Mon salutation<))
We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama,
whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest
scientific observations in the history of mankind.

Published: 2017-July

2017-07-21 12:57 PM -0400

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
A subsidiary of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
Contact persons at TIL Research centre, Yangon, MYANMAR:
- U Han Tun: off: 01-527388 , 09-7873-63629 , resid: 09-4210-98489
- Daw Khin Wutyi : 09-511-3477 
- U Zin Ko : 09-4450-70223

Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a Pali recitation of Mora Sutta Paritta Chant by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) from www.youtube.com - bk-cndl-Chinese<))
¤ Listen to Mora Sutta in Pal-Myan by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
(a noted monk of Theravada (Skt: Sthaviravada) school of Buddhism),
and Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 170702
quotes, Shutts, Brett (May 2014) in J. of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 6, 119:
"In Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha refers to the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:
   'aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukham.
Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is the Sāvitrī. [6] ' "
UKT 170702: Noting that the mantra is recited by the Brahmins to the rising Sun in the morning, "Sāvitrī" aka "sāvittī" can simply means the Sun - the source of Energy, not to any Hindu Creator-god. Similarly, as Mora Sutta is addressed to the rising Sun in the morning, and setting Sun in the evening, Buddhists can accept it. Because of this fact, I maintain "Gayatri Mantra" and "Mora Sutta" are equivalents.

For Theravada Buddhists, you may start your day
by taking the Five Precepts from the Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

URLMetrics 170426 : Tuninst is ranked 3,382,557 in the United States. 'index-TIL.'
3,247,149 Worldwide rank. The majority of visitors come from India. The domain is 13 years and 4 months old. On average 1.60 pages are viewed each, by the estimated 115 daily visitors.

This is not a website on religion: it is on the correspondence between four languages of BEPS. However, we will come across references to religions, such as Hinduism. For example, the ancient Mahabharata War, with its final 18day, Kuruksetra War battle will be studied not only for the Indian philosophy of Bhagava Gita, but also for ancient Indian military formations such as Garuda (or Heron) Vyuha formation. See my note on Garuda Vyuha. Please pay attention to the brackets used:
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myan script) using 3-number keystrokes: Alt529... Alt528: ◄...►
    Bur-Myan phonology is quite different from that of Mon. Romabama transcriptions are based on
  Bur-Myan not on Mon-Myan. Don't pronounce pure Mon-Myan words in Romabama transcriptions. However,
  you can get a fair pronunciation of Pali words included in Mon-Myan sentences.
- Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : «...» . Alt0171...A0187
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>

UKT to TIL-editor 1706025: Check the folders under Bk-cndl index.htm .
There seems to be a redundant folder named: TIL-DVD (61.6 KB). [¤ PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder - RhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MB«Ô» (link chk 170603)]. If it is redundant, delete it.


What is BEPS

BEPS is the acronym for BURMESE, ENGLISH, PALI, SANSKRIT  LANGUAGES or speeches in four scripts: Myanmar, IPA-Latin, Pali-Myan, and Devanagari.

Notice: The video and sound marks, <Ô> & <)) , in TIL files will help you to go through BEPS languages. The sign <)) will let you hear the sound whether you are on your own computer or on a TIL research computer. But the sign <Ô> will only let you see the video in TIL SD-Library (Secure Digital Library) when you are on a TIL research computer. As an example, watch downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- ACunningham-InscriptAsoka<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170311)
in which you will see a map of the extent of Magadha Empire ruled by King Asoka - the Great, where there are the inscriptions. It has now become my experience to see the links to TIL SD-Library fail many times, because of which I have now included a LIB (Library for the Book-Candle-Index). You'll be able to see the downloaded pdf - Cunningham-Asoka-inscrip«Ô» (link chk 170311)

The writing system (script) of King Asoka should be called Asokan (now erroneously dubbed Brahmi which has led many to believe that is the script of  Ponnar {poaN~Na:} - the language of Hinduism, the Atta religion. Emperor Asoka was Buddhist. Even before his conversion to Buddhism - the scientific philosophy based on the Anatta doctrine - he was never a Hindu. Anatta is the antithesis of Atta and the two can never be reconciled. Asoka was a Jain converted to Buddhism.

There are two major kinds of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'. The northern kind, the Vaishnavites or the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} believe in Vishnu-déva and his reincarnate Krishna. Their philosophy is embodied in Bhagava Gita preached by Krishna. They wrote in one kind of Brahmi - Asokan-Brahmi.

The second major kind of Poannar is the Shaivite {þi-wa. poaN~Na:} who believe in Shiva-déva as the Supreme God and Creator. They do not accept Bhagava Gita as the word of the Supreme God. According to Dr. Rajeev Verma in his Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism 2009, their equivalent of Bhagava Gita are to be found in Upanishads, particularly Svetashvatara. They wrote in a variant of Brahmi now accepted as Tamil-Asokan or Tamil-Brahmi.

The third kind, which may be considered to be related to the second kind is the Shakta who believe in the primeval Mother-goddess as the supreme God (no differentiation between male and female here) is Shakti - generally known as Shaktism.

Asokan script is a phonetic script and could transcribe many speeches of various linguistic groups of India: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) and Indo-European (IE). It predates the International Phonetic Alphabet by thousands of years. See: Indic languages
- indic-indx.htm - update 160331

UKT 170224: While looking up for Dravidian languages - Telugu (75 million speakers*), Tamil (70 million), Kannada (55 million), and Malayalam (38 million) - I came upon another variant of Asokan, dubbed Tamil-Brahmi which is not the same as Asokan-Brahmi. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil-Brahmi 170224
"Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language. ... Tamil Brahmi was not deciphered as a separate script until the mid-20th century. Until then it was assumed to have been Standard Brahmi writing in a Prakrit language. ..."
*See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages 170224

The IE speakers were concentrated in the the north-western areas of India into which they had entered from the highlands of Iran. They are the harbingers of Iron Age, and with their iron implements of war they overwhelmed the original indigenous Brass Age peoples.

The IE speakers worship male-gods, primarily Vishnu - the Vaishnavite-Hindus. The Tib-Burs worshipped mother-goddess. Their bronze-weapons could not stand the iron-weapons and were eventually turned into Shudras 'the slaves and servants' of the conquerors and denied learning the Vedas 'the body of knowledge' which had been their own.

The Aus-Asia speakers also worshipped another male-god, Shiva - the Shaivite-Hindus. At present I take them as inventors of instruments and forms of various arts such as singing and dancing. They can make use of both brass and iron.

Since there are bound to different indigenous ethnics who are mostly Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers and Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) speakers, and a few IE (Indo-European) speakers, they use different sets of vocal muscles to produce the vowel sounds, and their speeches would be radically different as in the case of Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan and Shan-Myan. The only commonality is the phonetic script between them. If we are to listen to Pali words (Theravada Buddhism) spoken by those who use the common Myanmar script, the script of our mother-land the Myanmarpré - our heritage, we can understand them to a large extent.
Remember: Myanmar script is the unifying force of our motherland .

