Update: 2013-01-01 12:14 AM +0630

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database
Family: Fabaceae

Fabaceae.htm

A compilation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), U Pe Than,  B.Sc. (Univ. of Rangoon), M.Pharm. (Univ. of Nottingham, U.K.), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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MMPD-indx.htm

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Family: Fabaceae 10 entries
   In earlier versions of this MMPDB, Fabaceae was listed as Papilionaceae.
Fabaceae family - general characters
Abrus precatorius {rw:ka.l:} / {rwy: ping}  
Butea frondosa syn. Butea monosperma {pauk}
Glycyrrhiza glabra {nw-hkyo}
Mucuna prurita {hkw:lh:ya:}
Psoralea corylifolia {n-lh.}
Pueraria candollei
Pueraria mirifica {U.mhwun: ping} / {U.mhwun: (pu.ti:)} (Thai Kudzu)
Pueraria tuberosa   {U.mhwun: ping} Fabaceae
Sesbania aculeata {n-ping}
Trigonella foenumgraecum {p:nn.a}
Abrus spp.
Butea spp.
Mucuna spp.
Pueraria spp
Kudzu (Wakipedia)
Sorting Pueraria names
Trigonella spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
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Fabaceae family - general characters

This family is also classified together with the Mimosaceae and the Caesalpiniaceae as the Leguminosae (or Fabaceae, s.l.; see note under Caesalpiniaceae). One of its most well-known characteristics is that many of its taxa are able to bind atmospheric nitrogen.

Important medicinal plants from the family
Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (common or Scotch broom), which yields sparteine (formerly used in cardiac arrhythmias, as an oxytoxic, and in hypotonia to raise blood pressure).

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (liquorice), used as an expectorant and for many other purposes.

UKT: Glycyrrhiza glabra {nw-hkyo}

Melilotus officinalis L. (melilot or sweet clover); the anticoagulant drug warfarin was developed from dicoumarol, first isolated from spoiled hay of sweet clover.

Physostigma venenosum Balfour (Calabar bean), a traditional West African arrow poison, which contains the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine, used as a myotic in glaucoma, in postoperative paralysis of the intestine and to counteract atropine poisoning.

 

Morphological characteristics of the family
This family is characterized by a large number of derived traits. Most of the taxa of this family are herbaceous, sometimes shrubby and only very rarely trees. Typically, the leaves are pinnate and sometimes the terminal one is modified to form a tendril, used for climbing. Bipinnate leaves are not found in this family. The five sepals are at least basally united. The corolla is formed of five petals and has a very characteristic butterfly-like shape (papilionaceous), with the two lower petals fused and forming a keel-shaped structure, the two lateral ones protruding on both sides of the flower and the largest petal protruding above the flower, being particularly showy.

The androecium of ten stamens generally forms a characteristic tubular structure with at least nine out of ten of the stamens forming a sheath. Normally, the fruit are pods, containing beans (technically called legumes) with two sutures, which open during the drying of the fruit (Fig. 4.6).

 

Distribution
This is a cosmopolitan family with about 11,000 species, and is one of the most important families. It includes many plants used as food: for example, numerous species of beans (Phaseolus and Vigna spp., Vicia fabaL.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), soy [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], fodder plants (Lupinus spp.) and medicines (see above).

 

Chemical characteristics of the family

This large family is characterized by an impressive phytochemical diversity. Polyphenols (especially flavonoids and tannins) are common, but from a pharmaceutical perspective various types of alkaloids are probably the most interesting and pharmaceutically relevant groups of compounds. In the genera Genista and Cytisus (both commonly called broom) as well as Laburnum, quinolizidine alkaloids, including cytisine and sparteine (Fig. 4.7), are common. The hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are found in this family (e.g. in members of the genus Crotolaria).

Other important groups of natural products are the isoflavonoids, known for their oestrogenic activity, and the coumarins used as anticoagulants (see Melilotus officinalis above). Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used because of its high content of the triterpenoid glycyrrhic acid, which, if joined to a sugar, is called glycyrrhizin (a saponin) and is used in confectionery as well as in the treatment of gastric ulcers (controversial). Last but not least, the lectins must be mentioned. These large (MW 40,000150,000), sugar-binding proteins agglutinate red blood cells and are a common element of the seeds of many species. Some are toxic to mammals, for example phasin from the common bean (Phaseolus spp.), which is the cause of the toxicity of uncooked beans.

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Abrus precatorious

Family : Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000
   51-1356 : {rw:ka.l: (pan:raung)} meaning "pink-{rw:ka.l:}" - fam. Papilionaceae
   51-1357 : {rw:ka.l: (a.hpru)} meaning "white-{rw:ka.l:}" - fam. Papilionaceae
   53-1395 : {rw: ping} - fam. Papilionaceae
FAO : NL
LSR 383 : {rw: ping}; {rw:ka.l:} - fam. Papilionaceae
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 3-143: {rw: ping}; {hkying-rw:ngw: ni hpru}
UHM 01: Ywe-nge - fam. Papilionaceae

UKT: Listed as {hkying-rw:} in previous versions of TIL Myanmar Medicinal Plants. See Nagathein 1-287 {hkying-rw:}

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{hkying-rw:} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict053
{rw:} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict 278
{rw:ka.l: ping} -  
-- TravPo-M-Dict278

UKT: Unless specific, {rw:} can mean another plant,  Adenanthera pavonina [UKT: fam. Mimosaceae].  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 414

UKT: 1 tical weight or {kyap-tha:} = 16.329327 gram (datum given by Central Research Organisation)

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit : गुञ्जा guja - http://www.salagram.net/sstp-Gunja-malas.html 120203

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000
   51-1356 : Wild liquorice
   51-1357 : Wild liquorice
   53-1395 : Wild liquorice
FAO : NL
LSR 383 : Indian- or Jamaica- or Wild liquorice
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 3-143: NG
UHM 01: Indian- or Wild liquorice; Crab's eyes

 

Picture:
Leader from Nagathein 3-144
Photo: left -- leaves-hand;  right -- leaves and flowers;  fruits   -- http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/abrpre.html
Click to enlarge
leaves and fruits  -- http://medweb.nus.edu.sg.htm

 

Plant identification characters /

A creeping or climbing woody vine with pinnately compound leaves; rose or white flowers and bright scarlet red seeds. -- UHM

The plant is a slender twiner with alternately placed compound leaves.  Each leaf has about 20 pairs of narrow, oblong leaflets, looking like a delicate feather. The rose to purple flower are crowded at the end of a stalk.  Fruits are short, inflated pods, splitting open when mature to reveal the round, hard and shiny seeds which are scarlet but black at the base. -- http://medweb.nus.edu.sg.htm

Precatory bean is a twining, perennial vine, 10 to 20 feet (3 to 6 meters) long, using other plants for support. Lower, older portions of the stem become gray; the younger portions remain green. The leaves are alternate, opposite pinnately compound with 8 to 15 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are in axillary racemes and are red to purple in color. The fruit is a legume pod, 2 inches (4 cm) long, and produces ovoid seeds that are glossy red with a jet black eye. Some varieties have seeds that are black with a white eye or are white with a black eye. -- http://www.ivis.org/special_books/Knight/chap3c/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1

The plant is native to the tropics. It grows by the seashore among the undergrowth and in hedges. -- http://medweb.nus.edu.sg.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Pyinmana, Pyawbwe, Yamethin, Shan States -- UHM

 

Part used and uses :

"The seed causes vomiting, purging, but gives 'muscular strength'. Cure for edema. The leaves and root is a cure for poisoning, bile, eye diseases, produce phlegm and appetite, cure for bile. -- UKT translation from Nagathein, vol.1, p.287:

Roots. Aphrodisiac, tonic, fever, stomachic, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculosis glands, caries of teeth, sore throat, and rheumatism. Root substitute for glycyrrhiza -- UHM

The leaves are sweet and there is possibility that the constituent may be used as a sweetener. -- UKT
   Caveat: Seeds are extremely poisonous if cracked; a single one, if swallowed, can be fatal. Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and shock. Specific Treatment: Fluid imbalance should be corrected. -- http://medweb.nus.edu.sg.htm

Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Part used:LF, SD. Diseases: Diabetes, menstruation, cough, fever, asthma -- Himalayan medicine

Abrus precatorius, L.
India: seeds boiled and eaten. This plant is regularly cultivated in Egypt. Chemical composition (amino acids per 16g nitrogen): Histidine = 3.29g. Proline = 8.6g. Vernacular name (India): Rati seed. Ref. VAN ETTEN et al., WATT. -- FAO Famine Foods

 

Constituents:

1. 8% acrid resin. (1); 2. Toxic protein abrine. (2); 3. 1.5% of a substance resembling glycerrhizin. (1) -- UHM

Parts Poisonous: Seeds when broken or chewed or when the external coat is removed.
The highly attractive seeds are sought after by children for beads. They are sometimes made into necklaces and rosaries. Seeds are extremely poisonous if cracked; a single one, if swallowed, can be fatal. Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and shock. Specific Treatment: Fluid imbalance should be corrected. -- http://medweb.nus.edu.sg.htm
Principal Toxin: Abrin, like ricin from castor beans, is a potent lectin found in highest concentration in the seeds. Other toxic compounds are also present in the seeds. Only if the seeds are chewed and swallowed is the lectin released. Abrin is one of the most toxic compounds known, requiring as little as 0.00015 percent of a person's body weight to be fatal. Animals are infrequently poisoned. -- http://www.ivis.org/special_books/Knight/chap3c/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1
Abstract: Abrin is a toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity bean), which is similar in structure and properties to ricin. Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal dose of 0.11 microgram/kg, and has caused death after accidental and intentional poisoning. Abrin can be extracted from jequirity beans using a relatively simple and cheap procedure. This satisfies one criterion of a potential chemical warfare agent, although the lack of large scale production of jequirity seeds means that quantity is unavailable for ready mass production of abrin for weapons. This contrasts with the huge cultivation of Ricinus seeds for castor oil production. At the cellular level, abrin inhibits protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. Many of the features observed in abrin poisoning can be explained by abrin-induced endothelial cell damage, which causes an increase in capillary permeability with consequent fluid and protein leakage and tissue oedema (the so-called vascular leak syndrome). Most reported cases of human poisoning involve the ingestion of jequirity beans, which predominantly cause gastrointestinal toxicity. Management is symptomatic and supportive. Experimental studies have shown that vaccination with abrin toxoid may offer some protection against a subsequent abrin challenge, although such an approach is unlikely to be of benefit in a civilian population that in all probability would be unprotected. -- http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/adis/txr/2003/00000022/00000003/art00002

India: seeds boiled and eaten. This plant is regularly cultivated in Egypt. Chemical composition (amino acids per 16g nitrogen): Histidine = 3.29g. Proline = 8.6g. Vernacular name (India): Rati seed. Ref. VAN ETTEN et al., WATT. -- FAO Famine Foods

Contents of this page

Abrus spp.

Family : Fabaceae

Results of search for 'Abrus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 14 May 2006.

Abrus precatorius L. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide.
  Common Names: Chek-awn, Crab's eyes, Ywe, Ywe-nge, Ywe-nwe
Abrus pulchellus Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide

USDA-NRCS

"ABRUS","Abrus Adans.","abrus","Fabaceae"
"ABPR3","Abrus precatorius L.","rosarypea"," Fabaceae"
"ABAB2","Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight","& gt;>Abrus precatorius","Fabaceae"

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Butea frondosa

syn. B. monosperma

Family: Fabaceae

Though Chklist treats B. frondosa and B. monosperma as separate species, both Nagathein and UHM give the names as synonyms. Two Indian sources (www.himalayahealthcare.com and www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm) also treat them as the same species.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 37-0970: {pauk}
  -- B. letrasperma is probably misspelled
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 275: {pauk-ping} (no syn. given)
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-235: {pauk} - B. monosperma syn. B. frondosa
UHM 10: Pauk - B. monosperma syn. B. frondosa

Other sources:
Butea monosperma syn. B. frondosa (Sanskrit: Palasa) --  www.himalayahealthcare.com
Butea monosperma, Butea frondosa . Family: Faboideae / Leguminosae / Papilionaceae
Common names: Flame of the Forest, Dhak, Palas, Bastard Teak, Parrot Tree, Dhak or Palas (Hindi); Porasum (Tamil) ; Khakda (Gujerati). Origin: India -- www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{pauk}- -- TravPo-M-Dict 189
{pauk}- tree bearing showy clusters of red flowers in April; flame of the forest; parrot tree; bastard teak, Butea monosperma  -- TravPo-M-Dict 266

Hindi : दाक {daak} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit :

English common name used in Myanmar:
Agri.Dept.2000 37-0970: Bastard teak; Bengal kino
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 275: Flame of the Forest
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-235: NG
UHM 10: Kino tree

 

Picture:
Leader from Nagathein 2-236
Photos: Leaves http://da-academy.org/images/butea3.jpg ; Flower http://toptropicals.com/pics/garden/05/8/8208.jpg

 

Plant identification characters

An erect tree 12-15 m high with crooked trunk, irregular branches and rounded trifoliate leaves -- UHM

It is an erect, medium sized tree of 12-15 m high, with a crooked trunk and irregular branches. The shoots are clothed with gray or brown silky pubescence. The bark is ash coloured. The leaves 3 foliate, large and stipulate. Petiole is 10-15 cm long. Leaflets are obtuse, glabrous above, finely silky and conspicuously reticulately veined beneath with cunnate or deltoid base. From January to March the plant is bald. Flowers in rigid racemes of 15 cm long, densely brown velvety on bare branches. Calyx is dark, olive green to brown in colour and densely velvety outside. The corolla is long with silky silvery hairs outside and bright orange red. Stamens are diadelphes, anthers uniform. Ovary 2 ovule, style filiform, curved and stigma capitate. Pods argenteo-canesent, narrowed, thickened at the sutures, splitting round the single apical seed, lowest part indehiscent. The seeds are flat, reniform, curved.  --  www.himalayahealthcare.com

The Flame of the Forest is a medium sized tree, growing from 20 to 4O feet high, and the trunk is usually crooked and twisted with irregular branches and rough, grey bark. It is seen in all its ugliness in December and January when most of the leaves fall: but from January to March it truly becomes a tree of flame, a riot of orange and vermilion flowers covering the entire crown. These flowers, which are scentless, are massed along the ends of the stalks dark velvety green like the cup-shaped calices and the brilliance of the stiff, bright flowers is shown off to perfection by this deep, contrasting colour. Each flower consists of five petals comprising one standard, two smaller wings and a very curved beak-shaped keel. It is this keel which gives it the name of Parrot Tree. The back-curving petals are covered with fine, silky hair, which, seen at certain angles, change the deep orange to a silvery salmon-pink. The buds too, have this downy growth and acquire a beautiful mauvish bloom. The leaves, which appear in April and May, are 10-18" wide and trifoliate. When fresh they are like soft suede ; thick, velvety and a beautiful pale, bronze green. Old leaves are as firm and tough as leather, smooth above and hairy below. This silky down gives them a silvery appearance from a distance. The pods, when young, are pale green, are covered with a dense growth of fine hair and sometimes give the effect of a tree in full leaf. They are pendulous and 3 to 4 inches long. When ripe they become yellow-brown and contain flat, brown seeds. -- www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm

Trivia:
It is a sacred tree, referred to a s a treasurer of the gods, and used in sacrifice rituals. From its wood, sacred utensils are made. The flowers are offered as in place of blood in sacrifice rituals to goddess Kali. The dry stem pieces are used to make sacred fire. It is an anthropogenic tree of several castes. 'Chakradatta' mentions the use of its gum in external astringent application. The leaves are believed to have astringent, depurate, diuretic and aphrodisiac properties. It promotes diuresis and menstrual flow. The seed is is anthelmintic. The bark is also used in snakebite. When seeds are pounded with lemon juice and applied to the skin the act as rubefacient. Arab horse dealers put one seed int each feed of corn to keep their horses in condition.  --  www.himalayahealthcare.com
The Palas is sacred to the moon and is said to have sprung from the feather of a falcon impregnated with the Soma, the beverage of the Gods, and thus immortalised. It is used in Hindu ceremonies for the blessing of calves to ensure their becoming good milkers. When a Brahmin boy becomes a Sadhu, his head is shaved and he is given a Palas leaf to eat the trifoliate formation representing Vishnu in the middle, Brahma on the left and Shiva on the right. -- www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm

Distribution in Myanmar:

Widely distributed, Pyinmana, Toungoo, Insein, Tharawaddy, Rangoon, Kyaikmaraw, Seikkyi (Moulmein), Taunglelon, Shwenyaung (Southern Shan State) -- UHM

Distribution elsewhere:
It is found in greater parts of India, Burma and Sri Lanka. It is capable of growing in water logged situations, black cotton soils, saline, alkaline, swampy badly drained soils and on barren lands except in arid regions.  --  www.himalayahealthcare.com
A rare yellow variety of the Flame of the Forest is sometimes found in India. Butea frondosa is named after the Earl of Bute, a patron of Botany and 'frondosa', meaning "leafy". It is a native of India but is not found in the driest parts, being most common in Central India and the Western Ghats. -- www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm

 

Part used and uses :

Dried juice obtained from the trunk. Used as pulvis Buteae Compositus, Pulvis Buteae Seminum (I.P.C.) -- UHM

A fraction containing sodium salt of phenolic constituent isolated from the bark has shown potential as an antiasthmatic agent in estrogenic activity in mice. Aqueous extract of the flowers show significant anti-implantation activity7. Hot alcoholic extract of the seeds showed significant anti-implantation and anti-ovulatory activity in roots and rabbits respectively. It also showed abortive effect in mice8. Butrin and isobutrin has proved to have antihepatotoxic activity.Indications: The fresh juice is applied to ulcers and for congested and septic sore throats. The gum is a powerful astringent given internally for diarrhea and dysentery. --  www.himalayahealthcare.com

That the flowers contain much nectar is evidenced by the frequent visits of many species of birds; sunbirds, mynahs and babblers are usually to be seen, hurrying from flower to flower, chattering and twittering. With man, also, the tree is very popular, having numerous uses. From an infusion of the flowers a brilliant colouring matter can be obtained, which may be made into water-paint or into a dye. Cotton, prepared with alum, can be dyed a bright yellow or orange. From the seeds a clear oil is obtained and the gum which exudes from the stems, known as Bengal Kino, is valuable to druggists because of its astringent qualities, and to leather workers because of its tannin. Young roots make a strong fibre which has many uses, the making of rope sandals being one of the most important. Roots, eaten raw, cause giddiness, but, baked, are eaten by Mundari children. The leaves, because of their strength, are sewn together by poor people to make plates and the lovely flowers are popular with all Indian women for adornment of their hair. -- www.toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/articles/trees/butea.htm

 

Constituents :

1. Flowers contain 1.5 % glucoside butrin, 0.3 % butein, 0.04 % butin (16)  2. Kinotannic acid 15-60 % (17) -- UHM

The main constituent of the flower is butrin (1.5%) besides butein (0.37%) and butin (0.04%). Also contains flavonoids and steroids1. Later studies proves that isobutrin slowly change to butrin on drying2
Other than these in flowers, coreopsin, isocoreopsin, sulphurein (glycoside) and other two with monospermoside and isomonospermoside structures are also identified3s. Roots contain glucose, glycine, glucosides and aromatic compounds4. Tetramers of leucocynidin are isolated from gum and stem bark5. Seed contains oil6.The bright colour of the flower is attributed to the presence of chakones and aurones.  --  www.himalayahealthcare.com

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Butea spp.

Family: Fabacea

Results of search for 'Butea' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 May 2006.
Butea frondosa Roxb. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Bastard teak, Bengal kino, Palas tree, Pauk
Butea minor Buch.-Ham. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin, Sagaing
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon. Common Names: Changan, Flame of the forest, Khapone Tanom, Mai-kao, Pauk, Pawpan, Shang-gan
Butea parviflora Roxb. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Laban-ru, Nwe-ni, Pauk-nwe, Rubanru
Butea superba Roxb. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Kao-hko, Kosot-lot, Pauk-nwe, Paw-tohkaw

USDA-NRCS

"BUTEA","Butea Roxb. ex Willd.","butea","Fabaceae"
"BUMO5","Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taubert","Bengal kino"," Fabaceae"

UKT: Chklist 439 listed only two species with the name {pauk}: B. frondosa and B. monosperma. Three more were mentioned in Chklist 236 , however none as "B. letrasperma ". Therefore "B. letrasperma " of Agri.Dept. 2000 37-0970 was probably misspelled or non-existent. Info of the two available on p236

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{pauk}- -- TravPo-M-Dict 189
{pauk}- tree bearing showy clusters of red flowers in April; flame of the forest; parrot tree; bastard teak, Butea monosperma  -- TravPo-M-Dict 266

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Glycyrrhiza glabra

Family: Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 33-0878: {nw-hkyo}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-166: {nw-hkyo}
UHM 27: Nwe-cho

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{nw-hkyo} -- -- TravPo-M-Dict 173
{nw-hkyo} -- n. liquorice -- TravPo-M-Dict 241

UKT: Though the Burmese-Myanmar pronunciation of the first syllable is {nw}, it is spelled with a killed {ya.}, and the correct spelling is {nw} meaning a "creeper". However, we must note that, unlike the English-Latin semivowel <y>, the Burmese-Myanmar semivowel {ya.} acts more like a consonant than a vowel, and the killed {ya.} is not pronounced.

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 33-0878: Liquorice
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-166: NG
UHM 27: Licorice Root, Liquoric Root, Sweet Root -- UHM

 

Picture:
Leader from: www.pioneerherbs.com/glychrriza_glabra.htm

 

Plant identification characters :

A perennial herb with branched stem attaining a height of 1-1.5m bearing alternate imparipinnate leaves and a spreading slender rhizome with fibrous roots, axillary spikes of violet-coloured flowers. fruit a compressed legume containing kidney-shaped seeds. -- UHM

 

Distribution of Myanmar:

East Katha, Amherst. -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

The dried rhizome and roots. Used as demulcent in catarrh of respiratory treatment and genitourinary passage, expectorant, laxative and flavouring agent. -- UHM

Extensive reports are available on modern pharmacological research on this drug supporting its claims in older literature as a broad spectrum entity in many pharmacopoeiae. Recent studies report the anti-inflammatory action of glycyrrhizin acid (a hydrolysis product of glycyrrhizin) and its derivative in the rat paw and cotton-pellet test(4). Both liquorice extract and glycyrrhetinic acid are shown to have desoxycorticosterone(5), and ACTH-like effects, though with less toxicity than cortisone(6), encouraging its use as an antiarthritic agent(7),in Addison's disease(8,9),and Simmond's disease(9).Deglycyrrhiznised liquorice is used in peptic ulcer(10). Glycyrrhizin (L II) and glycyrhetic acid (L III) prevented the development of experimental cirrhosis in rats(10).Triglycerides accumulation in the liver decreased, while liver glycogen increased significantly in rats treated with L III(11). Effects of L II and its congeners have been studied on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes(12).Antioxidative action plays an important role in the antihepatotoxic activity of L III. The effectiveness of ll-deoxy-glycyrrhetinic acid hydrogen maleate (L IV) against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride has also been demonstrated (13). In Ayurveda, it is used extensively as a demulcent, mild expectorant and anti-inflammatory agent. It relieves 'vata' and 'kapha' inflammations, it is also used in eye diseases, throat infections, symptomatic relief in peptic ulcer, and as an antiarthritic agent. One hundred and thirty-three cases of chronic liver diseases treated with L II, daily for one month, showed significant improvement. Marked improvement in scrum transa-minase levels was seen after one week, without any side effects (16). Contraindication: Glycyrrhizic acid has been reported to cause oedema(14,15). Its effect is less toxic than that of cortisone(6). Large doses of liquorice (30-50 gms) can produce Cushingoid features in man. -- www.pioneerherbs.com/glychrriza_glabra.htm

UKT: See article on the efficacy of G. glabra, in protecting tissues from peroxide damage in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats. Internet link: http://medind.nic.in/ibi/t04/i5/ibit04i5p284.pdf .

