 2000 species of this family are mostly native to tropical and subtropical regions, with some species common in the Mediterranean region. The family includes the ornamental Cercis siliquastrum L. (the Judas tree), native to the western Mediterranean, which according to (very doubtful) legend was the tree on which Judas Iscariot hanged himself.

Chemical characteristics of the family
From a pharmaceutical perspective the presence of anthranoides with strong laxative effects is of particular interest. Other taxa accumulate alkaloids, such as the diterpene alkaloids of the toxic Erythrophleum.

Contents of this page

Caesalpinia bonducella

Syn.: C. digyna

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0054: {ka.laim}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ka.laim} - - TravPo-M-Dict 006
{ka.laim} - n. bonduc, nicker nut, fever nut tree - Myan-Engl-Dict 007

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0054: Fever nut, Bonduc nut, Physic nut
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader - -- www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_caesalpina.htm

 

Plant identification characters :

• It is a large, scandent, prickly shrub or climber. The bark is dark brown with numerous recurved prickles. The branchlets are glossy, occasionally lenticellate, armed with 4-5 mm long recurved prickles. Leaves pinnate with prickles. The pinnae are 8-13 pairs, leaflets are 9-12 pairs per pinna, which are membranous and oblique to truncate. The flowers are small, yellowish with a red dot at the base or red veined, in axiliary and terminal racemes. The pods are short beaked, 1-4 seeded and often constricted. The seeds are dark brown, sub-globose and hard. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_caesalpina.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

Distribution elsewhere:
• It grows wild in the scrub forests, of the eastern Himalayas, in Assam and West Bengal. It is also found in the Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. --  www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_caesalpina.htm

 

Part used and uses :

• History: It has been used for a long time in folk medicine. Pharmacology: The roots have marked astringent and antipyretic properties/ The drug is also reported to exhibit anti-fatigue effect in rats. Clinical studies: The compound preparation with this plant has been used for curing senile pruritus with excellent result. Toxicology: There is no adverse effect reported on usage of this medicine. Indications: It is used as rejuvenator. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_caesalpina.htm 

• Seeds, nuts and root bark are valuable in simple, continued and intermittent fevers, asthama, colic, etc. Powdered seed smoked a hucca [UKT: {ta.ma-gu} pipe?] cures colic; mixed with water, mixed with warm buttermilk and asafoetida [UKT: {rhain:hko}] it acts as a tonic dyspepsia. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums, gum boils, etc. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of the liver, and the oil expressed from them is useful in convulsions, palsy and similar nervous complaints. U San Hla citing Indian Materia Medica, p.115.

•  Seed. Malaria, oedema, fever and inflammation. Orally used with warm water. --  Resources of Myanmar Traditional Medicine, Ministry of Health, 2001, p.02

 

Constituents :

• They yield bergenin (vakerin). A novel spermidine alkaloid, caesalpinine A (C25H31O3N3) has also been isolated. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_caesalpina.htm 

spermidine n. 1. A polyamine compound, C7H19N3 , found in ribosomes and living tissues and having various metabolic functions. It was originally isolated from semen. -- AHTD

 

Contents of this page

Caesalpinia crista

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-065: {ka.laim ping}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ka.laim} - - TravPo-M-Dict 006
{ka.laim} - n. bonduc, nicker nut, fever nut tree - Myan-Engl-Dict 007

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-065: Fever nut
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader - Nagathein

 

Plant identification characters :

• The plant is of the same family as {thing:wing} [Milettia pubimervis fam. Papilionaceae -- Agri.Dept.2000 61-1618]. It is a climber and is planted as a hedge. It also grows wild. The growth is thick enough to prevent the passage of an arrow. When a person is so crooked in character, he or she is likened to a {ka.laim}-bush. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Caesalpinia nuga

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 listed 3 species with similar names:
  20-504 {hsu:kauk} Caesalpinia nuga, fam: Caesalpiniaceae
  20-505 {hsu:kauk-nak} Capparis sepiari, fam: Capparaceae
  20-506 {hsu:kram:po:} Caesalpinia sepiari,, fam: Caesalpiniaceae

Family: Caesalpiniaceae / Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0504 : {hsu:kauk}, fam: Caesalpiniaceae
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin  : NL
• KS-TMN 122 : Sugauk-net; Sugauk; Alolay
• Nagathein 1-433:  {hsu:kauk ping}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{hsu:kauk nak} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 101
{hsu:kauk nak} - n. kind of thorny bush, Capparis sepiaris  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 132

UKT: The entries {hsu:kauk nak} is not applicable to Caesalpinia nuga in spite of KS-TMN's listing on p122 whereas Sugauk-net, according to Agri.Dept.2000 20-505 and Nagathein 1-433 is Capparis sepiaria . of fam. Capparaceae.