Listen to how Mon-Myan speakers sing their vowels:
- row#1vow<))
- row #2vow<))

The oldest writing system found in the Indian subcontinent is that on Asoka inscriptions, primarily found throughout the Magadha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Its direct descendant, according to Rev. F. Mason, is the circularly rounded Myanmar script still used for writing Pali-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar akshara). See:
¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhín kic~sæÑ:} in Bur-Myan)  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867 - PEG-indx.htm - (link chk 160911) 
  - (on line) http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  See downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGram<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170311)
  - FMasonMazard-KissiPali<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170311)

If we were to go along with Rev. Mason's argument, then, what we are using in Myanmarpré is NOT "Pali" - an artificial language invented in Sri Lanka aka Ceylon centuries after the time of the Gautama Buddha, but the old "Magadhi" - the language used by the Gautama Buddha and the Buddhist Emperor Asoka. I therefore venture to write Mag-Myan (Magadhi speech in Myanmar script) whenever appropriate instead of Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script).

It is interesting to note that the circularly rounded forms in scripts are not only unique to Myanmarpré. They are also found in the country of Georgia. With the background knowledge that King Asoka's Buddhist missionaries went even to Rome in Europe, I suggest that among them might have been monks from the Kingdom of Tagaung of northern Myanmarpré. And the Myanmar script might have traveled with them to Central Asia. I base my conjecture on the presence of the circularly rounded script in Georgia, bordered by Russia in the north, and Turkey in the south. In the Georgian letters, there are definitely two from the Myanmar script:

თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), and ი (U10D8: vowel "In").
The name of the capital of Georgia - the country - is spelt the Bur-Myan თ {ta.}. Then the bombshell: why hadn't the Asokan Brahmi consonant, which has the shape of a bola 'the triangular cross' went along?
It suggests that Bur-Myan script is older than the Asokan Brahmi !

Another connection between Myanmarpré and central Asia, is the use of Metonic cycles - discovered by Babylonian astronomers before the Greeks - in Burmese calendar calculations. It is not found in India.

So far, (up to 170526), scholars in Myanmarpré including those from Myanmar Historical Commission and Myanmar Language Commission, have failed to address my above problems. I continue to search for an answer to them. A possible source is in Greco-Buddhism - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greco-Buddhism 170526
"... is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, ..." .

I contend that the area just south of the Himalayas extending into Tagaung in Northern Myanmarpré - must be treated as comprising the Magadha Mahajanapada 'the foothold of the Magadha culture'. Now I extend my contention as: Myanmar script must have been known to the Greeks, and in all areas which had been under the influence of the Greeks and Alexander the Great. 


The consonants

IE languages, English and Sanskrit, do not have words with r1c5 as onset. They have it only in the coda, and r1c5 is always {nga.} - the nasal. Pali under the influence of Sanskrit does not have words beginning with r1c5. However, after comparing Bur-Myan 3 registers (tones), and Mon-Myan 2 registers, and noting that the /g/ sound is absent in Pegu dialect of Mon-Myan, I have concluded that r1c5 should be represented in Romabama as {gna.} if it is in the onset of the syllable.

r1c5 in onset: {gna.}, {gna}, {gna:}
r1c5 in coda: {king} --> {kín}
Note the English word < king > /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) does not have the /g/ sound. It is pronounced exactly like Bur-Myan {kín}. Unable to get rid of the digraph for coda , I have to change the preceding vowel (the nuclear vowel of the syllable) to í . Note the dot of regular i to acute .

Both Burmese and Néwari (of Buddha's remaining "relatives" in Népal} being Tib-Bur have words with onset {gna.} - the non-nasal.

It is to be noted that the IPA, in spite of its usefulness for European Alphabet-Letter languages, such as English and French, has failed when applied to the Asokan derived Abugida-Akshara languages such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev because it has missed the consonants of columns c2, c4, and c5.

The following are my extensions for the IPA consonants for Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev.

The above inset has been prepared while going through A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. by A. A. Macdonell. See:
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p081.htm (link chk 170625)

The vowels & rhymes aka rimes

Caveat UKT 170411: I am still not satisfied with {AU} and {ou}, when we take note of IAST: ओ «o» औ «au». I may have to change the spelling after more study of Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan.

UKT 170610: Whenever, you look up for Burmese vowels, you'll come across the word "diphthong" which we don't have:
¤ monophthongs: a , ɛ , e , i, (ə) , u , o , ɔ ; and
¤ diphthongs: ai , ei, ou , au - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language 170610
I remember my father warning me - then a child - about diphthongs when he was teaching me English. Then on my first trip in the 1950s to the US, my fellow Burmese government-sponsored State Scholars and I, found about the diphthongs in many hilarious situations. Most of us were pronouncing - "wine" for "oil". None at the gas-station could understand us when we asked the attendant to "check the wine, please". Later most of us learned to say "check the engine wine, please" and point at the engine. Only then, were we understood!

Now, with BEPS, I could not afford to aim at the "correct" pronunciation. I have to be satisfied with what comes to me, e.g. in Skt-Dev, I came across the word गुणोत्कर्ष with 2 transcriptions:
- [ guna‿utkarsha ] by Macdonell,
- «guṇôtkarsha» by http://translate.enacademic.com/gunotkarsha/sa/en/ 170531
It suggests that [-a‿u-] --> [ -ô- ] , where to our ears ô sounds like au .

You can go online and listen to a series of spoken grammar lessons from: Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAbHLSL4kFs&list=PLZ83joYJYmWSFgcg-r0nOwnWPEqmvoaN4 151120
If you are at the TIL research station, watch and listen to the downloaded files in TIL libraries
- SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170531)
and listen to 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि «guṇita akshara» 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
  - Lesson109<Ô>- Lesson109<)) (link chk 170611)

Caveat: I may have to change my view as I progress with my study, keeping in mind the Buddha's message:

UKT 170126: "In Sanskrit (a dead language similar to Pali and Old Magadhi) pronunciation varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. ... In Maharashtra and Karnataka (Aus-Asi language family), the letter ऋ is pronounced 'Ru', whereas it is pronounced 'Ri' by speakers of Hindi (IE language family). The Hindi script is identical to the Sanskrit script." -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 170126

I need to clarify - at least for myself - the meaning of Lexeme {a.Daip~paaý-aim}, which belongs to the field of modern Psycholinguistics in which its precursor is "lemma". The process of change known as lexicalisation :

 Lemma (mental-thought) --> Lexeme (meaning-sound)