 

Constituents:

1. Up to 8 percent of glycyrrhizin an intensely sweet water soluble principle consisting of potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhizic acid C44H64O19, glycyramarin (a bitter principle) occurring mostly in the bark. 2. yellow-colouring matter. 3. Volatile oil. 4. Resin, starch, sucrose, glucose, calcium oxalate. -- UHM

Phytoactive: The main constituents are glycyrrhizin (madhuyastin), the potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhetinic acid. Flavonoid rich fractions include liquirtin, isoliquertin (a chalcone) liquiritigenin and rhamnoliquirilin. The Indian roots show various 2-methyliso- flavones, and an unusual coumarin, C liquocoumarin, 6 - acetyl- 5, hydroxy- 4- methyl coumarin. Asparagine is also found(3). -- www.pioneerherbs.com/glychrriza_glabra.htm

Contents of this page

Mucuna prurita 

Family : Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 13-0340:  {hkw:lh:ya:}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 125: {hkw:l:ya:}
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 1-306:  {hkw:lh:ya:}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{hkw:lh:ya:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 061
{hkw:lh:ya:} - n. cowhage, Mucuna prurita. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 081

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit
:

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 13-0340:  Cow-hage; Cow-itch
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 125: Cowhage; Cowitch
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 1-306:  Cowitch
UHM : NL

 

Picture :
Leader from Nagathein
Photo: left - www.indianherbals.org/ tamil/herbal9.htm  ; right -  www.himalayahealthcare.com

 

Plant identification characters :

Morphology Description (Habit) -- M. pruriesn is an herbaceous twining annual. The leaves are trifoliolate; the leaflets, broadly ovate, elliptic or rhomboid ovate and unequal at the base; the flowers, purple and in axillary, pendulous racemes; the pods, curved, longitudinally ribbed, turgid and densely clothed with persistent pale brown or grey, irritant bristles; the seeds, black 4-6 in pod and ovoid. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

Habit -- It grows all over India and in the Andaman and Nicobar islands -- www.himalayahealthcare.com

 

Part used and uses :

Pharmacology -- The total alkaloids from seeds of M.pruriens comprising 5 alkaloidal bases were found to bring about a note-worthy increase in the population of spermatozoa and in the weights of body testes, seminal vesicles and prostrate of the treated rats. The exhibited activity was found to stimulate testosterone-enanthate induced androgenic activity observed in another set of treated individuals.
 Lower dose corresponding to the clinical dose significantly decreased the sleeping time, increased the motor activity and gave equivocal results in rotarod test in experimental animals. The high dose (3 times the clinical dose) significantly increased the sleeping time, decreased the motor activity and reduced the time for falling from the rod. Thus the drug possesses CNS stimulant effect at low doses and CNS depressant effect at high doses.
  A seed diet produced a hypoglycemic effect in normal rats, however, such a diet had an insignificant effect on alloxan-treated rats.
   Clinical Studies -- In 15 psychiatric patients, M.pruriens (15 g of of crude seed powder was found to significantly inhibit the prolactin response to chlorpromazine injection, as effectively as 0.5 g of L-dopa). No side effects were observed in these patients.
  Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease were treated with M.pruriens in an open study for 12 weeks. Statistically significant reductions in Hoehn and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores were seen form baseline to the end of 12 week treatment.
   Toxicity -- Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastro-intestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports (Ibid, 1995).
   Indications -- L-DOPA is a neurotransmitter precursor, an effective drug for relief in Parkinson's disease. The seed is a prophylactic against oligospermia, useful in increasing sperm count, ovulation in women, etc. It prevents male and female sterility and acts as a nervine tonic.
  Product Range -- Confido (Speman forte), Geriforte (GeriCare/StressCare), Mentat (MindCare), Mentat syrup, Speman (ProstaCare), Tentex forte (VigorCare for Men), Anxocare, Geriforte Aqua, Geriforte Vet, Speman Vet, Tentex forte Vet.
   References: 1. Parikh et. al., Indian Drugs, 1990, 27, 353; Chem Abstr, 1993, 119, 234161, 245571. 2. Sinha, J Res Educ Indian Med, 1992, 11(1), 15; Goyal, J Econ Taxon Bot, 1991, 15, 677. 3. Saksena, S. and Dixit, V.K., Ind.J.Nat. Prod, 1987, 3(1), 3-7.4. Ahmad, S., et. al., Conference of Phyarmacology and Symposium on Herbal Drugs (New Delhi), March 1991, 15, 26. 5. Parikh et. al., Indian Drugs, 1990, 27, 353; Gopal, J Econ Taxon Bot, 1991, 15, 677; Handa et. al. Fitoterapia, 1989, 60, 210. 6. Vaidya,  R.A., Neurology (India), 1978, 26, 177. 7. Manyam B.V. 1995, J. ALtern. CompletmentMed. Fall. 1(3): 249-255. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com

 

Constituents :

M. prurita has been found to contain L-DOPA, 40 mg/g of the plant. The plant/seeds contain the bioactive alkaloids alkaloids mucunine, mucunadine, mucuadinine, pruriendine and nicotine, besides -sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin, oils, venolic and gallic acids. The seeds with seed coat showed the presence of a number of bioactive subtances including tryptamine, alkylamines, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, cardenolides,etc. -- www.himalayahealthcare.com

Contents of this page

Mucuna spp.

Family : Fabaceae

Results of search for 'Mucuna' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 14 May 2006.

Mucuna bracteata DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Magway, Mandalay, Mandalay, Sagaing
  Common Names: Nwe-bok, Wee-te
Mucuna cochinchinensis Cheval. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Mandalay, Sagaing.
  Common Names: Gwe-nge-pe, Khway-lay-pe, Lyon bean, Pe-det-net, White-flowered velvet bean
Mucuna collettii Lace. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay
Mucuna exserta C.B. Clarke. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Taninthayi
Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Ayeyarwady.
  Common Names: Sea bean
Mucuna hainanensis Hayata. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
Mucuna imbricata DC. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Shan.
  Common Names: Pauk-net
Mucuna monosperma DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi, Yangon.
  Common Names: Myauk-do, Myauk-go-nyin
Mucuna nigricans (Lour.) Steud. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Cited as: Mucuna prurita Hook. Habit: Climber.
  Distribution: Bago, Bago, Chin, Kayin, Kayin, Mandalay, Mandalay, Sagaing, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon.
  Common Names: Gwin-nge, Hko-mak-awa, Khwele-ya, To-ma-awn
Mucuna sempervirens Hemsl. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Kachin, Mandalay, Unknown
Mucuna utilis Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar.
  Common Names: Aong-lawk, Gwe-nge-pe, Kwe-ye-pe, Kywele-pe, Pe-det-anet, Purple-flowered velvet bean, Ra, Yom-nung
Mucuna venulosa (Piper) Merr. & Metcalf. Cited as: Stizolobium venulosum Piper. Habit: Climber.
  Distribution: Reported from Myanmar

USDA-NRCS

"MUCUN","Mucuna Adans.","mucuna","Fabaceae"
"MUGI","Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC.","seabean","Fabaceae"
"MUPL2","Mucuna platyphylla A.Gray","","Fabaceae"
"MUPR","Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.","cowitch","Fabaceae"
"MUPRP","Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. pruriens","cowitch","Fabaceae"
"STPR5","Stizolobium pruriens (L.) Medik.","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens","Fabaceae"
"STPR4","Stizolobium pruritum (Wight) Piper","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens","Fabaceae"
"MUPRU","Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wallich ex Wight) Baker ex Burck","cowitch","Fabaceae"
"MUAT2","Mucuna aterrima (Piper &amp; Tracy) Holland","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. utilis","Fabaceae"
"MUDE2","Mucuna deeringiana (Bort) Merr.","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. utilis","Fabaceae"
"STAT3","Stizolobium aterrimum Piper &amp; Tracy","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. utilis","Fabaceae"
"STDE","Stizolobium deeringianum Bort","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. utilis","Fabaceae"
"STVE5","Stizolobium velutinum (Hassk.) Piper &amp; Tracy","&gt;&gt;Mucuna pruriens var. utilis","Fabaceae"
"MURO2","Mucuna rostrata Benth.","mucuna","Fabaceae"
"MUSL","Mucuna sloanei Fawcett &amp; Rendle","horseeye bean","Fabaceae"
"MUSLP","Mucuna sloanei Fawcett &amp; Rendle var. persericea Wilmot-Dear","","Fabaceae"
"MUSLS","Mucuna sloanei Fawcett &amp; Rendle var. sloanei","horseeye bean","Fabaceae"
"MUUR","Mucuna urens (L.) Medik.","oxeye bean","Fabaceae"