 

Hindi
Sanskrit

 

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0504 : NG (not given)
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin  : NL
• KS-TMN 122 : NG
• Nagathein 1-433:  NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture
• Leader from www.scrd.net
• Photos: left -- habit with young flowers; right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters

• A large woody climber; stems stiff, wiry, armed with retrorse prickles, glabrous, bark rough, fibrous, yellowish grey. Leaves alternate, bipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules spinous; petioles pulvinate, petioles and racheae beset with retrorse prickles; secondary racheae 2-3 pairs; petiolules short; leaflets 2-3 pairs, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, the bases rounded, oblique, the margins entire, the tips acute, the surfaces glabrous, the upper smooth and glaucous, coriaceous; stipels spinous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary panicles; bracts caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, 5-merous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes dimorphic, the anterior lobe largest, concavely cymbiform, enclose other lobes yellow or yellowish green, deciduous. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, dimorphic, distinctly clawed, the posterior petal spathulate, the others orbicular, yellow. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, the filaments densely lanuginose from mid-length to base, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, subsessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules few in the locule, the gynophore short, the style filiform, the stigma simple. Fruit a pod, obliquely and broadly ellipsoid, flattened, sharply beaked, coriaceous, black; seeds 1-2, discoid, compressed, smooth, non-endospermic. Flowering period: October - November. Fruiting period: December - March -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar

• Grows wild throughout Myanmar, particularly along the coastal areas. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses

• Root -- Urolithiasis; Gives energy. Juice of wood -- Opthalmia (for oral and external application). Leaf -- For post-partum uterine contraction . Fruit -- Opthalmia -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Caesalpinia sepiara

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0506 : {hsu:kram:po:}, fam: Caesalpiniaceae
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin  : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-433:  {hsu:kram:po:}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{hsu:kram:po:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict101
{hsu:kram:po:} - n. same as {ka.leim} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 132
{ka.leim} - n. bonduc, nicker nut, fever nut tree, Caesalpinia bonducella -- Myan-Engl-Dict 007

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :

 

Picture :
• Leader: http://www.entheology.org/edoto/articlefiles/33-caesalpinia_sepiaria.jpg

 

Plant identification characters :

• Puto [local name used in Philippines] is straggling, woody, thorny, stout climber. The branches are finely downy, with small yellow prickles. The leaves are two-pinnate, 25 to 40 centimeters long. The leaflets are 10 to 24, opposite, oblong, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters long. The flowers are large, bright chrome yellow, and on terminal, large, erect racemes. The pod is smooth, nearly flat, obliquely, oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters long and about 2.5 centimeters wide, and tipped with persistent style base. There are 4 to 8 oblong, mottled seeds. http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/puto.pdf

• "Climbers or shrubs with sprawling branches, forming large impenetrable thickets, with recurved prickles on young branches and leaf rachises. Leaves with 3-15 pairs of pinnae, leaflets 5-12 pairs per pinna, oblong-elliptic, 1-2.2 cm long, 0.4-1.1 cm wide, apex rounded, stipules deciduous, obliquely ovate, 8-20 mm long, entire. Flowers perfect, 25-30 mm in diameter, in axillary and / or terminal racemes, when axillary often serial; petals yellow, upper one veined or blotched with red, 12-15 mm long. Pods dehiscent, slightly swollen, 6.5-11 cm long, 2-3 cm wide. Seeds 4-9 black, ellipsoid, laterally flattened, 8-12 mm long, 6-8 mm wide." (Wagner et al. 1999). -- www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/caesalpinia_decapetala.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Distribution elsewhere:

• Puto [local name used in Philippines] is found in Isabela and Benguet Provinces in Luzon, in thickets about limestone cliffs and boulders, at an altitude of about 1,200 meters. The plant also occurs in India and Japan, and southward to Malaya. It was introduced into tropical Africa, America, and Australia. -- http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/puto.pdf

 

Part used and uses :

• Burkill reports that in southern India the bark is used for tanning. Crevost and Petelot consider the roots as purgative. Kirtikar and Basu state that in Chamba the bruised leaves are applied to burns. According to Stuart the seeds are said to have astringent, anthelmintic, antipyretic, and antimalarial properties. They are said to be used for the most part in the treatment of ague. http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/puto.pdf

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Caesalpinia species

Family: Caesalpiniaceae / Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

UKT:
• The noun Caesalpinioideae has one meaning: alternative name in some classification systems for the family Caesalpiniaceae. Synonym: subfamily Caesalpinioideae -- http://www.answers.com/topic/caesalpinioideae-1
• Some of the plants listed by Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium under family Caesalpiniaceae are listed under Fabiaceae by USDA-NRCS. See in case of two species: Caesalpina and Cassia by USDA-NRCS

Results of search for 'Caesalpinia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 5 Apr 2006.

• Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb., Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Fleming, Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Caesalpinia burmanica Prain, Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide
• Caesalpinia cinclidocarpa Miq., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Sagaing
• Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated, Common Names: American sumac, Divi-divi, Sun-lethe
• Caesalpinia crista L., Cited as: Caesalpinia nuga (L.) Ait. f., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Kachin, Sagaing, Taninthayi. Common Names: Bonduc nut, Fever nut, Kalein, Malem, Malin, Nicker nut, Sugauk-net, Suk yan-bo
• Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb., Cited as: Mezoneuron cucullatum Wight & Arn., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Kyaung-kyet, Lamaw juru, Sun-letthe
• Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Cited as: Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Mai-mak-ka-leng, Mysore thorn, Suk-yan-bo
• Caesalpinia digyna Rottl., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kalein, Mak-sup-ka-lun, Sun-lethe
• Caesalpinia enneaphylla Roxb., Cited as: Mezoneuron enneaphyllum Wight & Arn., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Mon, Taninthayi. Common Names: Kyaung-kyet, Sun-letthe
• Caesalpinia furfuracea (Prain) Hattink, Cited as: Mezoneuron furfuraceum Prain, Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide
• Caesalpinia grandis Wall., Cited as: Mezoneuron grande Heyne ex Wall., Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Kyaung-kyet
• Caesalpinia hymenocarpa (Prain) Hattink, Cited as: Mezoneuron hymenocarpum Prain, Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Magway, Mandalay. Common Names: Kalein, Kalein
• Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell, Habit: Shrub, Climber. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kalein
• Caesalpinia microphylla Buch.-Ham., Habit: Climber/Creeper, Distribution: Kachin. Common Names: Sun-letthe
• Caesalpinia microphylla var. robusta , Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin. Shan. Common Names: Sun-letthe
• Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Gyabo-zawnan, Sukyanbo, Tikayan-gyi
• Caesalpinia minax Hance. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Shan, Unknown
• Caesalpinia minax var. burmanica Prain. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing, Shan, Unknown
• Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Alai-apaw, Barbados pride, Daung-sok, Peacock flower, Seinban-gale, Suma, Zaung-gale
• Caesalpinia pulcherrima fa. flava (Bailey & Rehder) Clay & F.T. Hubb. ex R.A.DeFilipps. Cited as: Caesalpinia pulcherrima var. flava Bailey & Rehder. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Seinban-gale-awa, Seinban-gale-awa, Zaw-gale, Zaw-gale
• Caesalpinia regia Prain. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Mandalay
• Caesalpinia sappan L. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi. Common Names: Maikpan, Sappan wood, Sunthe, Teinnyet
• Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth. Cited as: Caesalpinia ferruginea (Decne.) Benth. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar

Data from USDA-NRCS-data

"CAESA","Caesalpinia L.","nicker","Fabaceae"
"CABO6","Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.","yellow nicker","Fabaceae"
"CACR28","Caesalpinia crista auct. non L. [misapplied]",">>Caesalpinia bonduc","Fabaceae"
"CACA26","Caesalpinia caudata (Gray) Fisher","tailed nicker","Fabaceae"
"CACI19","Caesalpinia ciliata (Bergius ex Wikstr.) Urban","mato","Fabaceae"
"CAME15","Caesalpinia melanosperma (Eggers) Urban",">>Caesalpinia ciliata","Fabaceae"
"CACO28","Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd.","divi divi","Fabaceae"
"CACU10","Caesalpinia culebrae (Britt. & P. Wilson) Alain","smooth yellow nicker","Fabaceae"
"CADE15","Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston","shoofly","Fabaceae"
"CASE15","Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb.",">>Caesalpinia decapetala","Fabaceae"
"CADI12","Caesalpinia divergens Urban","small yellow nicker","Fabaceae"
"CAEC3","Caesalpinia echinata Lam.","Brazilwood","Fabaceae"
"CAGI","Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wallich ex Hook.) Wallich ex D. Dietr.","bird-of-paradise shrub","Fabaceae"
"CAKA5","Caesalpinia kavaiensis Mann","uhiuhi","Fabaceae"
"CAMA21","Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell","Hawai'i pearls","Fabaceae"
"CAGL22","Caesalpinia globulorum Bakh. f. & van Royen",">>Caesalpinia major","Fabaceae"
"CAME","Caesalpinia mexicana Gray","Mexican holdback","Fabaceae"
"CAMO14","Caesalpinia monensis Britt.","black nicker","Fabaceae"
"CAMY2","Caesalpinia myabensis Britton","","Fabaceae"
"CACL8","Caesalpinia clementis (Britton) Leon",">>Caesalpinia myabensis","Fabaceae"
"CAPA34","Caesalpinia pauciflora (Griseb.) C. Wright ex Sauvalle","fewflower holdback","Fabaceae"
"CAPE46","Caesalpinia peninsularis (Britt.) Eifert [excluded]","","Fabaceae"
"CAPH","Caesalpinia phyllanthoides Standl.","wait-a-bit vine","Fabaceae"
"CAPO6","Caesalpinia portoricensis (Britt. & P. Wilson) Alain","brown nicker","Fabaceae"
"CAPU13","Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.","pride-of-Barbados","Fabaceae"
"CAPU42","Caesalpinia pumila (Britton & Rose) F. J. Herm.","","Fabaceae"
"CASA28","Caesalpinia sappan L.","sappanwood","Fabaceae"
"CASP11","Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze","spiny holdback","Fabaceae"
"CAVI22","Caesalpinia violacea Standl.","brasiletto","Fabaceae"
"CAWO3","Caesalpinia wootonii (Britt.) Eifert ex Isely","Wooton's holdback","Fabaceae"
"CAAT11","Caesalpinia atropunctata Eifert",">>Caesalpinia wootonii","Fabaceae"

"CASSI","Cassia L.","cassia","Fabaceae"
"CAAB13","Cassia abbreviata Oliver","long-pod-cassia","Fabaceae"
"CAABB2","Cassia abbreviata Oliv. ssp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan","","Fabaceae"
"CAAF2","Cassia afrofistula Brenan","Kenyan shower","Fabaceae"
"CAAU19","Cassia auriculata L.","avaram","Fabaceae"
"CAAU22","Cassia australis Sims","","Fabaceae"
"CABR41","Cassia brewsteri (F. Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth.","Leichardt-bean","Fabaceae"
"CAFI3","Cassia fistula L.","golden shower","Fabaceae"
"CAFI9","Cassia fistulosa L. ex Long & Lakela",">>Cassia fistula","Fabaceae"
"CAGR11","Cassia grandis L. f.","pink shower","Fabaceae"
"CAJA3","Cassia javanica L.","apple blossom","Fabaceae"
"CAJAI","Cassia javanica L. var. indochinensis Gagnepain","apple blossom","Fabaceae"
"CALE49","Cassia leptophylla Vogel","","Fabaceae"
"CARO33","Cassia roxburghii DC.","Roxburgh's cassia","Fabaceae"
"CAMA48","Cassia marginata Roxb.",">>Cassia roxburghii","Fabaceae"
"CAST47","Cassia sturtii R. Br.","Sturt's cassia","Fabaceae"