Its parallel to the ancients is Spota  स्फोट «sphoṭa» "bursting, opening, spurt' of Spota-Vada «sphoṭavāda» of Bhartṛhari (ca. 5th CE). This theory belongs to a branch of knowledge known as Vyakarana {bya-ka.ra.Na.} (see: ) relating to the problem of speech production - how the mind orders linguistics units into coherent discourse and meaning.
See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemma-psycholinguistics 161127
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spho%E1%B9%ADa 161127
- LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm (link chk 161127)
  > Bhartṛhari's Syntax, Meaning, Sphoṭa - spho-bartri-matilal.htm (link chk 161127)
  and > Sphoṭa theory of language : a philosophical analysis - spho-cwrd-indx.htm
  "• For early Buddhists (e.g., the Theravādins ) intuition is the highest source of knowledge.
  This intuition (prajñā) is defined as "knowledge of things as they are in themselves
  as distinguished from what they appear to us."
  • In general, the thrust of the Buddhist criticism of the Brahmanical viewpoint seems aimed
  more towards discrediting the unquestioning acceptance of a handed down tradition,
  rather than towards the rejection of śabda as having any possibility for truth bearing ".
- There many works explaining and analyzing Sphota by different authors.
  #1. A downloaded file by K K Mishra from his Bhartrihari's Theory of Spota,  p115-121
  of his Vol13art08, is in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
  - KKMishra-BhartrihaiSpota<Ô>  Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170603)
  - UnivHumanUnity-BhartrihariThSpota<Ô>  Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170303)
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan), by U Tun Myint - UTM-PDMD p207


Daniel Jones, (1881 – 1967), was the first Western phonetician to describe the vowels using a highly stylized quadrilateral. However, the vowel-space shows that the back vowels are so close to each other that, they all become mixed up in transcriptions in various languages.

Vowels are all voiced. However, since many of our words and syllables end in vowels, they have been mistaken for basic vowels even by the eminent phonetician and linguist Peter Ladefoged. He claims that Burmese has voiceless vowels, by citing basic nasals modified as {ha.hto:}.
See: http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/
vowels/chapter12/burmese.html 080322

Vowels are very tricky, transcriptions of the lower back vowels may have to be changed as I become more familiar with Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev pronunciations. The table presented above is tentative.

I am finding that rhymes aka rimes are as important as the basic vowels in BEPS. The paucity of nasals in English has compounded the problem when it comes to digraphs, particularly that of ŋ (velar) which is written in regular English as <ng>. To get around this problem, I have been trying to give both the nuclear vowel and coda as a combination. The following is my attempt which may have to be modified as my work progresses.

Romabama (Burmese speech in Latin script) is compatible with ASCII (American Standard Code for Info Interchange), and is suitable for writing emails & on the Internet. Myanmar fonts are not used, and individual words are sculpted according to a Lakkwak -- lakkwak.gif (link chk 160814). Keep in mind the color code: red, green, brown, and black as default. It will help you to pronounce the Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan words. However, Mon language belonging to a different linguistic group, the Austro-Asiatic, cannot be pronounced from Romabama. Secondly, being in need a Glossary of a one-to-one Burmese-to-English terms for my BEPS in Romabama, I have to define my own terms as given on the right. Please note that these terms are not approved by Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), and I may have to redefine and extend them whenever the need arise.


Building up words from consonants and vowels

 UKT 161005: Bur-Myan language has a very simple grammar. It can afford to be simple - without tense, gender, number and inflexion - because it uses a class of suffixes known as {wi.bût} to build up words. These suffixes are named "Nominalizers" by Andrew Simpson in his The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese,
-- BurMyan-indx.htm > Normalizer.htm (link chk 170309)

I still need to learn formal Bur-Myan grammar before I can proceed with this topic. With regard to Bur-Myan grammar, A. W. Lonsdale, in his Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis , Rangoon 1899, wrote:
¤ "The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves.
¤ "With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, ... not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, ... assimilate the grammatical principles of the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress."

I keep myself reminded of the fundamental concept of Theravada Buddhism - the Anatta Principle - the ever-changing world including what we deem as our own Self. Change Death is a natural phenomenon - not to be feared: live your Present Life as happily as you can, but expect Change at every turn. Theravada Buddhism - more precisely the first two sermons of Rishi Siddhartha Gautama (formerly the Crown Prince of the Sakka Republic of the Magadha Mahajanapada 'foot-hold of Magadhi speakers') who became known as the Buddha (the sage, the teacher) - is an Non-Axiomatic religion. Non-Axiomatic, just as Modern Science is. It is a philosophy which had been termed religion. It is for the Living, those still very much alive and kicking. Being Non-Axiomatic, it is not based on "self-proclaimed Truths" such as a Universal Creator and Creation not supported by any modern scientific observation. It is for the Living, not for the Dead. As a scientist, I neither affirm nor deny the existence of a former or a future life.

However, I am finding that most of my friends of my age-group are very much against the very mention of Death. I keep myself reminded of Death - the Maraṇānussati, with a pix from Maraṇānussati Kammatthana from Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高),
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWQ9-VaksmI 151005.

Why be content sucking your thumb?
Big Toe is the better one!
Inevitably the Hair Cut will surely come!

Out of my consideration for those who are afraid of Death I have replaced the Maraṇānussati pix with a sequential pix on what we have already gone through. We have all started out as Little Ones!  

In the meantime, go on dreaming of becoming a king,
Living on promises of Axiomatic religious teachers
Who themselves have died
Not to be found among the Living on this Earth!

UKT 151018: Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018
The religious text, Avesta is written in Cuneiform script.

UKT 160623, 170530: Now those who usually criticize me have come out against me. I have been asked to explain my views on Communications from After-the-Death state (Spiritualism) in particular about Planchette or Ouija-board
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planchette 160623
As a scientist of early 20th century, I consider the After-the-Death State as an open question. In Myanmarpré, the equivalent of Planchette is {hpya-laip nût} Ma Aung Phyu . Now, even the ever-enquiring physical scientist have come out against my early 20th century scientific notions: is it possible that After-the-Death state be a natural phenomenon like Quantum Entanglement. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 170530
"Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance -- instead, a quantum state must be described ... "
Maybe, it's time for me to lay to rest the 20th century scientist in me, and join Nataraj in his dance! Is it going to be
Tandavam or Nadanta ? Go on line and see what I mean.

  UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmarpré, and Singapore. Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members. Daw Than Than has completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun, to complete mine. I am now 83 (on 170319). My physical body is not important for me, but for those who would like to see my likeness, I am posting only a caricature of myself and my signature with which I sign my work.


Section 1 : Human voice and languages

Burmese-Myanmar speech has 5+1 nasals: English-Latin has only two, /n/ & /m/.
The paucity of nasals in English is just one of the obstacles of transcription from Burmese to English.

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're the husher Sha श /ʃ/, and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note: In addition to ŋ (velar), ɲ (palatal), ɳ (retroflex), Bur-Myan has {än} /ûn/ - a nasal without a definite POA, because of which I specify the shortage as 3+1.

English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm
  Remember hearing is more important than articulation. It is your ear that will teach
  you the correct or the nearest pronunciation. Even then what is important is the message
  - not the correct pronunciation. Gautama Buddha the Wise let his monks pass on
  his message according to how the local audience could understand:
. Follow the colour code for pronunciation.
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm - update 090125  
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
  See also http://www.cambridge.org/ 150405
English Phonetics and Phonology, Glossary (A Little Encyclopedia of Phonetics),
  by Peter Roach, 2009, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - PRoach-Glossary<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170309)
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 160930
  compared with MLC Bur-Myan grammar
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm - update 161231
Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
(based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.). I have come across a book on Bur-Myan Phonetics which I intend to go through some time later:
¤ {þûd~da.byu-ha kyûm:} - by Abbot of Taungdwingyi KhinGyiByaw (fl. 1084 BE). I have yet to look for works by those who preceded him: Abbot {kyau-aún-sän-hta:} and Shin Ok~kän-þa.ma-la}.


