Mon salutation<))
We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama,
whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest
scientific observations in the history of mankind.

Published: 2015-October

2015-10-23 06:14 PM -0400

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
Contact persons:
- U Han Tun: 01-527388 , 09-4210-98489
- Daw Khin Wutyi : 09-511-3477 
- Daw Thuzar Myint : 09-3154-3240

Link for offline DVD-package users: go to TIL-DVD-indx.htm
Offline DVD-packages available at cost:
1. Sounds of Buddhism
2. Sounds of English
3. English Grammar in Plain English

An Academic website dedicated to BURMESE, ENGLISH, PALI, SANSKRIT (BEPS) LANGUAGES.
Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a Pali recitation of Mora Sutta Paritta - 巴利文孔雀經 - by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) -
Watch and listen to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSj0KKIUfe4 140905
or listen to downloaded - bk-cndl-Chinese<))
¤ Listen to Mora Sutta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
and Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<))
Notice: The video and sound marks, <Ô> & <)) , in TIL files will help you to go through BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali, Sanskrit speeches written in Myanmar, IPA and Devanagari scripts). The sign <)) will let you hear the sound whether you are on your own computer or on a TIL research computer. But the sign <Ô> will let you see the video in TIL SD-Library only when you are on a TIL research computer. However, if the video is a necessity for your understanding of the txt, it would be uploaded to the Internet and you will be able to see it.

This website shows the correspondence between four languages of BEPS. Please pay attention to the brackets used:
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myan script) using 3-number keystrokes: Alt529... Alt528: ◄...►
- Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : «...» .
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>

Romabama (Burmese speech in Latin script) is compatible with ASCII (American Standard Code for Info Interchange), and is suitable for writing emails & on the Internet. Myanmar fonts are not used, and individual words are sculpted according to a Lakkwak -- lakkwak.gif (link chk 151005). Keep in mind the color code: red, green, brown, and black as default. It will help you to pronounce the Burmese-Myanmar words.

It is interesting to note that circularly rounded forms in scripts are not only unique to Myanmarpré. They are also found in Georgia. When we recall that the Buddhist emperor Asoka had sent Buddhist missionaries even to Rome in Europe, among them might have been monks from Tagaung of northern Myanmarpré. And the Myanmar script might have traveled with them to Central Asia. I base my conjecture  on the presence of the circularly rounded script in Georgia, bordered by Russia in the north, and Turkey in the south. In the Georgian letters, there are definitely two from the Myanmar script: the  თ (U10D7: letter "Tan" consonant), and ი (U10D8: letter "In" vowel).

I keep myself reminded of the fundamental concept of Theravada Buddhism - the Anatta Principle - the ever-changing world including what we deem as our own Self. Change Death is a natural phenomenon - not to be feared: live your Present Life as happily as you can, but expect Change at every turn. Theravada Buddhism - more precisely the first two sermons of Rishi Siddhartha Gautama (formerly the Crown Prince of the Sakka Republic of the Magadha region) who became known as the Buddha (the sage, the teacher) - is an Non-Axiomatic religion. Non-Axiomatic, just as Modern Science, is a philosophy which had been termed religion. It is for the Living, those still very much alive and kicking. Being Non-Axiomatic, it is not based on "self-proclaimed Truths" such as a Universal Creator and Creation not supported by any modern scientific observation. It is for the Living, not for the Dead.

However, I am finding that most of my friends of my age-group are very much against the very mention of Death. I keep myself reminded of Death - the Maraṇānussati , with a pix from Maraṇānussati Kammatthana from Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高),
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWQ9-VaksmI 151005.

Why be content sucking your thumb?
Big Toe is the better one!
Inevitably the Hair Cut will surely come!

Out of my consideration for those who are afraid of Death I have replaced the Maraṇānussati pix with a sequential pix on what we have already gone through. We have all started out as Little Ones!  

In the meantime, go on dreaming of becoming a king,
Living on promises of Axiomatic religious teachers
Who themselves have died
Not to be found among the Living on this Earth!

UKT 151018: Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018
The religious text, Avesta is written in Cuneiform script.

UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmar, and Singapore. Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members. Daw Than Than has now completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun, to complete mine. I am now 81 (on 150319).


Section 1 : Human voice and languages

Burmese-Myanmar speech has 5 nasals: English-Latin has only two, /n/ & /m/.
The paucity of nasals in English is just one of the obstacles of transcription from Burmese to English.

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?

English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm - update 090125
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
  See also http://www.cambridge.org/ 150405
  or downloaded pdf file in TIL SD-library - PRoach-Glossary.pdf (link chk 150926)
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 150731
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm
Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
  (based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.)