Contents of this page

Cassia alata

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1050: {pwι:hsι:mθ-za.li}
  Agri.Dept.2000 60-1610: {thing:bau:mθ-za.li}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 451 : {thing:bau:mθ-za.li}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-435: {thing:bau:mθ-za.li}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{thing:~bau:mθ-za.li} -  
--- TravPo-M-Dict 333
{thing:~bau:mθ-za.li} - n. winged cassia, golden candlestick, Peltophorum inerme 
-- Myan-Engl-Dict 511

UKT: Since the name {mθ-za.li} is given to Cassia siamea , the plant Cassia alata should be named {mθ-za.li (thing:bau:)}: the word {thing:bau:} should appear as a suffix within parentheses, {mθ-za.li (thing:bau:)}.  

UKT: picture of C. siamea given in http://www.ap.nic.in/apforest/Silviculture%20of%20Species/Forest%20Seeds/16.htm
   did not match the Myanmar {thin:bau:mθ-za.li}
• Cassia alata L., Synonym:  -- herpetic alata; Family: Caesalpinaceae (caesalpinia family).
  -- http://www.tropilab.com/cassia-ala.html

 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 : Ring worm shrub
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 451 : Ring worm shrub
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein : -- 
• UHM : NL

English common name used outside Myanmar
• candlestick senna; wild senna; ringworm cassia; candle bush; -- http://www.tropilab.com/cassia-ala.html

Picture :
• Leader from http://www.tropilab.com/cassia-ala.html
• Photo from: http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/shoyaku/photo/Thai/thai54.jpg . Click to enlarge.

 

Plant identification characters :

• A 6 - 25 feet tall, perennial shrub, has erect waxy yellow spikes that resemble fat candles before the individual blossoms open. The large leaves are bilateral - symmetrical opposed and fold together at night. The fruit is a pod, while the seeds are small and square. Wild senna is indigenous to Suriname and it is found in secondary vegetation or along riverbanks or moist and even wet spots. It is also a host plant to many species of sulphur caterpillars, included the orange barred sulphure. Guajava is a fast grower and will flower in the first year. The leaves have laxative properties and can be effective as such. Ringworm cassia also has antimicrobial - and antifungus activity and can be used against dermatophyte infections such as tidea pedis (athlete's foot). -- http://www.tropilab.com/cassia-ala.html 

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Throughout Myanmar --  UKT's free translation from Lθ-seik-shin

 

Part used and uses:

• Roots, flowers and leaves -- Lθ-seik-shin

 

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use):

• In Suriname's traditional medicine, the leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of ringworm, the seeds as an anthelmintic while the roots can be used against uterus disorders. The crushed leaves are used for skin infections. -- http://www.tropilab.com/cassia-ala.html

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Cassia angustifolia

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1049:  {pwι:keing:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 301: {pwι:keing:}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-296: {pwι:keing: (boan°being)}
• UHM 12 :  Pwe-gaing

UKT: Both Cassia angustifolia Vahl, and Cassia elongata Lam. are syn. of Senna alexandrina P. Mill. -- www.henriettesherbal.com/php/get.php?id=13087

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{pwι:keing:} - TravPo-M-Dict 204
{pwι:keing:}- n. senna, Cassia acutifolia, C. angustifolia --  Myan-Engl-Dict 293

 

Hindi
Sanskrit

 

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1049:  Senna
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 301: Indian senna
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-296: --
• UHM : Indian senna

 

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein 2-293
• Photos: left - leaves and inflorescence -- www.nrc-map.org/Photoes/senna.jpg ;
right-upper -- www.sssbiotic.com/img/senna_D.jpg ,
right-lower -- www.nectec.or.th/courseware/siamculture/medical/makam2.jpg

 

Plant identification characters

• {pwι:keing:} A low growing shrub with branched whitish stems, paripinnate stipulate leaves with pale green leaflets and large yellow flowers borne in axillary racemes -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Shwebo, Minhla, Minbu, Pakokku, Yaw, Dry Zone -- UHM

Part used and used as:

• Dried leaflets. Used as purgative -- UHM

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use) (with ref.):

 

Constituents:

• 1. 1.3 to 1.5 % of anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emedin and rhein (Tutin 1913) 2. Glucosides - Sennoside A and Sennoside B (Stoll et al) 3. Phytesterol glycoside 4. Yellow coloring matters: Kaempferol, Kaempferin and Isorhamnetin 5. Mucilage, resin, starch, calcium oxalate (7) -- UHM

 

Contents of this page

Cassia fistula

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Fabaceae -- http://www.rain-tree.com/canafistula.htm
UKT: See Caeaslpinia spp.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0385:  {ngu.}
• FAO 091 : ngu, ngu sahwe, pwabet
• Lθ-seik-shin 137 : {ngu. shwι}, {ngu.}
• KS-TMN 125 : Ngu; Ngu-shwe-wa; Hpwa-bet
• Nagathein 1-349:  {ngu.}
• UHM 13: Ngu