Section 2: Second Language (L2) Acquisition

UKT 141030: By L2 is meant a language acquired by a human being well passed puberty when that person has full knowledge of the Mother Tongue, aka First Language (L1). L1 is also known as Home Language.

ENGLISH for Myanmar - the medium of teaching - E4M-indx.htm - update 151130

Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 160131
English for Kindergarten and Grade 1: (CATE-Children) - by UKT
TriplePlay - CATE-TriPlay-indx.htm (not available on line) - update 160928
Learn to Speak English (CATE-LSE) - by UKT
Chapters  1 to 15 - CATE-LSE1-indx.htm (not available on line)
Chapters 16 to 30 - CATE-LSE2-indx.htm (not available on line)
Note: Burmese for Foreign Friends, a Computer Assisted Teaching of Burmese (CATB),
can be reached: - BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 160913)



Could the Rathé be the Rishis following the footsteps of the Ancient Vedic rishis? There are about 10 rishis acceptable to Gautama Buddha. In one of my numerous notes, one of which is on the Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism, based on the presentation of Ji Xianlin (former spelling Chi Hisen-lin) to Burma Research Soc., JBRS, XLIII, i, June 1960, I've written:
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm - update 151130, (link chk 170501)

UKT 170516: Vishvamitra {waiþ~þa mait~ta. ra.þé.}, and Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra.þé.} * are among the ancient Vedic rishis revered by Gautama Buddha. "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section the Buddha pays respect to these rishis by declaring that the Veda in its true form was became known declared to them (UKT: became due to the yogic practice - not by grace of any axiomatic god)  "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhâradvâjo, Vâsettho (Vashistha) Vâsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) " [15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [16]
[equivalents of Pali to Skt names by Maurice Walshe (2005) translation of Digha Nikaya - see note in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_(sage) 170618 ]

[I base my corrections to the fact that Rishi Siddhartha (before he attained Buddha-hood) was highly learned in these Yogic practices cumulating in starvation which he had practiced for six long years.]
* {waiþ~þa mait~ta. ra.þé.} - UHS PMD0925
  {Ba.gu. ra.þe.} - UHS PMD0720 .
** I cannot find Pal-Myan spelling of the name so far. Skt-Myan equivalent of the name is {wa.þi.S~HTa.} from link to Vâsettho in Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vashistha 151125.

UKT 170501: Of the lot, Bhagu aka Bhrigu rishi (a human) chastised all the three Trimurti, for failing in their duties to look after the humans on earth: Mahabrahma (with a curse that no one on earth would worship him), Vishnu-déva (with a kick in the chest) and Shiva-déva (with a curse that he be represented by Lingam the male sex-organ stuck in Yoni the female sex-organ) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhrigu 170501

UKT 170405: Who are the two females shown? I venture to say that they are the modern presentations of ancient religions - the Mother-Goddess religions of the copper to bronze ages of the Indian sub-continent extending into modern Myanmarpré. See my note: Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path in my work on
¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893,
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p075.htm (link chk 170405)
You should also look into: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh 170405


LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND TEACHING - lang-acqui-indx.htm - update 151231
- mainly based on H. D. Brown's, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed. Copyright 2000.
Though concerned with teaching of English to Bur-Myan speakers, this section is applicable for all languages of BEPS. 
The above link will take you to my smaller version which I have rewritten not to infringe on the author's copyright. Now more than 16 years have passed, and new editions have been published: my work which is based on the 4th. ed. for use by my fellow researchers ¤ ~~LAT4M-CD080807 > LibLAT4M > Brown_Princip4 >
- Brown4-indx<Ô> (link chk 170511)

UKT 170511: Bur-Myan, Engl-Lat, and Skt-Dev, the BEPS each needs some phonemes and new graphemes to be unified, because of which Romabama has to invent new graphemes. I hold that our old linguists had faced the problem in their days, and had adopted a method which I've name Grapheme-shape Hypothesis:
   e.g. in Skt-Dev : व /v/ + diagonal-line --> ब /b/ .
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htmp083.htm 

LANGUAGE AND MEANING  - lang-mean-indx.htm - update 151231

LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 151230
  Language problem of primitive Buddhism
, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 – 2009)
  - lang-probl.htm - update 151130 
   Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism - Buddh-sch-indx.htm - update 170311
  - by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis,
  The first schism of note in Myanmarpré occurred in 18th century known as {a.roän}-{a.tín} controversy in which the leader of {a.tín} who was a very learned monk and his close associates were disrobed.
  - Gita.htm - update 151130
  and others such as ¤ Mahabharata, ¤ Bhagavagītā, ¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā
  ¤ Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism

LANGUAGE AND SIGN - lang-sign.htm - update 151231
  I plan to include the Sign Language to presenting message of the Buddha
  to Hearing-Speaking challenged (Deaf-Mutes) eventually.

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm - update 151231

LINGUISTICS - indx-linguistics.htm - update 151231
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics.
See: Wikipedia definition of Linguistics 141224


Section 4 : Myanmar languages & culture

¤ Romabama: introduction - RBM-intro-indx.htm - prev.151231, - update 170630
- A short list of Newari phrases and words included.

¤ Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used)
- RBM-typewrit-indx.htm
¤ Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm - update 160531
¤ Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-translit-Bur<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312) 
I will have to go over this carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.

¤ Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm - update 160930
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence and syntax
¤ Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script *- BurMyan-indx.htm - update 160930
  includes the following:  
- The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, by Andrew Simpson,
  Prof. of Linguistics & East Asian Languages and Cultures, Univ. of Southern California.
- Burmese for Foreign Friends
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files
- MLC Burmese Orthography , MLC, 1st ed 1986, ed. U Tun Tint (in Bur-Myan)
   Precursor of MLC Myanmar English Dictionaries, 2006 - the standard edition used in my work
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627. My older ref. was UTM-PDD. 
- MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan)
  Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
- Thalun English-Myanmar Dictionary - Thalun-EMD2003-xxxx

¤ Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language
by J.M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874
- MV1874-indx (link chk 170311)
See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JMHaswell-PeguanGrammVocab<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
¤ Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries - NaiMgToe-MonMyan<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170623)
¤ Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170507)

Now listen to Mon-Myan consonants: [ for comparison: sound-clip of  a passage from BhagavaGita in Skt-Dev - bk-cndl-Gita18-2<)) ]
- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
  bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/
- bk-cndl-{Ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<))
  Concentrate on the last three consonants {ßa.}, {aa.}, {ßé}.
Now listen to examples of disyllabic words [caution - links may not work properly]:
Go vertical. lesson10-61-txt<)) 

Note 150920, 160817, 161022: To help transcription of English into Burmese, I have already introduced Mon-Myan, A'forward-throw {ou} into Basic BEPS vowels for English words such as <now> {nou} & <how> {hou}. Its opposite, A'back-throw {è}, is present in Bur-Myan, but absent in Eng-Lat, because of which the English <e> has created a mix-up of {é} & {è}. Another possible candidate to help in transcription is Mon-Myan A'thawéhtotin-chaungnin to be placed side-by-side with Bur-Myan {o} which is called A'loantin-chaungnin. The pronunciation of is similar to {o} - the only difference being the English front vowel <e> and English back vowel <o>. See
- MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all03.htm (link chk 161022).

