Published: 2015-03-31

2015-03-21 05:22 AM -0500

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
Link for offline DVD-package users: go to TIL-DVD-indx.htm

An Academic website dedicated to
Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a Pali recitation of
Mora Sutta Paritta - 巴利文孔雀經 - by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) -
Watch and listen to: 140905
¤ For comparison listen to Mora Sutta by Non-Myanmar Sayadaw <))
and Myanmar-Mingun Sayadaw <)) 
and the equivalent of Mora Sutta in Skt-Dev - the Gayatri Mantra <))
Notice: You will see the sound mark <)) in many files: click and listen.
This website shows the correspondence between four languages.
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myanmar script) : <{...}>
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>
- Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : «...» .

Romabama (Burmese speech in Latin script) is ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), and is suitable for writing emails & on the Internet.  Bur-Myan fonts are not used, individual words are sculpted according to a Lakkwak -- lakkwak.htm .  An advantage of this method is to show how the words are spelled from circularly rounded glyphs by using different colours. It is interesting to note that circularly rounded forms are not only unique to Myanmar. They are also found in Georgian letters, e.g. თ (U10D7: letter "Tan" consonant), and ი (U10D8: letter "In" vowel).

UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmar, and Singapore.
Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members.
   Daw Than Than has now completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun to complete mine. I am now 81 (on 150319).


Section 1 : Human voice and languages

English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - indx-HV.htm
Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
  (based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.)


Section 2: Second Language (L2) Acquisition

UKT 141030: By L2 is meant a language acquired by a human being well passed puberty when that person has full knowledge of the Mother Tongue, aka First Language (L1). L1 is sometimes known as the Home Language.

The second most important prerequisite for language teachers and students.
This section is a collection of works on applied linguistics from the point of view of Burmese speaking Myanmars aka Bur-Myan speakers. These speakers will be found both inside and outside Myanmarpré.

ENGLISH for Myanmar - the medium of teaching - E4M-indx.htm

this is a long lost section lost for 10yrs or more.

  - lang-mean-indx.htm
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 140430
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm
Folder name for LANGUAGE AND RELIGION as ban-skt-indx.htm  is changed to lang-relig-indx.htm because there are other files on:
¤ Language problem of primitive Buddhism - lang-probl.htm
¤ Mahabharata - Mahabha.htm
¤ Bhagavagītā - Gita.htm
¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā - Budd-Gita.htm
¤ Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism - mahayana.htm

LINGUISTICS - indx-linguistics.htm
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics.


Section 3 : Myanmar languages

¤ Introduction to Romabama - RBM-intro-indx.htm - update 140630
  - the medium of teaching and communication on the Internet
¤ Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used) - RBM-typewrit-indx.htm

¤  Speaking Mon-Myan Language  -- MV1874-indx.htm - update 140630
based on the following sources:
  1. Learn Mon Yourself : 61 lessons online 
  2. Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language 
    - Haswell, J.M., American Mission Press, Rangoon, 1874 (hardcopy in TIL lib.), and its sequel
  3. A vocab of English & Peguan with some geographical names 
    - Stevens, E.O., 1896
4. Mon Myanmar Letter Bridge
     - Dr. Mehm Tin Mon, Yangon, 2006, pp.117
5. Basic Method of Teaching Mon Speech and Script
    - Naing Maung Toe (in Bur-Myan), Yangon, 2007 (quote as NMT)

¤ Burmese for Foreign Friends - B4FF1-indx.htm
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files

¤ Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography; Part 2. Accidence and syntax 
  Note: I will have to go over Lonsdale's work thoroughly
  because it has not been updated for a long time. -- UKT 121212
¤ MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan) - BG-MLC-indx.htm
   Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
   Note: In each folder, there are two files: e.g. BG-MLC1-1.htm (Engl) & BGo1-1.htm (Bur)
¤ MLC Burmese Orthography 1st ed 1986 (in Bur-Myan) - BO-MLC-indx.htm
   Many words present in MLC Burmese Orthography are missing in MLC MED2006,
   e.g. {tän-hkyu} 'pole for picking fruit from top branches.
¤ Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD.htm
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627.
   My older ref. was UTM-PDD. Under consideration.
¤ Addition to TIL library - not linked on the Internet.:
  Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet ... by R.C. Temple, 1876, -- download-pdf
I will have to go over this carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.

MYANMAR : a collection of papers now split into the following five
¤ Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm
¤ General -- myn-indx.htm
¤ Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm
¤ Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305
¤ Myanmarpré before the British incursion
   The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
   • Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
   • Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
   • As important as John Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert White (Civil Service - Lt. Governor ((1905–1910) )). His account based on 32 years (1878–1910) of service in Burma  A Civil Servant in Burma, 1913, from 140530
has been downloaded and is in TIL library.
See also Wikipedia: 140530