Contents of this page

Psoralea corylifolia

Family: Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 33-0861: {n-lh.}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 147: Ne-hle
Nagathein 2-145: {n-lh.}
UHM 39: Ne-hle

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {n-lh.}
{n-lh.} -- -- TravPo-M-Dict 164
{n-lh.} -- n. herbaceous plant related to the prairie trunip, Psoralea corylifolia. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 227

UKT: Though the Burmese-Myanmar pronunciation of the second syllable is {lh.}, it is spelled with a killed {a.}, and the correct spelling is {lh.} meaning "to turn". The killed consonant {a.} is not pronounced.

Hindi:
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 33-0861: Babchi
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 147: Babchi seeds
Nagathein 2-145: NG
UHM 39: NG

Picture
Leader from Nagathein 2-146
Photos: left --habit with flowers and fruits; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

An annual herb; stems erect, solid, longitudinally ridged, sericeous, gland-dotted, the young stems 5-ribbed. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules lanceolate, reflexed, sericeous; petioles 5-ribbed, canaliculated at the adaxial sides, sericeous, gland-dotted; laminae ovate to broadly ovate, the bases truncate or rounded, obscurely oblique, the margins dentate, undulate, the tips acute, 5-costate at the sinus reticulate, sericeous, gland-dotted. Inflorescences axillary racemes, 30- to 45-flowered, densely borne at the terminal ends of the peduncles; peduncles 5-ribbed, sericeous, gland-dotted; bracts ovate, subtend every third flower on the peduncle, sericeous, gland-dotted; persistent. Flowers small, ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-lobed, companulate the lobes ovate with acute tips, the anterior lobe largest, sericeous, gland-dotted, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, papilionaceous, 1+2+(2), the posterior or vexillum (standard) orbicular, crested in the middle of the upper margin, the limbs purple, the claws paler, the 2 laterals or alae (wings) oblong, auricled at one basal side of limb, white with purple tips, the 2 lower or carina (keels) obliquely spathulate, the claw long and narrow, white with dark purple fused tips, glabrous. Androecium diadelphous, stamens 1+(9), inserted, the anthers dithecous, dimorphic, the anther lobes of the vexillary stamen and those of the shorter filaments cuboid, dorsifixed, those of the 5 longer filaments ovoid, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parieta lalong ventral suture, the ovule solitary in the locule, the style filiform, the stigma discoid; gynophore short warty. Fruit a pod, oblongoid, pale green, warty, glabrous; seed solitary, oblongoid, rarely flatteded, dark brown to blackish, aromatic, non-endospermic. Flowering period: October-December. Fruiting period: November-March.

An erect annual -1-3feet high, branches firm, conspicuously gland dotted, Leaves distinctly petioled, rounded, 1-3" long, inciso-repand, firm in texture, both sides conspicously dotted with black dots, nearly glabrescent, flowers small in long-purple, pod 0.3" long obliquely ovoiddor subreniform. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Grows wild, common in tropical plains of Myanmar -- KS-TMN

Mandalay, wild along road sides. A common weed of cultivated and fallow land. -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

Roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds -- Haematemesis; Heart disease; Asthma; Leprosy; Heartburn; Infections; Gives energy. Fruit: Biliousness; Expectorant; Carminative; Leprosy; Emesis; Oedema: Asthma; Cough; Indigestion; Good for skin and hair growth. -- KS-TMN

Seeds. Used as anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic and a remedy against skin diseases, leprosy and leucoderma. -- UHM

 

Constituents:

1. Seeds yield essential oil and psoralen (34) -- UHM

 

Contents of this page

Pueraria candollei

Family: Fabaceae

Graham ex Benth.

ENGLISH : Burmese kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu du Bangladesh.

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
Agri.Dept.2000 :
Chklist:
LSR :
FAO :
KS-TMN:
Nagathein :
UHM :

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling (Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho/ Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /

Contents of this page

Pueraria mirifica

MMPDB2006 -- {U.mhwun: ping}
Of the 12 entries of Pueraraia listed by USDA-NRCS, 5 are known as Kudzu, and of 11 entries in MMPND (Multilingual Multiscript Plant name Database), 10 are known as Kudzu. Following this tradition, MMPDB2006 has adopted the name {U.mhwun: ping} for them.
   In addition to this MMPDB2006 has adopted the name {U.mhwun: (pu.ti:)} for reasons described in Plant identification characters sub-section .
   The English name "Kudzu" (originally a Japanese name meaning "vine") is generally applied to the Pueraria plants. See information on Kudzu inPueraria spp.

Internet link: www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html

Family: Fabaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
Chklist: NL
  MMPND: Thai Kudzu
LSR : NL
FAO : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 4-088 to 094: {U.mwun-U.} / {U.mwun (pu.ti:)}
UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{U.mhwun:}- TravPo-M-Dict 381
{U.mhwun:} -- n. creeper, the root of which is edible, Pueraria tuberosa. Also {kyw:hpru} -- Myan-Engl-Dict  608
{U.mhwun: ping} - Myan-Ortho 284
(UKT Note the correct spelling of {U.mhwun:} which is spelled with a {ha.hto:} -- Not {mwun:})

Chklist data : NL
Listed by MMPND (Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database):
03. Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvat.
ENGLISH : Thai kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu de Siam.

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
Chklist: NL
  MMPND: Thai Kudzu
LSR : NL
FAO : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 4-088 to 094: NG
UHM : NL

 

Picture :
Leader -- www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html

 

Plant identification characters :

Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabandhu is an indigenous herb of Thailand known in Thai as กาวเครือ(ขาว) . It belongs to the Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae or the soy bean pea subfamily. Active principles in this plant are found the tuberous root which looks like a chain of round-shaped bulbs of various sizes connected to the next one via small root throughout the entire length of the root the shape and size of the tuberous root are diverse depending on the environment in which it exists. -- www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html
(UKT: Nagathein 4-090 describes a kind of {U.mwun-U.} as {U.mwun (pu.ti:)} which is so called because it looks like a "rosary of beads".)

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Distribution elsewhere:
The plants are commonly found in abundant in the forests in the north the west and the northeast of Thailand at the altitude of 300-800 meters above sea level -- www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html

 

Part used and uses :

Pueraria extract is used in cosmetic formulations such as breast cream, eye gel, skin moisturizer, hair tonic and hair growth products. It is also used in dietary supplement.
   Pueraria mirifica provides a natural source of phyto-estrogens and isoflavones, to remedy age-related estrogenic deficiencies.It is effective in stabilizing or reversing conditions such as sagging breasts, wrinkled skin, bone loss, and gray hair. --  www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html

The studies confirm that Pueraria mirifica is not only rich in phytoestrogen, but also is the only plant of which the phytoestrogen structure is bio-identical with the estrogen hormone that is produced in women's body. <!-- http://www.jelitawan.com/  www.soulhealer.com/ 

 

Constituents :

The crucial substances found in the rhizome are mostly phyto-estrogens, such as miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol, substances that have the highest estrogenic activity among the phytoestrogens but are  contained in small amounts. Other important substances are isoflavones such as Puerarin, puerarin-6-monoacetate, genistein, daidzein, and coumestrans such as coumestrol. Although Pueraria has lower estrogenic activity than miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol, puerarin is a particular substance in Pueraria which is contained in high concentrations compared with miroestrol. --  www.naturalessence.net/Products/pueraria_mirifica.html

Contents of this page

Pueraria tuberosa

Syn.: Hedysarum tuberosum
-- www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pueraria+tuberosa

Family: Fabaceae

MMPDB2006 -- {U.mhwun: ping}
Of the 12 entries of Pueraria listed by USDA-NRCS, 5 are known as Kudzu, and of 11 entries in MMPND, 10 are known as Kudzu. Following this tradition, MMPDB2006 has adopted the name {U.mhwun: ping} for them.