¤ Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm - update 170731
  UKT 170712: The original natives of the of the region centered in the present-day Myanmarpré, had worshipped many Mother-goddesses, thousands of years before the time of Gautama Buddha (a Tib-Bur language speaker). The Buddha based his Buddhism, a non-axiomatic philosophy, on the impermanence of everything in nature. He based his observations based on logic (thus scientific in modern sense), on changes in seen entities like humans and animals, of ethnic groups, and even the physical topography of the land, and ideas such as customs and beliefs in axiomatic beings such as gods and devils. Thus the beliefs in Mother-goddesses changed and many forms of Buddhism came into being in Burma. Many ethnics from areas outside the region with their axiomatic beliefs, such as Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam, had come in. Even non-axiomatic beliefs such as Communism, and modern Science had come in. We have at present no way of studying the changes except through language. With the change in ethnicity of the speakers, the spoken languages have also changed. There were attempts to resist the changes in vowels and consonants in speeches by various means of writing down in symbols or glyphs for each individual human-speech which is based on syntax. Human-speech is different from animal-calls, because the latter is not based on syntax. The most successful system of recording speech in script is the Abugida-Akshara system. Outside the region, we find another successful system - the Alphabet-Letter system. Abugida-Akshara system (such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev) is based on phonetics, whereas the Alphabetic-Letter system (such as English, French, and modern European speeches) are non-phonetic. I'm trying to bring a sense out of the present mess through the study of only four speeches of BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali and Sanskrit) written in three scripts (Myanmar, IPA-Latin, International Pali, and Devanagari.). See Buddhism in Burma in LANGUAGE AND MEANING ,  based on the  Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States, in 5 volumes, by J G Scott, 1900
- lang-mean-indx.htm > Budd-Myan.htm (in preparation)


MYANMAR : a collection of papers now split into the following
¤ General -- myn-indx.htm
¤ Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm 
¤ Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305
¤ Myanmarpré before the British incursion
  The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
   • Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
   • Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
¤ Myanmarpré under the British
   Downloaded papers available to TIL researchers: links to TIL HD and SD libaries
   • Cigar-Girls, and Foresters of Burma, in Asiatic Journal Vol4, no3, NovApr1845, p230
----- (PDF) - AsiaticJ04-3<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
   • The Burman, his life and notions - by Shway Yoe
----- J. G. Scott (1851-1935) under penname of Shway Yoe (1882)
----- (PDF) - JGScott-ShwayYoeTheBurman<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
----- See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_George_Scott 170312
   • A Civil Servant in Burma - by Herbert White
----- As important as J. Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert White (Civil Service - Lt. Governor ((1905–1910) )).
----- His account based on 32 years (1878–1910) of service in Burma.
----- (nonPDF) - HTWhite-CivilServantBur<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
----- See: - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43075/43075-h/43075-h.htm 140530
----- See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Thirkell_White 140530
   • Highroads of Geography, in The Royal School Series
----- As school book primarily for British children: two chapters on Burma.
----- See TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF
----- - RoyalSchSeries-Geography<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
----- See: https://archive.org/details/highroadsofgeogr11218gut 170312


Section 5 : Pali grammars, and dictionaries,
the Old Magadhi - Buddha's mother-tongue

¤ Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (name later changed to U Pe Maung Tin), (ref: PMT-PaliDictxxxx) . Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312)
UKT 170602: I have the above book in ink-on-paper version in TIL library which I had intended to set in HTML. My staff and I had started the work. - PMT-indx.htm
We started the work on 2011Nov23, anniversary of our wedding in remembrance of my beloved wife Daw Than Than who passed away on 2004Dec05. The last update was on 2014May03. Halfway through I realized that this dictionary is only good for quick reference for which purpose the downloaded pdf copies are found to be adequate. I have therefore deleted what we have already done from the main online TIL folder.

The Old Magadhi - the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, heavily under the influence of Sanskrit, still survives mainly in Kathmandu valley in Nepal [ Lumbini लुम्बिनी «lumbinī » was Gautama Buddha's birthplace.]. The language known as Néwari is still spoken by the blood relatives of the Buddha. My interest is in the Néwari language neither politics nor religions. Néwari (short: New) was written in Asokan Brahmi script at one time, but now written in Devanagari script. It still retains its Tib-Bur characteristics which I identify by the more numerous presence of the aksharas, ख {hka.}, घ {Ga.}, and झ {Za.}. Note: I will use only Romabama transliteration, neither IAST nor IPA, to avoid unnecessary confusion.

Though the present official language of the country of Nepal is Nepali , there is confusion due to the presence of the former official language known as Nepalbhasa नेपाल भाष {né-pa-la. Ba-þa.}, as can be seen from the different spellings of the Kathmandu Valley (Gau: काठमाडौं उपत्यका, New: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathmandu_Valley 170704
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 160119

To avoid further confusion, I will use the word Gorkhali {gau} derived from the ethnic group whose kings had overran the area, as an alternate name for the present official language. I base my usage on:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorkha_Kingdom 170704

Since, Néwari (New) had been written in Asokan Brahmi it was probably the same as Pali-Myan. The Buddhist faith as well as the language, Néwari (Tib-Bur), were almost wiped out by the Shaivite-Hindus in Nepal. Note: The Vaishnavite-Hindus were more friendly towards Buddhism, because they take the Buddha to be one of the reincarnations of their administrator-god Vishnu-déva, one of the Timurti headed by: Mahabrahma (creator), Vishnu (administrator), and Shiva (police). Shaivite-Hindus were not friendly towards either Buddhists and Vaishnavites, because they take their god Shiva to be the Supreme God (creator, administrator, destroyer - all in one), and had viewed at one time the Buddhists and Vaishnavites as heretics. With this short background I will study the languages and cultures based on the following dictionaries.

Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Akshara order:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language
by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx )
  - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turn-NepalDict<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170805)
  To refer to this dictionary use: Turn-Nepxxxx
Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Alphabetical order:
Népali-English Dictionary
by Karl-Heinz Krämer, 2007.
  Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - KHKramer-NepalDict<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170506)

Newari-TibBur aka Nepal-Bhasa in Alphabetical order: 
English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary
(Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
  Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170506)
It is my conjecture that Newari (Tib-Bur) directly descended from Old Magadhi (Tib-Bur) - the mother tongue  of Gautama Buddha, and Pali-Myan (Tib-Bur) speech written in Myanmar script - probably the forerunner of Asokan Brahmi scrpt - are closely related. The most interfering language is Skt-Dev (IE), and through Skt-Dev I expect either to prove or disprove my conjecture. It is one of my main reasons why I am going through Macdonell's Sanskrit Dictionary. For the political background see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal_Bhasa_movement 170705

In both languages, Gorkhali and Newari, you will find words beginning with {gna.} ङ.
In Newari you will find <fish> न्या ; ङा - the same as in Bur-Myan.