Section 2: Second Language (L2) Acquisition

UKT 141030: By L2 is meant a language acquired by a human being well passed puberty when that person has full knowledge of the Mother Tongue, aka First Language (L1). L1 is also known as Home Language.

The second most important prerequisite for language teachers and students.
This section is a collection of works on applied linguistics from the point of view of Burmese speaking Myanmars aka Bur-Myan speakers. These speakers will be found both inside and outside Myanmarpré.

ENGLISH for Myanmar - the medium of teaching - E4M-indx.htm

this is a long lost section lost for 10yrs or more.

  - lang-mean-indx.htm
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 140430
  Language problem of primitive Buddhism
, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 – 2009)
  - lang-probl.htm (link chk 150925)
  and others such as ¤ Mahabharata, ¤ Bhagavagītā, ¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā
  ¤ Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm

LINGUISTICS - indx-linguistics.htm
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics.


Section 3 : Myanmar languages

¤ Romabama: introduction - RBM-intro-indx.htm - update 150430
  - the medium of communication and teaching on the Internet
¤ Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used) - RBM-typewrit-indx.htm
¤ Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
 in TIL SD-Library - RCTemple-translit-Bur<Ô> (link chk 151007)
I will have to go over this carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.

¤ Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm - update 151031
Note 150920: There is some confusion in my work on Mon-Myan because I am still learning the language.

¤ Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script -
will include: 
- Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography; Part 2. Accidence and syntax 
  Note: I will have to go over Lonsdale's work thoroughly
  because it has not been updated for a long time. -- UKT 121212
- Burmese for Foreign Friends - B4FF1-indx.htm
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files
- MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan) - BG-MLC-indx.htm
   Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
   Note: In each folder, there are two files: e.g. BG-MLC1-1.htm (Engl) & BGo1-1.htm (Bur)
- MLC Burmese Orthography 1st ed 1986 (in Bur-Myan) - BO-MLC-indx.htm
   Many words present in MLC Burmese Orthography are missing in MLC MED2006,
   e.g. {tän-hkyu} 'pole for picking fruit from top branches.
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD.htm
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627.
   My older ref. was UTM-PDD. Under consideration.

MYANMAR : a collection of papers now split into the following five
¤ Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm
¤ General -- myn-indx.htm
¤ Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm
¤ Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305
¤ Myanmarpré before the British incursion
  The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
   • Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
   • Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
   • As important as J. Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert White (Civil Service - Lt. Governor ((1905–1910) )). His account based on 32 years (1878–1910) of service in Burma  A Civil Servant in Burma, 1913, from 
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43075/43075-h/43075-h.htm 140530
has been downloaded and is in TIL library html<Ô>.
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Thirkell_White 140530

¤ Romabama collection - RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm
The links within the above group still need cleaning up. -- 121202
This collection of works was originally created 070724 in London, Ontario, to help me change Romabama from a transliteration to transcription. I am confident that Romabama has become a reliable transcription since 1200 Dec. This folder used to contain many files now spread out in my works. 


Section 4 : Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries & grammars

• BEPS Pali-English dictionary (in akshara-order) -- PED-indx.htm 
UKT 140209: Burmese and Pali (and to some extent Sanskrit) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {té:Boän-mha.}, a favorite song of my father U Tun Pe :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209
   Since Theravada Buddhism in particular, and all Buddhist faiths including Mahayana in general, rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan word {nga} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the above song and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.
   Ancient peoples in the Indian subcontinent extending into South-East Asia - including Ancient Pyus in the mainland of Myanmarpré - had been worshippers of Mother-Goddesses during the Brass Age. (Note: Brass is an alloy of Zinc and Copper. It is softer than Bronze, the alloy of Tin and Copper, and is not suitable for making weapons of war. It was treated as a Metal of Peace by Ancient Jews, and used in the construction of articles and altars of worship.)


