Update: 2006-08-10 07:43 AM -0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Euphorbiaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page:

Family: Euphorbiaceae 10 entries
• Baccaurea sapida  • {ka.na.so:}
• Croton oblongifolius  • {thak-ring:-kri:}
• Croton tiglium  • {ka.na.hko}  
• Emblica officinalis
• {hsi:hpru} ; {thhya:hpru}
• Euphorbia hirta •  {kywθ:kyaung:ming-sι:}
• Jatropha curcas • {krak-hsu (siΡ:ro:)}
• Jatropha multifida • {sι:ma.hkam:}
• Mallotus philippinensis • {tau:thi-ting:}
• Phyllanthus emblica  • {hsi:hpru} ; {sha:hpru}
• Ricinus communis  • {krak-hsu}
• Croton spp.
• Emblica spp.
• Phyllanthus spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
TIL-DB Indices: Akshara | Alphabet-Botanical | Alphabet-Family
Index of Collected papers
Contents of this page

Baccaurea sapida

syn. B. ramiflor ; B. cauliflora ; B. wrayi

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0033:  {ka.na.so:}
• FAO 77: kanazo
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein: NL in vol. 1. Listed as  {Boan°za-thi:} in 2-385
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries:
{ka.na.so:} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict 003
{ka.na.so:} - kind of tree bearing edible fruits in bunches, Baccaurea sapida  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 003
UKT: TravPo-M-Dict did not list {Boan°za-thi:} or its modern equivalent {boan°za-thi:}.

Internet links:
-- www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/004/ab777e/ab777e04.htm
www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/b/bu/burmese_grape.htm

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 :  Burmese grape
• FAO 77: kanazo
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-385: Burmese grape
• UHM : NL

Picture :
• Leader from: http://coombs.anu.edu.au/~vern/fletcher/tree.html
This tree is Baccaurea ramiflora showing a good example of cauliflory (fruit growing directly off the main trunk). from Kon Kai Kinh Reserve, Gia Lai Province. © Fletcher and Baylis, 1995
• Photo: rruits --  www.skn.ac.th/skl/project/gar76/o11.gif

 

Plant identification characters :

• The tree can grow up to 25 m tall. The leaf is simple, alternately arranged, with petiole. It is ovate to ovate-lanceolate in shape and 10-20 Χ 4-9 cm in size. The petiole is 1-8 cm long with lanceolated and fimbriated stipules. Tomentose inflorescences appear on branches and on the trunk. The male racemes are 3-8 cm long; flowers are fascicled on very short rachises with 4-5 sepals, and 4-8 stamens. The female racemes are 14 cm long and are borne lower on the trunk. Female flowers are solitary, with 4-5 sepals, 3-locular ovary and 2-lobed stigmas. The fruits are glabrous and 2.5-3.0 cm in diameter. The fruits can be of various colours from yellowish, pinkish to bright red (Figure 1). In Thailand the fruits are harvested in June-July. -- www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/004/ab777e/ab777e04.htm

• Found all over Asia, most commonly cultivated in India and Malaysia. Slow growing. Grows in humid evergreen forest, and disturbed margins, near streams, on wide range of soils, such as sandstone and limestone bedrock.
   Rami/cauliflorous evergreen tree to 25 m, with spreading crown, DBH to 50 cm, with thin bark. Leaves, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 10-20 cm by 4-9 cm, young leaves reddish, brown pubescent. The petiole is 1-8 cm long with lanceolated and fimbriated stipules. Inflorescence on old branches or on trunk, red-pink tomentose; male racemes 3-8 cm long, pale yellow; female racemes 14 cm long and born lower on the trunk, yellow, fragrant. Fruit, ovoid, yellowish, pinkish to bright red or purple, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter, glabrous, with 2-4 large purple-red seed, with white aril. -- www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/b/bu/burmese_grape.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• This fruit tree belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, the same as rambai and lang-khae. It is native to the Southeast Asian region and found growing wild as well as under cultivation in Nepal, India, Myanmar, South China, Indo-China, Thailand, the Andaman Islands, and Peninsular Malaysia. -- www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/004/ab777e/ab777e04.htm

 

Part used and uses :

• B. rammiflora Lour. (Mafai in Thai) fruits are used as a refreshing nibble or as table fruit. As with other related fruits in this genus, to consume the fruit one is advised to break the fruit open with the fingers and/or peel the skin. The pulp is then eaten directly and usually the seeds are also swallowed. Mafai is regarded as a minor fruit in Thailand. It has little chance of being developed to the commercial level. At present, it is cultivated in the home garden and intercropped with other tropical fruits like durian, rambutan, and mango. Unless there is more market demand for this fruit, little attention on research and development in production technology of mafai will be seen. -- www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/004/ab777e/ab777e04.htm
• Fruits are sweet to sour, also used in stews or to make wine. Eating to many fruit gives an upset stomach. Fruits also medicinally used for skin diseases. Bark, root and wood is also medicinal. www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/b/bu/burmese_grape.htm