UKT 140209: Burmese, Pali (mostly on Buddhism), Sanskrit (mostly on Astrology) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other two. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {té:Boän-mha.}, a favorite song of my father U Tun Pe :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209

Pali is an artificial language invented to serve the Theravada Buddhists who had taken a firm foothold in Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka or simply Lanka. It is derived from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha spoken in Magadha Mahajanapada now split up into India and Nepal) and Lankan speech.

It is my conjecture that Old Magadhi was known in northern Myanmarpré being brought in thousands of years ago by King Abhiraza probably a participant (and loser) in the Battle of Ten Kings दाशराज्ञ युद्ध - a war mentioned in the Rig Véda. The second time the language was brought in was by Buddha's own relatives. They were fleeing the wrath of Prince Vidudabha of Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi in the life time of Gautama Buddha.

Pali now spoken in Myanmarpré (Pal-Myan) is the Old Magadhi heavily influenced by Lankan Pali (Pal-Lanka) - the artificial language. Since the so-called International Pali is derived from Lankan Pali written in Latin script or to be exact in IAST, I am calling it Pal-Lat.


Since Buddhism rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan word {nga} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the song {té:Boän-mha.} and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.

Ancient peoples in the Indian subcontinent extending into South-East Asia - including Ancient Pyus in the mainland of Myanmarpré - had worshipped the Mother-Goddess(es) (Maa or Mèdaw) during the Brass Age. (Note: Brass, an alloy of Zinc and Copper, is softer than Bronze, the alloy of Tin and Copper. It is not suitable for making weapons of war. It was treated as a Metal of Peace by Ancient Jews, and used in the construction of articles and altars of worship.) .

It is accepted that in the distant past, IE speakers such as the those speaking Sanskrit started filtering into the areas of the Mother-Goddess (Maa or Mèdaw) worshippers. They brought with them weapons made of Iron and defeated those with Bronze weapons bringing the Bronze-age to an end. They brought with them male-gods and "made" the goddesses of the Bronze-age, consorts of their male-gods. The conquered were made to serve them and their male-kings and their priests as servants and slaves. Time-line in India: 1200 BC - 200 BC: About 1000 years before the Time of Gautama Buddha or Buddhist Era
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age 151110

UKT 160516, 170710: Mother-Goddesses (Maa or Mèdaw) need not be of the category of Déva-Dévi of the Hindu Pantheon. They are the anthropomorphic names for the native  country. They have no need for husbands nor sex. They are being "created" by the natives or worshippers even to this day. The most recent entity is Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India comparable to {a.mi. mrûn-ma}. As she is the mother to all peoples of the land including Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Islams, etc. (in alphabetical order), I hope no self-styled religionist authority would come forward and claimed that Bharat-Mata is the wife of his foremost god.

Now what is the Buddhist Era (shortened to BE, to be compared to CE the Gregorian calendar of the West)? See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_calendar 170427
"Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle. It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced."

To understand fully the Burmese Buddhist Era (used all over SEAsia thanks to Burmese Empire-builders like King Anawratha and King Bayinnaung who had influenced the whole area), you must know the Metonic cyle (of Greek astronomer Meton of Athens, ca. 5th century BC, who probably got it from the Babylonian astronomers)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170427

Burmese calendar-ists (Arigyis of northern Myanmarpré - the brethren of Tibetan monks. One of the latter invented an Abugida-Akshara language - the Phagspa script - for use by Chinese on behest of Kublai Khan). The Burmese probably based their astronomical calculations on the Babylonians rather than on the Indians.

How was the Metonic cycle introduced into northern Myanmarpré is of the same genre of the question of Myanmar თ {ta.} getting to Georgia:
თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), and ი (U10D8: vowel "In")
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27Phags-pa_script 170427

The difference between BE and CE to be 543 or 544 depending on the month of the Buddhist Era.

However, it is probable that the invading Sanskrit speakers adopted the more ancient ideas of the indigenous people and took up the study of the Vedas. I base my conjecture on the difference between Vedic language and Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Using the idea of "renunciation" to bring an end to "desire", they have given us the Bhagavad Gita.


Pali Dictionaries

¤ Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm - update 170531
   in honour of the Deer Park where Gaudama Buddha declared his Non-Axiomatic
   Scientific Buddhist Religion comprising of the First Four Principles, and
   Annata Principle - by Seindamani U Chit Maung.
   The original printed index presented "teachings" {ta.ra:} in groups of 1, 2, 3, etc.
   A helpful Wikipedia article for BMBI index is:
   - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology_of_the_Theravada_school 151102
   My edited version is in the BMBI folder: Thirty-One Planes of Existence - Thirty1-indx<Ô> (link chk 170508)
¤ In honour of my Christian friends, I hope to compile a similar index - BMCI-indx.htm.
   It will be based on the work of Rev. Adoniram Judson (1788-1850) work on translating
   the Christian Bible into Burmese, and its modern versions, which will be useful in my work,
   on inter-transcription (translation) of Bur-Myan into English-Latin. See also:
   - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoniram_Judson 160706
¤ The principal Pal-Myan dictionaries I use are:
  - U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
  - U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)
¤ U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
¤ The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170603)
¤ Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 161212
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, by T. W. RhysDavids, reprint 1952 
  - RhysDavids-PTSDict58MB<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170312) 
¤ PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder
  - RhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MB«Ô» (link chk 170313)
Note: The above is probably the PTS dictionary that U Pe Maung Tin has relied on. It should be compared with:
¤ A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.
¤ Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera (1899-1973)
  - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170410


Pali Grammars

¤ An Elementary Pali Grammar course (in English) - previous update: 070211
  - Ven. Narada Thera (1898-1983), online : www.buddhanet.net
  - downloaded 234pdf-pp file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: 
  - NaradaLanka-Pali<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170506)
I had been learning Pali grammar from the above: half way through I've temporarily stopped to learn Sanskrit.
  - NaradaLanka-indx.htm - update 160930

¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~sæÑ:}
   [alternate title: Kaccayana Vyakarana]
  - PEG-indx.htm - update 150630
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm-German<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  -  FMasonMazard-PalGramm<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)
Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha: "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano." 

¤ Practical Grammar of the Pali Language (in English)
  - Charles Duroiselle, 1906, 3rd ed 1915. Latest ed in 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Edu. Asc. Inc.
  - online www.buddhanet.net .
- downloaded file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF library
- CDuroiselle-PaliGramm<Ô> / bkp<Ô>  (link chk 170313)
¤ Pali Grammar (in Burmese) by James Gray, British Burma Press, 1918 is in TIL SD-Library.
  Unfortunately, the pdf version was not properly done, and it is not worth referring to.
¤ Pali Grammar by Rev. B. Clough, Wesleyan Press, Colombo, 1824. It is the oldest book I have
  so far. It is not suitable as a reference because the Pali words are in Lanka script which I could not read.