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
Agri.Dept.2000 10-0246: {kyw:hpru U.}/ {mwun: U.}
Chklist: Kyway-byu, U-hmone-u
LSR : NL
FAO : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 4-088: {U. mwun-U.}
  (also known as {oap-mhoan: U.}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{U.mhwun:}- -- TravPo-M-Dict 381
{U.mhwun:} -- n. creeper, the root of which is edible, Pueraria tuberosa. Also {kyw:hpru} -- Myan-Engl-Dict  608
{U.mhwun: ping} - Myan-Ortho 284
(UKT Note the correct spelling of {U.mhwun:} which is spelled with a {ha.hto:} -- Not {mwun:})

 

Chklist data :
Pueraria tuberosa DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kyway-byu, U-hmone-u

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :

 

Picture :
Leader -- Nagathein

 

Plant identification characters :

Climber growing to 1m. . The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). It can fix Nitrogen. We rate it 2 out of 5 for usefulness. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. Woodland, Cultivated Beds, Sunny Edge, Dappled Shade.
www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pueraria+tuberosa

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Distribution elsewhere:
Range: E. Asia - Pakistan to C. Nepal and India
Habitat: Shrubberies and stream-sides, 300 - 2000 metres [51].
[51] Polunin. O. and Stainton. A. Flowers of the Himalayas. Oxford Universtiy Press 1984
A very readable and good pocket guide (if you have a very large pocket!) to many of the wild plants in the Himalayas. Gives many examples of plant uses. -- www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pueraria+tuberosa

Part used and uses :

Food:
Root - [edible] raw [ref.2, 105, 146]. Very large, it is up to 50cm long and 30cm in diameter [ref. 158]. A liquorice flavour [ref. 158].
[ref. 2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[ref. 105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've [author of the article] come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[ref. 146] Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh 1972
Written last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
[ref. 158] Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press 1945 . A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsely illustrated. Not really for the casual reader. -- www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pueraria+tuberosa

Medicinal:
Demulcent; Emetic; Galactogogue; Poultice; Refrigerant; Tonic.
The root is used as a demulcent and refrigerant in the treatment of fevers [ref. 240]. It is peeled and bruised into a cataplasm and used to reduce swellings[240]. It is crushed and rubbed on the body in the treatment of fevers and rheumatism [240]. It is also emetic, galactogogue and tonic [240].
[ref. 240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986. Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader. -- www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pueraria+tuberosa

A medicinal plant, Pueraria tuberosa D.C. has been thoroughly investigated for its contraceptive potency in various animals viz. rats, mice and hamsters. The activity has been further confirmed with respect to its habitat and seasonal variations. The potent fractions have been studied for their biological properties so as to elucidate its exact hormonal status. The observations suggest that tubers of P. tuberosa D.C. possess significant antifertility activity. The contraceptive efficacy does not alter significantly with respect to the change in time and place of collection. Its crude powder, ethanolic and butanolic extracts evoke a significant antifertility activity in rats, mice and hamsters whereas hexane, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and benzene extracts are significantly effective to prevent implantation only in rats and mice. Aqueous extract does not show any significant antifertility activity in all these three animal species. The studies on its biological properties suggest that all the fractions of P. tuberosa D.C. possess significant estrogenic activity. In addition to this activity, the crude powder also shows significant progestational and mild antiprogestational activity whereas ethanolic and butanolic extracts show significant progestational activity. Petroleum ether and benzene extracts show only the estrogenic activity. The biological properties and their differences in activity have been discussed in relation to antifertility mode of action of P. tuberosa.
PMID: 4013619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] - www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=4013619&dopt=Abstract

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Pueraria spp.

Family: Fabaceae

Results of search for 'Pueraria' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 17 Jul 2006.
Pueraria alopecuroides Craib. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin
Pueraria brachycarpa Kurz. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago
Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Mon. Common Names: Ma-u-nwe, Wun-u-nwe
Pueraria collettii Prain. Cited as: Pueraria stricta Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan. Common Names: Chiya
Pueraria hirsuta Kurz. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago
Pueraria lacei Craib. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Magway
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Sagaing. Common Names: Kudzu
Pueraria peduncularis Graham. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay
Pueraria phaseoloides Benth. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Kudzu, Taw-pe
Pueraria thomsoni Benth. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Kachin
Pueraria tuberosa DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kyway-byu, U-hmone-u
Pueraria wallichii DC. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, Yangon

USDA-NRCS

UKT: Out of the 12 entries, 5 are named Kudzu.

"PUERA","Pueraria DC."," kudzu","Fabaceae"
"PUMO"," Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.","kudzu"," Fabaceae"
"GLJA2","Glycine javanica L.", "&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana","Fabaceae"
"PUMOL","Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen &amp; S. Almeida","kudzu ","Fabaceae"
"DOLO2","Dolichos lobatus Willd.","&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana var. lobata", "Fabaceae"
"PUHI3","Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) C. Schneider","&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana var. lobata", "Fabaceae"
"PULO","Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi","&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana var. lobata"," Fabaceae"
"PULOT","Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi var. thomsonii (Benth.) Maesen","&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana var. lobata","Fabaceae"
"PUTH","Pueraria thunbergiana (Sieb. &amp; Zucc.) Benth.","&gt;&gt;Pueraria montana var. lobata","Fabaceae"
"PUMOM","Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. montana","Taiwankudzu","Fabaceae"
"PUTO2","Pueraria tonkinensis Gagnep.","&gt;&gt; Pueraria montana var. montana","Fabaceae"
"PUPH2"," Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.","tropical kudzu ","Fabaceae"

 

Agri.Dept.2000

Papilionaceae -- Pueraria hirsuta -- {hkw:lh:ya: a.o} 14-0341
Papilionaceae -- Pueraria tuberosa -- {kyw:hpru-u.} {mwun:u.} 10-0246

Contents of this page

Kudzu

Kudzu クズ or 葛, Kuzu), Pueraria lobata (syn. P. montana, P. thunbergiana), is one of about 20 species in the genus Pueraria in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboidae. It is native to southern Japan and southeast China in eastern Asia. The name comes from Japanese kuzu (葛), meaning vine. The other species of Pueraria occur in southeast Asia, further south.

UKT: Kudzu was introduced to USA in 1876 and was promoted as a forage crop and as an ornamental and for other useful purposes. However, because of its rapid growth it has now became a pest destroying valuable crop land. Because many plants belonging to this species are native to Myanmar, it is expected that Kudzu would never become a pest.

It is a climbing, woody or semi-woody, perennial vine capable of reaching heights of 2030 m (66-98 ft) in trees, but also scrambles extensively over lower vegetation. The leaves are deciduous, alternate and compound, with a petiole (leaf stem) 1020 cm (48 in) long and three broad leaflets 1418 cm (67 in) long and 10 cm (4 in) broad. The leaflets may be entire or deeply 23 lobed, and are pubescent underneath with hairy margins.

The flowers are borne in long panicles 1025 cm (about 410 in) long with about 3080 individual blooms at nodes on the stems (see image). Each flower is about 11.5 cm (about 0.40.6 in) long, purple, highly fragrant. The flowers are copious nectar producers and are visited by many species of insects, including bees, butterflies and moths. Flowering occurs in late summer and is soon followed by production of brown, hairy, flattened, seed pods, each of which contains three to ten hard seeds.

The non-woody parts of the plant are edible. The young leaves can be used for salad or cooked as a leaf vegetable; the flowers battered and fried (like squash flowers); and the starchy tuberous roots can be prepared as any root vegetable.