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {ngu.}
-- TravPo-M-Dict 072
- n. 1. Indian laburnum, Casia fistula ; 2.  {ngu.kri:}, {ngu.shwι}, {hpwa:bak} -- general terms for some trees of the Cassia family; 3.  {ngu.kri:} -- same as {ngu.}; 4. {ngu.sap.} -- species of Cassia, C. javanica ; 5. {ngu.shwι} -- same as {ngu.}; {ngu.theim} -- pink cassia, C. nodosa -- Myan-Engl-Dict 094 (edited entry by UKT)

 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0385:  Laburnum, Pudding pipe tree, Purging cassia
• FAO 091 : Golden shower
• Lθ-seik-shin 137 : Pudding pipe tree, Purging cassia 
• KS-TMN 125 : Cassia; Golden shower; Indian Laburnum; Purging Cassia
• Nagathein 1-349:  Indian Laburnum
• UHM 13: The Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia

Picture
• Leader: left - Nagathein; right - FAO
• drawing from -- http://www.rain-tree.com/canafistula.htm
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A tree; younger stems terete, pubescent, bark smooth and pale grey when young, rough and dark brown when old. Leaves opposite, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules minute, linear-oblong, persistent; petioles and racheae obscurely canaliculate at the adaxial sides, glands absent; petiolules distinct; leaflets 4-e pairs, ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, the bases cuneate, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous, glaucous, puberulent, Inflorescences in axillary racemes, lax, pendant, 10- to 23-flowered; peduncles puberulent; bracts lanceolate, caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zugomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, sepals 5, equal, oblong or obovate-oblong, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, petals 1+4, bimorphic, shortly dawed, the anterior petal largest, ovate to elliptic-ovate, the remaining 4 ovate, bright yellow, deciduous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, 7 fertile, 3 sterile, the 3 fertile stamens long and lowest, the other 4 short and lateral, the long filaments curved with large anthers, the short ones straight with small anthers, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, the large anthers basifixed, dehisce by longitudinal slits, the small ones versatile, dehisce by pores at the base, the sterile anthers much smaller, erect, indehiscent. Pistil 1, ovary cylindrical, curved, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, short, the stigma capitate, the gynophore distinct. Fruit a pod, indehiscent, cylindical, pendulous, not torulose, hard, dark brown or black, pulp sweetish, dark coloured, seeds completely separated by transverse dissepiments; seeds 25-90, ovoid to broadly ovoid or obovoid, compressed, brown or reddish brown, endospermic. Flowering period: April-May. Fruiting period: June-August -- KS-TMN

• A tree about 15 m. high with gray bark and paripinnate leaves with 3-7 pairs and paripinnate leaves with 3-7 pairs of ovate leaflets and racemes of yellow flowers that appear from April to June -- UHM

• A medium-sized, deciduous tree of about 10 meters tall. Leaves are compound, with 4-8 pairs of opposite leaflets. Flowers are golden yellow and in hanging bunches of up to 40 cm long. They appear when the branches are bare, just before the new leaves emerge. Fruits are woody, cylindrical pods, up to 50 cm long, becoming blackish with maturity. It is native to India, the Amazon and Sri Lanka, now popularly planted as an ornamental tree. -- http://www.rain-tree.com/canafistula.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Common throughout the dry plains -- KS-TMN

• Throughout Burma -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Root, leaf, flower, fruit, seed -- Root -- Flatulence; Haematological disorder. Leaf -- Herpeszoster; Leprosy. Fruit -- Dysuria; Oliguria; Haematuria; Orchitis; Bronchitis; Arthritis; Constipation; Flatulence. -- KS-TMN

• Dried fruit . Used as Laxative -- UHM

• Fruit, Leaves, Bark; used as: Aperient (mild laxative), Analgesic, Antiviral, Astringent, Choleretic, Febrifuge, Hypoglycemic, Hypercholesterolaemic, Laxative, Purgative, Vermifuge. In large doses, the leaves and bark can cause vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and cramps.
   Widely planted as a handsome ornamental tree, the plant is being considered as a firewood source in Mexico. The reddish wood, hard and heavy (spec. grav. 0.9), strong and durable, is suited for cabinetwork, farm implements, inlay work, posts, wheels, mortars, etc. The bark has been employed in tanning, often in conjunction with avaram. The drug "cassia fistula", a mild laxative, is obtained from the sweetish pulp around the seed.
   Ayurvedic medicine recognizes the seed as antibilious, aperitif, carminative, and laxative, the root for adenopathy, burning sensations, leprosy, skin diseases, syphilis, and tubercular glands, the leaves for erysipelas (UKT: St. Antony's fire), malaria, rheumatism, and ulcers, the buds for biliousness, constipation, fever, leprosy, and skin disease, the fruit for abdominal pain, constipation, fever, heart disease, and leprosy. Yunani use the leaves for inflammation, the flowers for a purgative, the fruit as antiinflammatory, antipyretic, abortifacient, demulcent, purgative, refrigerant, good for chest complaints, eye ailments, flu, heart and liver ailments, and rheumatism, though suspected of inducing asthma. Seeds are considered emetic.
-- http://www.rain-tree.com/canafistula.htm

 

Constituents:

• 1. Pulp contains up to 60 % of sugar 2. Mucilage 3. Proteins 4. Volatile oil (7) 5. About 1 % anthraquinone substance -- UHM