¤ Eastern Monachism by Rev. R. Spence Hardy, the Wesleyan missionary from Ceylon, 1860, is a well written book on Buddhism. Though a lengthy book, pp444 pdf pp464, Preface alone, is well worth reading. He opened his chapter 01: Gotama Budha : "About two thousand years before the thunders of Wycliffe [John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320  - 1384), - English reformer - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wycliffe 170313] were rolled against the mendicant orders of the west,
Gótama Budha commenced his career as a mendicant in the east, and established a religious system that has exercised a mightier influence upon the world than the doctrines of any other uninspired teacher, in any age or country. ..."
Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RSHardy-EasternMonachism<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)


Section 6 : Sanskrit grammars, and dictionaries

UKT 151114, 161103, 170313, 170423, 170601: I am learning Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari pronunciation from online sources, fully realizing that Sanskrit is a dead-language and the original pronunciation is lost. The speech that I could get online is that of Hindi-speakers of northern India (whose L1 is IE), and that of Tamil-speakers of southern India (whose L1 is Aus-Asi). Since, I do not have any choice, I have to listen to the Sanskrit-speech of both groups.

First, I listened to Sanskrit recitations of Bhagavad Gita. Next, to on-line teaching programs. With some knowledge of Sanskrit pronunciation, I am attempting to compare Sanskrit-Devanagari to Pali-Myanmar from the point of view of language. To acquire enough vocabulary, I am going thru A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A A Macdonell, comparing some to the Pal-Myan from Pali-Myan Dictionary by U Hoke Sein.

We have to note that Skt-Dev (and English-Latin are IE languages), has no Palatal plosive-stops. It has only Palatal affricates. On the opposite end Bur-Myan (is a Tib-Bur) has no lisping endings). To handle Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan and other similar languages, I have to include Dental fricative hisser {Sa.}/ {S} into Romabama. With this inclusion, we can see how our Thurathati Mèdaw (to us a Virgin) was taken over by Brahmana-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (Vaishnavites) and Siva-Poannars {þi-wa. poaN~Na:} (Shaivites), and turned into their goddess Maa Saraswati and married her to their male god - Mahabrahma.

After including the Dental lisping consonant, {Sa.} ष /{S} ष्, which is different from Palatal plosive-stop or -affricate, {sa.} च /{c} च् , we are able to  come up with a class of consonants such as: {Spa.}, {Sta.}, {Ska.} to include <sp>, <st>, <sk> to for use in transcription (different from transliteration) of Eng-Lat into Bur-Myan. Notice how I am avoiding the IPA and IAST transcriptions, because they are non-ASCII (i.e. not suitable for email and internet), and based on foreign-phonologies. Romabama - the back-bone of Bur-Myan has a unique phonology which is even different from Mon-Myan, a language of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic group).

Romabama is not Romanized-Burmese or Burglish.
For the present, just listen to a SND clip of recitation of Bhagava Gita (in Sanskrit-Dev) : bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))
Listen to the rhythm to help you to memorise the text:

श्रीभगवानुवाच «śrī-bhagavān uvāca» 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
काम्यानां «kāmyānāṁ» 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां «karmaṇāṁ» 'of activities'
न्यासं «nyāsaṁ» 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं «sannyāsaṁ» 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो «kavayaḥ» 'the learned' /
  विदु: «viduḥ» 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं «sarva» 'of all' «karma» 'activities' «phala» 'of results' «tyāgam» 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं «prāhuḥ» 'call' «tyāgam» 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: «vicakṣaṇāḥ» 'the experienced'

The above script, Bg18.2, is from a video clip. You can also get it, with translation and purport from: Bhativedanta VedaBase - https://www.vedabase.com/en/bg 170327

Listen carefully, such as to «bhagavān» which is clearly related to the word «bhagavā». The two words are clearly related to each other by having a common root and stem. [Remember: A root is the part of a word that cannot be changed, and when added to creates different forms of the word, e.g. <walk> from which we get <walks>, <walked>, and <walking>, and new words like <sidewalk>.] Such a change is found in both nouns and verbs which is utterly foreign to Bur-Myan. Dictionaries only give one form of the word, which means to understand inflexional languages, I must study the roots and stems. I have included Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885, (ref. as Whitxxxx) in my A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, given below . See  ¤ W. D. Whitney, Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, 1885. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
 - WDWhtney-RootsVerbForms<Ô>  Bkp<Ô> (link chk 160828)

See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 151112 
See also a cartoon clip in TIL SD-Library from Meghaduta मेघदूत «meghadūta» 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa in downloaded files in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Meghaduta-cartoon<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)

UKT 170417: Today, 170417, is Bur-Myan New Year day of 1379 BE. I was born in 1296 BE, and I'm now 83 years old. We have just ended the 4 days of Thin'gyan 'hair washing' which is commonly called 'Water Festival', marking the Sun's transit from the last the 12th Rasi of the Luni-solar calendar to the first Rasi. I celebrate the New Year day by giving the link to a series of spoken grammar lessons from: Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAbHLSL4kFs&list=PLZ83joYJYmWSFgcg-r0nOwnWPEqmvoaN4 151120
Watch and listen to downloaded files in TIL libraries
- SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170611)
and listen to 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि «guṇita akshara» 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
  - Lesson109<Ô> - Lesson109<)) (link chk 170611)


Sanskrit Dictionaries

My aim is to bring out the relationship between Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari), and Pal-Myan (Pali-Myanmar). The BHS-Lat (Buddhist-Hybrid-Sanskrit transliterated in Latin-script) is a useful bridge between the two. The dictionaries in use are:
¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, TIL expanded version based on complete 384 pages of the ink-on-paper book.
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, supplemented with entries from
¤ R. L. Turner, A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language :
- MC-indx.htm - update 170731
- BHS-vol01-indx.htm - update 160229
- FE-BHSD<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170702)
For comparing Pali to Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, for which I rely on
¤ W. D. Whitney, Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, 1885.
Sources in Skt-Dev on Northern Buddhism in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
¤ Indian Buddhism by A. K. Warder, 1970
 - AKWarder-IndianBuddhism<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170504)
¤ Aśvaghoṣa's Buddha Carita "Life of Buddha" by E. B. Cowell, 1894
 - EBCowell-BuddphaCarita<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170512)
Example: Book 01, p07, «Bhagavatprasūtiḥ» "The Birth of the Holy One" :
«mahībṛtāṁ mūrdhni kṛtābhiṣekaḥ śuddhodano nāma nṛpo 'rkabaṁdhuḥ | adhyāśayo vā sphuṭapudarīkaṁ purādhirājaṁ tadalaṁcakāra || 1.9
9. A king, by name Śuddhodana, of the kindred of the sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth monarchs, -- ruling over the city, adorned it, as a bee-inmate a full-blown lotus.