Once established, kudzu plants grow rapidly, extending as much as 20 m (60 ft) per season at a rate of about 30 cm (12 in) per day. This vigorous vine may extend 1030 m (30100 ft) in length, with basal stems 110 cm (14 in) diameter. Kudzu roots are fleshy, with massive tap roots 1020 cm (48 in) or more in diameter, 12 m (36 ft) or more in length, and weighing as much as 180 kg. As many as thirty stems may grow from a single root crown.

Kudzu grows well under a wide range of conditions and in most soil types. Preferred habitats are forest edges, abandoned fields, roadsides, and disturbed areas, where sunlight is abundant. Kudzu grows best where winters do not drop below 15 C (5 F), average summer temperatures are regularly above 27 C (80 F), and annual rainfall is 1000 mm (40 in) or more. In areas where winters drop below 15 C, it will be killed to ground level, but the roots may send up new growth in the spring.

Kudzu is sometimes referred to as "the plant that ate the South", a reference to how kudzu's explosive growth has been most prolific in the southeastern United States due to nearly ideal growing conditions. Significant sums of money and effort are spent each growing season to prevent kudzu from taking over roads, bridges, power lines, and local vegetation.
   Uses - Culinary: The starchy roots are ground into a fine powder and used for varieties of Wagashi and herbal medicines. When added to water and heated, kudzu powder becomes clear and adds stickiness to the food. The name Kudzu appeared first in Kojiki and Nihonshoki as a type of vine or Kazura (葛 or 蔓) used commonly by the people who lived in Kudzu (国栖), area around present-day Yoshino, Nara prefecture. It is unclear whether the name was taken from the people or the name of the plant was applied to the people. Kudzu has been in use for over 1300 years and it is speculated that it goes back even further. In the Nara and Heian era, records had been found that they were collected and sent as a part of tax. Even today, "Yoshino Kudzu" has the best image of kudzu powder yet.Kagoshima prefecture is the largest producer of kudzu products.

Uses - Medicinal: Studies have shown that kudzu can reduce both hangovers and alcohol cravings. The mechanism for this is not yet established, but it may have to do with both alcohol metabolism and the reward circuits in the brain. Kudzu also contains a number of useful isoflavones, including daidzein (an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent),daidzin (a cancer preventive) and genistein (an antileukemic agent). Kudzu is a unique source of the isoflavone,puerarin. Kudzu root compounds can affect neurotransmitters (including serotonin, GABA, and glutamate) and it has shown value in treating migraine and cluster headache.

In traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as g gēn (葛根), kudzu is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs. It is used to treat tinnitus, vertigo, and Wei syndrome (superficial heat close to the surface).

Kudzu vines can make walking across an area nearly impossible, as it takes over all horizontal and vertical surfaces, both natural and manmade. Its dense growth obstructs all views and movement into the area. It kills or degrades other plants by smothering them under a solid blanket of leaves, by girdling woody stems and tree trunks, and by breaking branches or uprooting entire trees and shrubs through its weight.

The spread of kudzu is mainly by vegetative expansion by runners and rhizomes and by vines that root at the nodes to form new plants. Kudzu will also spread by seeds, which are contained in pods and mature in the autumn. One or two viable seeds are produced per cluster of pods. These hard-coated seeds may not germinate for several years, which can result in the re-appearance of the species years after it was thought eradicated at a site.

Contents of this page

Sorting Pueraria names

-- MMPND 

UKT: It is regrettable that this webpage used pix in gif format (instead of a Unicode font) to represent script characters making it impossible to download the original file. The result is all the characters are lost, except Burmese-Myanmar which I could easily salvage because of my knowledge of the Burmese language.

Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms) :

Note on Chinese vernacular (common) names.

UKT: Out of 11 entries, 10 are known as Kudzu .

01. Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.
ENGLISH : Burmese kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu du Bangladesh.

02. Pueraria edulis Pamp.
CHINESE :  Shi yong ge teng,  Ge gen,  Ge hua,  Gan ge,  Tian ge,  Ge teng,  Shi yong ge (medicinal name).
ENGLISH : Edible kudzu, Chinese kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu de Chine.

03. Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvat.
ENGLISH : Thai kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu de Siam.

04. Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.
SYNONYM(S) : Pueraria tonkinensis Gagnep., Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi var. montana van der Maesen, Dolichos montanus Lour., Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merrill
CHINESE :  Shan ge teng,  Shan ge teng (medicinal name).
ENGLISH : Wild kudzu, Taiwan kudzu.
FRENCH : Dolique kudzu tonkinoise, Kudzu de Formose.
LAOTIAN : Cha tau kung, Khauz pid.
VIETNAMESE : Day cae lan, Day dan, San day.

05. Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. chinensis Maesen & S.M. Almeida -> Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. thomsonii (Benth.) Wiersema ex D.B. Ward

06. Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S.M. Almeida
SYNONYM(S) : Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) Matsum. nom.illeg., Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) Schneider, Pueraria thunbergiana (Siebold & Zucc.) Benth., Pueraria pseudo-hirsuta Tang et Wang, Dolichos lobatus Willd., Pueraria triloba (Houtt.) Makino, Dolichos japonica hort.
ARABIC : Kisht ybn.
CHINESE :  Ye ge,  Ge,  Bai ge,  Huang ge teng,  tian ge teng,  Ri ben ge ,  Fen ge teng,  Ma ge teng,  Mao ge teng, ,  Ge gen (medicinal name) ,  Ge hua (medicinal name).
DUTCH : Koedzoe.
ENGLISH : Kudzu, Japanese arrowroot.
FRENCH : Dolique kudzu, Puraire kudzu.
GERMAN : Knollengrische, Kopoubohne.
ITALIAN : Kudzo.
JAPANESE :  Tokiiro kuzu (as P. hirsuta),  Kakkon (as P. lobata),  Kuzu (as P. lobata).
KOREAN :  (as P.thunbergiana),  Ch'iri kkot (as P.thunbergiana).
MALAY : Bitok (Indonesia).
SPANISH : Kudzu comun.
SUNDANESE : Tobi.
TAGALOG : Baai (?), Tahaunon (?).
THAI : Tamyakhrua.
VIETNAMESE : Cu nang, Cu san day.

07. Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. thomsonii (Benth.) Wiersema ex D.B. Ward
SYNONYM(S) : Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi var. thomsonii (Benth.) Maesen, Pueraria thomsonii Benth.
CHINESE :  Gan ge teng,  Fen ge,  Gan ge,  Ge ma teng,  Ge gen (medicinal name).
ENGLISH : Mealy kudzu, Thomson's kudzu.
FRENCH : Dolique kudzu de Chine.
THAI : Phakphit.
VIETNAMESE : Day cat can, San day.

08.Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.
CHINESE :  San lie ye ye ge,  San lie ye ge teng,  San lie ye ye ge teng,  San lie ye ye ge (medicinal name),  Fen ge,  Ge teng.
ENGLISH : Kudzu, Kudzu vine, Tropical kudzu, Puero (Aust.).
FRENCH : Kudzu tropical.
LAOTIAN : Pid, S'ak pid.
MALAY : Kudzu tropika, Krandang (Indonesia).
NEPALESE :  Bidaarii laharo (Bidari laharo),  Kuduzu ghans.
TAGALOG : Singkamasaso.
THAI : Thua sian paa.
VIETNAMESE : Dau ma, Dau dai, Dau rung.

09. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker
CHINESE :  Zhao wa san lie ye ge teng.
ENGLISH : Kudzu, Kudzu vine, Large-flowered tropical kudzu, Puero (Aust.).
FRENCH : Kudzu de Java, Kudzu tropical larges gousses.
GERMAN: Tropischer Kudzu.
SPANISH : Puero ?.

10. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. phaseoloides
ENGLISH : Kudzu, Kudzu vine, Tropical kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu tropical.

Most names applied to the species fit this variety.

11. Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC.
BURMESE :
ENGLISH : Indian kudzu, Nepalese kudzu.
FRENCH : Kudzu de l'Inde.
NEPALESE :  Baraalii kunda (Barali kund),  Biraalii mando (Birali mando).