Pali Dictionaries

¤ Buddhist Myanmar Burmese Index (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm (update ?)
   in honour of the Deer Park where Gaudama Buddha declared his Non-Axiomatic
   Scientific Buddhist Religion comprising of the First Four Principles, and
   Annata Principle - by Seindamani U Chit Maung.
   The original printed index presented "teachings" {ta.ra:} in groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.
   However TIL will present only some from groups of 2, 3, 4, and 5.
¤ U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
   The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
  (to be checked with A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007

Pali Grammars

¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano ({kic~sæÑ:} in Bur-Myan),
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm - update 150630
  - (on line) http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL SD-Library
  - Mason-Kicsi<Ô> (link chk 151022) / - PDF (link chk151022)
  - Kicsi-PEG-German<Ô>  (German version link chk 151022)
  - Mazard's Version of Mason's Pali Grammar, by Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影), first distribution in 2015
  downloaded - PaliGrammar-Mason-Mazard.pdf
  Rev. Mason quoting Gaudama Buddha, "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to
   amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

¤ Practical grammar of the Pali language, by Charles Duroiselle, 1915, 3rd. ed 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., www.buddhanet.net .
or downloaded pdf file - Duroisell-PDF (link chk 150629)

Sanskrit Dictionaries

¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, TIL versions in 1+3 parts, and by 384 pages of the original printed ink-on-paper book
- MC-indx.htm - update 150930
The TOC is based on Abugida-Akshara order where the syllable (onset-nucleus-coda) is the fundamental unit. It is the major Sanskrit Dictionary on this website, and is augmented with entries from
F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary,
- BHS-indx.htm (link chk 150930)
And also from Pali sources such as
- R.C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) 1874,
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) . 

¤ Vaman Shivaram Apte  (1858-1892),. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary,
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.0:0.apte 130222 -- under consideration
¤ H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL library) -- for future work
¤ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
¤ TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1_3TnyHmBE 140821
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary ,
  1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm - update 140630
   vol. 2 online, http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/orgpage2.html?page=1 140319
    (I've shortened some words in above, the next link will take to another format which I am not using)
    -  http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/index1.html 131115
¤ Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.
¤ Structure of Indic scripts in Unicode-4 , included under BHS vol. 1 - indic-indx.htm
¤ Pal-Lat, on PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com pdf version
¤ Reverse Sanskrit Dictionary : Rückläufiges Sanskrit-Wörterbuch
to search for Sanskrit words ending with a certain word or ending
-- http://www.sanskritweb.net/sansdocs/reverse1.pdf 1211223
A downloaded copy of this dictionary is in TIL library on SDcard: 

Sanskrit Grammars :

¤  http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/ 130517
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/wikner-rm.pdf 130517 (suspended work)
¤ learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 130911


Section 5 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from
Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hsé:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size. I am splitting it into the following:

Para-Medicine -- MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm - update 141130
     A compilation by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
  ¤ Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance -- MP-LSR-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ Medicinal Plants of Myanmar - MP-KS-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngwé -
  ¤ Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science) - MP-VR-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Parāśara (3100 BCE?)
  ¤ Plant Taxonomy -- MP-taxon-indx.htm - update 141130
     by George H. M. Lawrence, Cornell University, 1951.


Section 6: Offline Publications

The following with sound tracks on DVD are available at cost. Buy one and reproduce as many as you want.
Contact persons in Yangon:
1. U Han Tun
2. Daw Khin Wutyi
3. Daw Thuzar Myint

1. Sounds of Buddhism
Marananosati chant by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero
• The Eleven Paritta chants by Mingun Sayadaw
Paritta & other related chants by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero and other Non-Burmese monks
Téboan'mar - a traditional Bur-Myan religious song

2. Sounds of English
A teaching programme with sound tracks for Bur-Myan speakers.


UKT 150624: Mainland of Myanmarpré at one time was populated by Tib-Myan speakers - the Pyus - closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. At one time the people had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Déva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for them. There are a number of Buddhist pagodas in which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. There are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats. They are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. They are probably the descendants of the ancient Védic Iþi (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Iþi" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra.þé.}. A Rishi to a Hindu is quite different from a Burmese-Buddhist Rishi. A Hindu-Rishi has a family and sing songs, whereas a Buddhist-Rishi is celibate - the difference can be seen in the case of Narada Rishi. In Hinduism, he is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu. To the Buddhist he was a Buddha-to-be and his story in the Ten Major Birth stories.


• Outside Myanmarpré, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpré, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. See below:

Click to see:
• 2015 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
• 2016 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with §§.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:


Immediate Family

U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
• Founder of TIL
• Retired Professor of Chemistry
• Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
• Co-founder of TIL
• Retired Instructor in Chemistry
• Painter
• Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
• National Research Council Canada
• Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
• Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
• Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada


Extended Family & Friends

U Khin Maung Latt
• Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
• Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
• Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface
  Electra Triumphs
  - Electra-triumphs.htm (link chk 141031)
  Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda
Facets_at_Shwedagon.htm (link chk 141031)

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2015-10-23 06:14 PM -0400
jtun@bell.net - Canada home
tunzinni@gmail.com - Yangon office
jtun@sympatico.ca - no longer working

End of TIL file