• According to Roskoski et al (1980), studying Mexican material, the seeds contain 5.31% humidity, 4.55% ash, 24.00% crude protein, 4.43% crude fat, 6.68% crude fiber, and 50.36% carbohydrates with a 81.17% in vitro digestibility. The foliage contains 11.21% humidity, 6.39% ash, 15.88% crude protein, 6.65% crude fat, 20.01% crude fiber, 39.86% carbohydrates with a 88.43% in vitro digestibility. In comparison, the FAO (Gohl, 1981) reports the leaves to contain, on a zero moisture basis, 17.6 g protein, 7.8% g fat, 66.8 g total carbohydrate, 30.2 g fiber, 7.8 g ash, 3,270 mg Ca, and 330 mg P per 100 g. Flowers contain ceryl alcohol, kaempferol, rhein, and a bianthroquinone glycoside, which on hydrolysis, yields fistulin and rhamnose. Leaves contain rhein, rheinglucoside, and sennosides A and B. The rootbark contains tannin, phlobaphenes, and oxyanthraquinone substances, which probably consist of emodin and chrysophanic acid; also contains (bark and heartwood) fistuacacidin, barbaloin, and rhein. Stembark contains lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and hexacosanol." (Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. Online at Purdue University ) -- http://www.rain-tree.com/canafistula.htm

Contents of this page

Cassia elongata

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Senna alexandrina P. Mill., Fabaceae. Engl.: Alexandrian senna, Bombay senna, India senna, senna, Tinevelly senna, Tinnevelly senna, Tinnivelly senna. Deu.: Sennesblδtter. Suom.: intiansenna. Sven.: senna. Bot. syn.: Cassia acutifolia Del., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Cassia elongata Lam., Cassia lanceolata DC., Cassia lanceolata Forssk., Cassia lenitiva Bisch., Cassia medica Forssk., Cassia medicinalis Bisch., Cassia senna L., Senna angustifolia (Vahl) Batka, Senna officinalis Roxb.. -- www.henriettesherbal.com/php/get.php?id=13087

Contents of this page

Cassia glauca Lam.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae / Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1046:  {priΡ-pan:Ρo}
• FAO  : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 299 : {priΡ-pan:Ρo}
• KS-TMN 126 : Pyi-pan-nyo; Pyi-pan-shwe
• Nagathein 2-290:  {priΡ-pan:shwι} {priΡ-pan:Ρo}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{priΡ-pan:Ρo} -
-- TravPo-M-Dict 202
{priΡ-pan:Ρo}- n. small tree bearing yellow flowers (its leaves are well as, with its bark, medicinally). Cassia glauca. Also {priΡ-pan:shwι}
-- Myan-Engl-Dict 289

Hindi :
Sanskrit :  

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1046:  Not given
• FAO  : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 299 : Not given
• KS-TMN 126 : Not given
• Nagathein 2-290: Not given
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right --  habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A small tree; younger stems terete, glabrous. Leaves opposite to subopposite, alternate near the inflorescence axis, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules linear, falcately curved, caducous; petioles and racheae canaliculate at the adaxial sides, racheae glandular between 2-5 pairs of lower leaflets; leaflets 6-10 pairs, oblong or elliptic-oblong, the bases rounded, oblique, the margins entire, the tips obtuse or rounded, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous, pale green, glabrous, the lower puberulent, glaucous; petiolules short. Inflorescences terminal or axillary corymbs, 2- to 6- flowered; bracts lanceolate, caducous. Flowers pedicellate, zygomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, sepals trimorphic, 1+2+2, the 3 outer smaller than the 2 inner. Corolla apopetalous, petals trimorphic, shortly clawed, 1+2+2, rarely 1+4, yellow, deciduous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, all fertile, 2 long +8 short, inserted, the 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, curved, the stigma simple, the gynophore distinct, Fruit a pod, oblongoid straight, flattened, stalked; seeds 10-30, ovoid or oblongoid, dark brown, smooth, edospermic. Flowering period -- May-July. Fruiting period -- July-September -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild or planted throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Leaf, bark -- Dysuria -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Cassia occidentalis

Family: Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 01-0003: {ka.hsau.poap}; 
{sham:ka.sau.} , {tan.kywθ:kri:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-027: {ka.hsau.poap}
• UHM 13: Kazaw, Shan Kazaw, Kalan. Though UHM also gave Kalan, the name {ka.lan} was given to another species. See Nagathein 1-064 {ka.lan} 1-064.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {ka.sau.}; {ka.hsau.poap};  {sham:ka.sau.}
-   -- TravPo-M-Dict 001
- Myan-Engl-Dict p.002 listed only {ka.sau.hka:}, Indian nightshade Solanum indicum

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 01-0003 : Negro coffee
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein : Negro Coffee
• UHM 13: Negro Coffee, Stinking Weed

 

Picture:

• Leader from Nagathein 1-29.
• Photo: left - seedling; right: plant with fruit - http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FW008

 

Plant identification characters :

• An annual diffuse undershrub with purplish furrowed and subglabrous branches 0.6 to 1.5 m. high, leaves 6 inches long, leaflets glabrous or fine pubescent. Racemes short-peduncled, few flowered, corymbose, axillary and forming a terminal panicle; flower 1/2 in., pale lilac, conspicuously veined -- UHM