Note
It is obvious from looking at the Chinese names that most plants have many common names. For each species or variety we have drawn attention to the main plant name by bolding it and to the medicinal name (which can be a common name for another plant). The bolded names are those that are the most reliable.
   The English and French names, although informative, are also very vague, and certainly too imprecise to be relied upon for proper identification.

REFERENCES : General Bibliography

REFERENCES : Complementary / Specific

EURODICAUTOM 1999, Multilingual Terminological Database, European Commission Translation Service. (12 languages of the European Community). < http://eurodic.echo.lu/cgi-bin/edicbin/EuroDicWWW.pl

Flach M. & Rumawas F. (Editors), 1996, Pueraria lobata (Willdenow) Ohwi : Plant Resources of South-East Asia N9 . Plants Yielding non-seed Carbohydrates. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. pp 178 - 179.

Halim R.A. 1992, Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. In : L.'t Mannetje & Jones R.M. (Editors) : Plant Resources of South-East Asia N4 . Forages. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. pp 192 - 195.

Herklots G.A.C. 1972, Vegetables in South East Asia. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. London (or Hafner Press in New York). (Assamese-romanised, Burmese-romanised, Cantonese - traditional characters + romanization, English, Latin, Tamil-romanised).

Mabberley D.J. 1997, The Plant-Book : a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, 2d Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

USDA, ARS, 2000, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: < http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxdump.pl?pueraria > (27 January 2000).

Wiersema J. H. & Len B. 1999, World Economic Plants : a Standard Reference. CRC Press LLC.

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China.

 

 

 

Contents of this page

Sesbania aculeata

Family: Fabaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 23-0600: {an-ping}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 01-529: {an-ping}
UHM: NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{an} - --TravPo-M-Dict 116
{an} - n. annual growing in marshy places, Sesbania cannabina . -- Myan-Engl-Dict 157

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 23-0600: Daincha
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 01-529: NL
UHM: NL

Picture:
Leader from Nagathein 01-528

Plant identification characters :

An annual herb usually found in the rainy season. However, in some places, it can still be found in the dry season especially in marshy places. Similar to {r-tha.kyi:} [Sesbania aegyptiaca -- Agri.dept.2000 50-1331] and can be considered a {r-tha.kyi: a.reing:} and is termed {wa.na.za.yan~ti} [where the prefix {wa.na.} means 'jungle'] in {ni.GaN~u. kyam:}. The term {za.yan~ti} means {r-tha.kyi:}. Myanmars eat the leaves (boiled, or pickled) as vegi-mate. [See Myanmar cuisine.] The stems are pithy and can be used as cork (bottle-stoppers and floats). The flowers are yellow. Cattle, water-buffaloes, sheep and goats love to eat the leaves. The plant can grow up to 7 feet. The fruit, a "pod". -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

 

Part used and uses:

Roots: Anthelmintic; diuretic; galactagogue. Eye diseases. Seeds: Anthelmintic -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

 

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use):

 

Constituents:

 

Contents of this page

Trigonella foenumgraecum

Family: Fabaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
Agri.Dept.2000 36-0952: {p:nan.tha}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-221: {p:nan.tha}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{p:nan.tha} - --TravPo-M-Dict  186
{p:nan.tha} - n. fenugreek. Trigonella foenumgraecum. --Myan-Engl-Dict  261
- Myan-Ortho

Hindi : {m-hti} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 36-0952: Fenugreek seed
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-221: NG
UHM : NL

 

Picture :
Leader - Nagathein

 

Plant identification characters :

Because it is a well-known plant, its description need not be given. It is sweet smelling as its name implied. Young leaves can be made into curries. The seeds are used as an ingredient in curry-powders. It is useful in medicine for which the seeds need to be sun-dried, and gently roasted in a new pot. -- Nagathein, free translation by  UKT.

Height 1 to 2 ft. Seed used is brownish yellow. -- "Report on Analysis of Medicinal Plants" [Burmese-Myanmar text translated name by UKT], Central Research Organization, 1982, p.36. 

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

Grown in central Myanmar -- "Report on Analysis of Medicinal Plants" [Burmese-Myanmar text translated name by UKT], Central Research Organization, 1982, p.36. 

 

Part used and uses :

Apply pasty substance, Fenugreek and honey) as plaster in fracture, orally use with warm water, use as flavouring agent. Indication: indigestion, fracture, anaemia, tumour, cold, dizziness, headache and neck stiffness -- Myat Myat Ohn Khin, Resources of Myanmar Traditional Medicine, Min. of Health, 2001. p.30

Fenugreek. Greek Hay. Trigonella foenumgraecum L., Leguminosae, an annual herb, cultivated in Southern Europe., Northern Africa and India for its seeds which are used in making curry. The seeds contain the alkaloid trigonelline (q. v.) and the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin (q. v.): Fazli, Hard-man, Trop. Sci. 10, 66-78 (1968). Use:  Has been used in making imitation maples syrup and for culinary spices other than curry, flavoring agent. THERAP CAT (VET):   Emollient. -- Merck Index, 13th ed., entry no. 4036, p0710

 

Constituents :

Fenugreek. Greek Hay. Trigonella foenumgraecum L., Leguminosae, an annual herb, cultivated in Southern Europe., Northern Africa and India for its seeds which are used in making curry. The seeds contain the alkaloid trigonelline (q. v.) and the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin (q. v): Fazli, Hard-man, Trop. Sci. 10, 66-78 (1968). Use:  Has been used in making imitation maples syrup and for culinary spices other than curry, flavoring agent. THERAP CAT (VET):   Emollient. -- Merck Index, 13th ed., entry no. 4036, p0710

[Seeds ?] Diosgenin 0.25, Yamogenin 0.25%. Can be used for preparation of steroid medicinal. -- -- "Report on Analysis of Medicinal Plants" , Central Research Organization, 1982, p.36.  [Burmese-Myanmar text translated name by UKT]

Alkaloid trigonelline. The plants can be used as insect repellent in grain storage -- U Hla Maw, Central Research Organization, 1965, p.19.  [Burmese-Myanmar text translated name by UKT]

Contents of this page

Trigonella spp.

 

Chklist online not available due to Myanmar ISPs' failure.

USDA-NRCS

"TRBR15","Trigonella brachycarpa (Fisch. ex M. Bieb.) Moris","&gt;&gt;Medicago brachycarpa","Fabaceae"
"TRPO8","Trigonella polycarpa Boiss. &amp; Heldr.","&gt;&gt;Medicago heldreichii","Fabaceae"
"TRLA26","Trigonella laciniata auct. non L. [misapplied]","&gt;&gt;Medicago laciniata","Fabaceae"
"TRNE8","Trigonella neoana Boiss.","&gt;&gt;Medicago monantha","Fabaceae"
"TRMO7","Trigonella monspeliaca L.","&gt;&gt;Medicago monspeliaca","Fabaceae"
"TRPO10","Trigonella polyceratia L.","&gt;&gt;Medicago polyceratia","Fabaceae"
"TRPO11","Trigonella popovii Korovin","&gt;&gt;Medicago popovii","Fabaceae"
"TRRU10","Trigonella ruthenica L.","&gt;&gt;Medicago ruthenica","Fabaceae"
"TRIGO","Trigonella L.","fenugreek","Fabaceae"
"TRAR13","Trigonella arabica Delile","","Fabaceae"
"TRCA14","Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser.","blue fenugreek","Fabaceae"
"TRCO7","Trigonella corniculata (L.) L.","cultivated fenugreek","Fabaceae"
"TRCR16","Trigonella cretica (L.) Boiss.","","Fabaceae"
"TRFO80","Trigonella foenum-graecum L.","sicklefruit fenugreek","Fabaceae"
"TRGL11","Trigonella gladiata Steven ex M. Bieb.","","Fabaceae"
"TRPR8","Trigonella procumbens (Bess.) Reichenb.","trailing fenugreek","Fabaceae"
"TRRA8","Trigonella ?ramosa L.","branched fenugreek","Fabaceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts Agri.Dept.2000 : Chklist: LSR : FAO : KS-TMN: Nagathein : UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho/ Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file