170301: After including BHS as a link from Skt-Dev side, and realizing its importance, I have decided to include a Pal-Latin dictionary as a link from the Pal-Myan side. Formerly, I had thought of U Pe Maung Tin's work, but I guessed Childer's dictionary would be a better choice because of his L1 being English - the linking language. All three authors, Macdonell, Edgerton, and Childers were native English speakers, and I expect they would appreciate both Sanskrit and Pali, the languages of the Indian sub-continent from the same language point of view. Moreover, all were Christians with Judeo-Christian backgrounds, and how they interpret the Indian words based on Védic derived religions would be similar if not the same. The ink-on-paper reprint is in TIL library at Yangon. For easy reference I have the downloaded pdf copies in TIL Research library: ¤ R. C. Childers, A Dictionary of Pali Language,
Link to both: better quality to TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:  
- RCChilders-PaliLangDictPt01<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313)
- RCChilders-PaliLangDict<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170313) 
( UKT note to TIL editor 170303: Open PDF page, PrtScn, Paint width 450 pix. See  p069.htm )

A drawback of Childer's dictionary is because of its TOC being in Alphabetical order when those of others are in Akshara order. If in difficulty, use U Pe Maung Tin's (formerly Maung Tin) dictionary:
¤ Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin, in TIL HD-PDF and SE-PDF libraries
(UPMT-SPED) - UPMT-PaliDict1920<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 170303)

The TOC of my work is in Abugida-Akshara order. Macdonell's is the major Sanskrit Dictionary on this website
Note: Downloaded BHS-vol02 dictionary-pdf file, each page in 2 columns from
- http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documents/BHS%20Dictionary_vol_II.pdf 161215
is in TIL HD-PDF-Library and as backup in SD-PDF-Library given above. Macdonell's dictionary and both vols of Edgerton in ink-on-paper format have been bought by me and stored in TIL Research library in Yangon. See also: Wikipedia
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_Hybrid_Sanskrit 170213

Wikipedia lists a number of prefixes, such as अति «ati»: |
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sanskrit_and_Persian_roots_in_Hindi 130912, 160515
And also from Pali sources such as
- main ref: U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) .
- occasional ref: R.C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) 1874,
¤ Vaman Shivaram Apte  (1858-1892),. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary,
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.0:0.apte 130222 -- under consideration
¤ H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL SD-library) -- for future work
¤ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
¤ TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   downloaded pdf file in TIL SD-Library - dictall-SktGlos<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160823)
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1_3TnyHmBE 140821
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary ,
  1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm - update 140630
   vol. 2 online, http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/orgpage2.html?page=1 140319
    (I've shortened some words in above, the next link will take to another format which I am not using)
    -  http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/index1.html 131115
¤ W. D. Whitney, Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, 1885. (Ref. as Whitney-roots )
   Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
   - WDWhtney-RootsVerbForms<Ô>  Bkp<Ô> (link chk 160828)
¤ Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.
¤ Reverse Sanskrit Dictionary : Rückläufiges Sanskrit-Wörterbuch
to search for Sanskrit words ending with a certain word or ending
-- http://www.sanskritweb.net/sansdocs/reverse1.pdf 1211223
A downloaded copy of this dictionary is in TIL SD-library: 
~~Lib-Skt-moved130907/Sanskrit/ReverseSktDict/ reverse1.pdf

Sanskrit Grammars :

¤  http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/ 130517
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/wikner-rm.pdf 130517 (suspended work)
¤ learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 130911


Section 7 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from
Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hsé:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word {pa.ra.hsé:} is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size.

UKT to TIL editor: 170308: Bk-cndl-indx.htm has 6 main folders: 1.MP-KS, 2.MP-LSR, 3.MP-PARA, 4.TAXON, 5.MP-VR, and MMPD, which alone is separated from the rest. Consequently, I have renamed it as 6.MP-MMPD.
Of the 6 folders, 2.MP-LSR and 6.MP-MMPD are very old folders and have nested folders.
TIL editor must be careful in sorting them out

2.MP-LSR has nestlings-child: Agri2000 & LSR, which themselves have nestling-grandchild.
  Agri2000 has: FAMILY; GENUS-SPECIES; r1c1ka, r1c2hka, r1c2nga, r2c1sa, r2c2hsa, ... , r7c4a'

6.MP-MMPD, the oldest main folder of the lot, also has nestlings which need to be checked
  and deleted if redundant.
They need to be realigned to get rid of the nesting.

I am splitting the above into the following:

•  Para-Medicine -- MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130 (link chk 170719)
¤ A Checklist of Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- Planning section, Agricultural Dept, Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000.
¤ A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar
- H.G. Hundley and U Chit Ko Ko, et.al. 
¤ Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- LèSeikShin 
¤ Medicinal Plants of Myanmar
- Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngwé -
¤ Plant Taxonomy
- George H. M. Lawrence
¤ MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index
- U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
¤ Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science)
- Parāśara (3100 BCE?)


UKT 150624: Mainland of Myanmarpré at one time was populated by Tib-Bur speakers - the Pyus - closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. At one time the people had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Déva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for them. There are a number of Buddhist pagodas in which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. There are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats. They are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. They are probably the descendants of the ancient Védic Iþi (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Iþi" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra.þé.}. A Rishi to a Hindu is quite different from a Burmese-Buddhist Rishi. A Hindu-Rishi has a family and sing songs, whereas a Buddhist-Rishi is celibate - the difference can be seen in the case of Narada Rishi. In Hinduism, he is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu. To the Buddhist he was a Buddha-to-be and his story is told in the Ten Major Birth stories.


• Outside Myanmarpré, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpré, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. If you are a Buddhist, you can uphold Sila {þi-la.} - at least the Five Precepts on traditional Sabbath days: Full-moon, New-moon, and the 8th day after.
- Five Precepts by a Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

The Bur-Myan Luni-solar calendar is quite unique, and is different from that of Indians, because of the Burmese use of Metonic cycle of 19 years (nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month, first discovered by Babylonian astromers long before the Greeks), although both the Indians and Burmese use calculations based on SuryaSiddhanta
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astronomy 170515
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya_Siddhanta 170428
Downloaded translation SuryaSiddhanta by E. Burgess, 1860 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EBurgess-SuryaSiddhata<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 170428)
See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 170428
"One key difference from Indian systems was that the Burmese system followed a 19-year intercalation schedule (Metonic cycle). It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced".
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170428
Named after Greek astronomer Meton of Athens (5th century BC):

Click to see:
• 2016 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
• 2017 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with §§.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:


Immediate Family

U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
• Founder and president of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
• Retired Professor of Chemistry
• Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
• Co-founder of TIL
• Retired Instructor in Chemistry
• Painter
• Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
• National Research Council Canada
• Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
• Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
• Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada


Extended Family & Friends

U Khin Maung Latt
• Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
• Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
• Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface
  Electra Triumphs
  - Electra-triumphs.htm (link chk 141031)
  Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda
Facets_at_Shwedagon.htm (link chk 141031)

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2017-07-21 12:57 PM -0400
jtun@bell.net - Canada home
tunzinni@gmail.com - Yangon office
jtun@sympatico.ca - no longer working

End of TIL file