• Seedling: The cotyledons are smooth, round, about 1 cm long, and usually less than 1 cm wide with 3 distinct veins in the upper surface ( Figure 1 ). The stems have visible hairs just above and below the cotyledons. Mature Plant: Coffee Senna is a smooth annual that can be 2 m tall ( Figure 2 ). The leaves are compound. The leaflets are in 4-6 pairs and have a sharp leaf apex. These leaflets are 2-9 cm long and 2-3 cm wide with a distinct gland 3-5 mm from the base of the stalk. Flowering occurs in the leaf axils. The sepals are green and 6-9 mm long. The petals are yellow and 1-2 cm long. The 6-7 stamens are of two different lengths. The seed pods are dark brown, 8 to 12 cm long, 7-10 mm wide and curve slightly upward. The seeds are dull brown, 4-5 mm long and flattened on both ends. -- http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FW008

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Throughout the Shan States -- UHM

• Cassia is ancient Greek for a particular aromatic plant. The Latin word occidentalis means western, and refers to the origin. C. occidentalis is widespread in warm areas of the world except for Australasia. On two different soil types growth was greater the higher the pH, 4.7-6.3.  Increased germination is obtained by seed scarification. -- http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FW008

 

Part used and uses:

• Useful in ring-worm, elephantiasis, scorpion sting, snake bite, tonic, stomachic, diuretic -- UHM

• The seeds are known to be weakly toxic to various stock animals. Animals normally avoid ingesting these seeds. -- -- http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FW008

 

Constituents:
• 1. Resinous substance, 2. Tannin, 3. Emodin, 4. Oxymethyl anthraquinones, 5. Oxalbumin. (3) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Cassia siamea Lam.

Sym. C. florida, Senna sumatrana

Family: Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 44-1160: {mθ-za.li}
• FAO 93: mezali
• Lθ-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN :
• Nagathein 2-436: {mθ-za.li}
• UHM : NL

• Official Myanmar Dictionaries 236 :
{mθ-za.li} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 236
{mθ-za.li} - n. medium-sized tree providing edible leaves and flower buds, Cassia siamea. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 345

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 44-1160: Ringworn shrub
• FAO 93: mezali
• Lθ-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN :
• Nagathein 2-436: {mθ-za.li}
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader image from: www.fao.org/DOCREP/ 005/AC775E/AC775E03.htm
• Habit with flowers; habit with fruits -- KS-TMN p128
• Twig with flowers and pods --  www.ap.nic.in/apforest/Silviculture%20of%20Species/Forest%20Seeds/16.htm

 

Plant identification characters :

• A tree; younger stems terete, puyberulent. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules caducous; petioles and racheae canaliculate at the adaxial side, glands absent; petiolules short; leaflets oblong to elliptic-oblong, the bases truncate, the margins entire, the tips mucronate, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary corymbose panicles; bracts lanceolate. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, thesepals trimorphic, 1+2+2. Corolla apopetalous, the petals trimorphic, clawed, 1+2+2, rarely 1+4, yellow, deciduous. Androecium dithecous, oblongoid, basifixed, introrse, yellowish brown, dehiscence by terminal pores. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentaion parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, curved, the stigma simple, the gynophore distinct. Fruit a pod, linear-oblongoid, flattened, acuminate at both ends, dark brown; seeds 10-30, oblongoid to obovoid-oblong, flattened, dark brown, endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year. -- KS-TMN p129

• Flowering: mostly in hot season, but the flowering period is comparatively long. Fruiting: March-April. Fruit/seed: pods flat, 15-25 long (UKT: original web-page did not mention unit); soft and ribbon like when young, purplish and brown when ripe, thickened at suture, indented between seeds; minutely velvety. Many seeded, seeds dark-greenish. Pods are collected by lopping the branches in March-April, dried and thrashed to harvest the seeds. Seeds can be stored for 2 to 3 years in gunny bags or in sealed tins. Number of seeds per kilogram: 37,040 -- Andhra Prasdesh Forest Dept. --  www.ap.nic.in/apforest/Silviculture%20of%20Species/Forest%20Seeds/16.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild or planted in warmer parts of Myanmar. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses :

• Root, leaves, flowers -- Indigestion; Carminative; As an expectorant. Root -- Conjunctivitis. Leaf -- Heart burn; Promotes digestion; Hypnotic; Expectorant, Antipyretic, Apthus ucler; Gingivitis; Purifies blood; Eczema; Antidote for bites of poisonous animals; Replenishes energy; Heals blotches on skin due to menstrual disorder. Leaf and flower -- Heal blotches on skin due to menstrual disorder. -- KS-TMN p129

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Cassia spp.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Results of search for 'Cassia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 3 May 2006.