¤ Romabama collection - RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm
   The links within the above group still need cleaning up. -- 121202
This collection of works was originally created 070724 in London, Ontario, to help me change Romabama from a transliteration to transcription. Now (121205) that Romabama has become a reliable transcription, many files have been put in folders of their own. ROMABAMA COLLECTION folder used to contain the following of which only some are left :
Romabama Theory:
¤ The Human Voice ¤ DJPD16 ¤ Phonation types
Note: "Romabama Theory" upgraded moved out as a new folder "Human Voice": the section heading "Romabama Theory" no longer used since 091221.
See under TIL main index:  indx-HV.htm
Priority of Speech
¤ "Speech Versus Writing" ¤ The Dogma of the Priority
Language of Gautama Buddha
¤ The Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism ¤ Edicts of King Asoka ¤  Ashoka the Great
Burmese and English:
¤ Grammar Glossary -- indx-GramGloss.htm
Note: Entered into a new folder on 091221. See under TIL main index: indx-GramGloss.htm
Burmese-Myanmar language:
¤ Grammar 1 ¤ Grammar 2
   The following 3 moved under TIL main index on 121118
¤ Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Burmese Grammar 1899, Part 1)
¤ Orthography 
¤ Burmese For Foreign Friends : Introduction to the language and culture
English-Latin language: (CATE - Computer Assisted Teaching of English)
¤ English idioms


Section 4 : TIL Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries 

UKT note to TIL editor 140702: All files in this section are to be renamed
either as TIL-P or TIL-S to show they are TIL's collection and not from
sources like PTS or Macdonell.

• TIL Pali-English dictionary (in akshara-order) -- PED-indx.htm 
UKT 140209: Burmese and Pali (and to extent on Sanskrit) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {té:Boän-mha.}, a favorite song of my father U Tun Pe : 140209
Since Theravada Buddhism in particular, and all Buddhist faiths including Mahayana in general, rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan word {nga} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the above song and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.


Section 5 : Source Dictionaries & Grammars 

Pali dictionaries :

¤ U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
Lost for some time, recovered in 2013, and now presented in new format.
   An excellent source of Pal-Myan spellings. Bur-Myan portion by UMK, and
   its rendition by USL may be checked with
   The Student's Pali English dictionary
, by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
  (to be checked with A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007

Pali Grammars

¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano ({kic~sæÑ:} in Bur-Myan),
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm - update 130925
  - (on line) 130517 , downloaded 251 pdf pages - PDF 130622
   Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha, "Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to
   amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

¤ Practical grammar of the Pali language, by Charles Duroiselle, 1915, 3rd. ed 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., .
or downloaded pdf file - PDF file (link chk 140701)

Sanskrit dictionaries

¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, TIL versions in 1+3 parts, and by 384 pages of the original printed ink-on-paper book
- MC-indx.htm - update 150331
The TOC is based on Akshara (Abugida) order where the syllable (onset-nucleus-coda) is the fundamental unit. This dictionary is the major Sanskrit Dictionary on this website. It is augmented with entries from F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. And also from Pali sources such as
- R.C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) 1874,
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) . 

¤ Vaman Shivaram Apte  (1858-1892),. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 130222 -- under consideration
¤ H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL library) -- for future work
¤ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
¤ TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - 140821
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary ,
  1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm - update 140630
   vol. 2 online, 140319
    (I've shortened some words in above, the next link will take to another format which I am not using)
    - 131115
¤ Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.
¤ Structure of Indic scripts in Unicode-4 , included under BHS vol. 1 - indic-indx.htm
¤ Pal-Lat, on PTS dictionary version from pdf version
¤ Reverse Sanskrit Dictionary : Rückläufiges Sanskrit-Wörterbuch
to search for Sanskrit words ending with a certain word or ending
-- 1211223
A downloaded copy of this dictionary is in TIL library on SDcard: 

Sanskrit Grammars :

¤ 130517
  - 130517 (suspended work)
¤ 130911


Section 6 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from
Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hsé:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size. I am splitting it into the following:

Para-Medicine -- MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm - update 141130
     A compilation by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
  ¤ Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance -- MP-LSR-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ Medicinal Plants of Myanmar - MP-KS-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngwé -
  ¤ Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science) - MP-VR-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Parāśara (3100 BCE?)
  ¤ Plant Taxonomy -- MP-taxon-indx.htm - update 141130
     by George H. M. Lawrence, Cornell University, 1951.

UKT 141030: Was Myanmarpré at one time populated by Tib-Myan speakers - the Pyus - closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization? At one time the people had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Déva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for them. There are a number of Buddhist pagodas which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. There are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats. They are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. I wonder whether they are the descendants of the ancient Védic Iþi (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Iþi" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra.þé.}


• Outside Myanmarpré, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpré, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. See below:

Click to see:
• 2014 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
• 2015 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with §§.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:


U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
• Founder of TIL
• Retired Professor of Chemistry
• Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
• Co-founder of TIL
• Retired Instructor in Chemistry
• Painter
• Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
• National Research Council Canada
• Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
• Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
• Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada




U Khin Maung Latt
• Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
• Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
• Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface
  Electra Triumphs
  - Electra-triumphs.htm (link chk 141031)
  Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda
Facets_at_Shwedagon.htm (link chk 141031)

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2015-03-21 05:22 AM -0500 - Canada home - Yangon office - no longer working

End of TIL file