• Cassia alata L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide.
   Common Names: Hpak-lam-mon-long, Mezali-gyi, Pwesay-mezali, Ringworm shrub
• Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated.
   Common Names: Arabian senna, Indian senna, Pwegaing, Tinnevelly senna
• Cassia auriculata L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated
   Common Names: Mataran tea, Peik-thingat, Tanner's tea
• Cassia bakeriana Craib. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Cassia bicapsularis L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Shan, Yangon.
   Common Names: Dan-kywe
• Cassia corymbosa Lam. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay.
• Cassia didymobotrya Fresen. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay.
• Cassia fistula L. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide.
   Common Names: Gawkngu, Indian laburnum, Ka-zo, Mai-lum, Ngu, Ngu-gyi, Ngu-shwe, Ngushwe-ama, Purging cassia, Pwabet
• Cassia glauca Lam. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
   Common Names: Pyiban-nyo, Pyiban-shwe
• Cassia glauca var. suffruticosa Wall. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
   Common Names: Pyiban-nyo
• Cassia grandis L. f. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
   Common Names: Horse cassia, Ngu-padamya, Nguzat-gyi, Pink shower.
• Cassia italica (Mill.) Lam. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide.
   Common Names: Dan-gywe
• Cassia javanica L. Cited as: Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated
   Common Names: Mai-lum-awn, Ngok, Ngu, Ngu-sat, Ngu-sat, Ngu-thein, Pink cassia, Pink shower tree, White shower tree.
• Cassia javanica subsp. renigera (Wall. ex Benth.) K. Larsen. Cited as: Cassia renigera Wall.
   Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
   Common Names: Mai-lum-hkam, Ngu-shwe-apo, Pwabet
• Cassia laevigata Willd. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay.
   Common Names: Dangywe-gyi.
• Cassia leschenaultiana DC. Cited as: Cassia mimosoides var. wallichiana DC. Habit: Shrub.
   Distribution: Mandalay.
• Cassia marginata Roxb. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
   Common Names: Ngu-sat-ni, Red cassia.
• Cassia mimosoides L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay, Shan. Common Names: Mezali
• Cassia multijuga Rich. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Thiho-ngu.
• Cassia obtusa Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide.
   Common Names: Kathaw-pok, Nawnam, Negro coffee, Shan-kazaw, Wild coffee.
• Cassia occidentalis L. Cited as: Senna occidentalis L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide.
   Common Names: Country senna, Dangwe, Kazaw-bok
• Cassia pumila
Lam. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Yangon.
• Cassia senna L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Alexandrian senna, Pwegaing.
• Cassia sophera L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay, Sagaing.
   Common Names: Dangywe, Foetid cassia, Kazaw-pok-nge.
• Cassia spectabilis DC. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Panama-ngu.
• Cassia tomentosa Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kazazaw-bok
• Cassia tora L. Cited as: Dalbergaria candenatensis Prain. Habit: Shrub.
   Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Yangon.
   Common Names: Dangywe, Metal seed, Myay-pe-naw-nam Dinghkri, Ngusat
• Senna hirsuta
(L.) Irwin & Barneby. Cited as: Cassia hirsuta L. Habit: Herb.
   Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Kandauk
• Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby. Cited as: Cassia siamea Lam. Habit: Tree.
   Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
   Common Names: Mai-mye-sili, Mejari, Mezali, Siamese cassia, Taw-mezali.
• Senna timoriensis (DC.) Irwin & Barneby. Cited as: Cassia timoriensis DC. Habit: Small tree.
   Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Taung-mezali, Taw-mezali, Wild cassia

Contents of this page

Cassia tora

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 29-0764: {tan.kywθ:}, {tan.kywθ: ka.lι:}, {mo:kya.lak-hpak}
• FAO 93 : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN 130: Dan-gywe
• Nagathein 2-086: {dan.kywθ:}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• {tan.kywθ:} -- see {dan.kywθ:} -- TravPo-M-Dict 136
• {dan.kywθ:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 155
• {dan.kywθ:} - Negro or wild coffee, Cassia tora  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 215
UKT: Myan-Engl-Dict did not list {tan.kywθ:}

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 29-0764: Negro coffee
• FAO 93 : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN 130: Foetid Cassia
• Nagathein 2-086: Foetid Cassia
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader: http://indianmedicine.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/cassia_tora.jpeg
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click to enlarge. -- KS-TMN
• Photo: leaves and inflorescence. Click to enlarge www.hktree.com/images/trees/PICT4363.jpg 

 

Plant identification characters :

• An annual herb, fortid, woody below; younger stems cylindrical, pubsecent. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules linear-subulate, caducous; petioles cylindrical, canaliculate at the adaxial sides, pulvinii cylindrical; racheae cylindrical, canaliculate at the adaxial sides, a yellow filiform gland distinct between each of the two lowest pairs of leaflets; petiolules short, pubescent; leaflets opposite, 3 pairs, obovate-oblong, the bases oblique, the margins entire, the tips mucronate, the surfaces glabrous or pubescent at the margins, the upper glaucous. Inflorescences in axillary cymes, the cymules 1- to 2-flowered, the upper dense; peduncles glaucous; bracts linear-subulate, caducous. Flowers ebracteloate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pe, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, trimorphic, cucullate, the 2 inner ovate, the 2 outer ovate-oblong, the remaining one broadly ovate, coriaceous. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, trimorphic, the posterior petal broadly obovate, 2-lobed, the 2 laterals obliquely oblong or obovate-oblong, the 2 anterior ones obliquely obovate, bright yellow with distinct veins. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, 7 fertile, 3 sterile, the fertile stamens 2 long, 5 short, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, the tips truncate, the bases obscurely sagittate, yellowish brown basifixed, introrse, dehisce by terminal pores, the sterile ones light brown. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, sickled-shaped, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, short, the stigma capitate. Fruit a pod, subtetragonous, long, the tips obscurely capitate, brown, curved, obliquely septate, glabrous; seeds 20-30, rhomboidal, brown or yellowish brown, hard, shining, glabrous. Flowering period: July-September. Fruiting period: August-October -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• A weed throughout Myanmar, common in dry plains and on low hills. - KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Leaf and seed -- Diuretic; Carthartic; Carminative; Asthma; Cough; Expectorant; Pruritis; Ringworm; Infections; Knee-ache; Antidote for poisons; Skin diseases; Good for heart. Seed -- Oedema; Heals boils and pustules; Cellulitis; Eye diseases. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
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