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use) :

 

Constituents :

Contents of this page

Croton oblongifolius

Family : Euphorbiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 59-1579 : {thak-ring:-kri:}
• Chklist: Thetyin-gyi
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 093 :  Thetyin-gyi
• Nagathein 3-436: {thak-ring:-kri:} 
• UHM 18: Thet-yin-gyi

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries:
{thak-ring:kri:} -- -- TravPo-M-Dict 331
{thak-ring:kri:} - n. small tree the root, bark, leaves and seeds of which are used medicinally, Croton oblongifolius.-- Myan-Engl-Dict 509

Chklist data:
• Croton oblongifolius Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Thetyin-gyi

Hindi :
Sanskrit

 

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 59-1579 : NG}
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 093 :  not given
• Nagathein 3-436: not given
• UHM : not given

 

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 3-436
• Photos: left - habit with flowers, right --  fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A middle sized tree, deciduous; bark brownish, branches lepidote while young. Leaves alternate, crowded towards the ends of the branchlets, simple; stipules deciduous; petioles cylindrical, lepidote; laminae elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, the bases acute or obtuse, the margins serrate, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrescent, the upper dark green. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, the cymules fascicled at the axils of minute bracts, monoecious, the staminate flowers at the upper portion, more numerous than the pistillates, the pistillates at the lower; peduncles erect, lepidote; bracts lanceolate to ovat. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, lepidote, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, ovate, villous within, glabrous without, pale yellowish green. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 12, inserted on a villous receptacle, the filaments long, slender, inflexed in bud, more hairy at the bases, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, adnate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the lobes broadly ellitptic, lepidote, persistent. Corolla obsolete. Androecium nil. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, glabrous, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule one in each locule, the styles 3, the stigmas 2-fid for more than half the length. Fruit a regma of three, 2-valved 1-seeded cocci, globose, 3-lobed, depressed at the top, with persistent calyx, pale greenm lepidote; seeds 3, oblongoid, pale green, smooth, caruncle small, endosperm copious, fleshy. Flowering period: December--February. Fruiting period: June--April  -- KS-TMN

• A small deciduous tree, branches rather stout, leaves oblong, elliptic-oblong or ovate or lanceolate acute more or less repand, toothed or serrate penninerved, very pale green when dry, nerves 12-26 pairs, racemes often fascicled, erect, pedicels long or short -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Grows wild, more common in lower Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

• Tenasserim -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Root bark, leaves and seeds. Root bark -- Pneumonitis; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly; Arthritis. Bark --Oedema; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly;  Best antidote for snake bite; Pyexia. Seeds -- Diarrhoea; Oedema; Very useful for inflammations either taken orally or as an external application -- KS-TMN

• Roots, bark and seeds. Purgative, liver diseases, high blood pressure. -- UHM

 

Constituents :

• 1. Seeds contain a fatty oil similar to Cronton tiglium (19) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Croton tiglium

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 02-0030:  {ka.na.hko}
• Chklist: Kanakho
• LSR 007 : {ka.na.hko}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 094: Kana-kho
• Nagathein 1-045: {ka.na.hko}
• UHM 18: Kanako, Wet-tha-wa-raw (Mon)

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries:
{ka.na.hko} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict 003
{ka.na.hko} - purgative croton, Croton tiglium -- Myan-Engl-Dict 003

Chklist data:
• Croton tiglium L. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kanakho, Mai-hkang

Hindi: {ka.na.ka}
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 :  Purgative Croton
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : Purging Croton
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : Purging Croton
• Nagathein : Purging Croton
• UHM : Purging Croton

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein 1-045
• Photos: left -- habit, right -- habit with flowers & fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters:

• A small tree, evergreen; bark smooth, the younger stems stellate puberulent. Leaves alternate, simple; stipulate; petioles long; laminae ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins serrate, the tips acute to acuminate, 3-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal racemes, bearing unisexual flowers; monoecious; bracts subulate. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flower: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the tips bearded, glabrescent, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, linear, as long as the calyx., the margins pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 15, inserted on a villous receptacle, disc glands 5, small, opposite the calyx lobes, the anthers dithecous, adnate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flower: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the tips bearded, stellate puberulent, villous at the base within, persistent. Corolla absent; disc obscure, annular. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, stellately hispid, 3-lobed, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule one in each locule, the styles 3, the stigmas 2-fid. Fruit a schizocarp capsule of three 1 - seeded cocci, elliptic-oblongoid, 3-lobed, hispid; seeds oblongoid, 3-lobed, hispid; seeds oblongoid, obtusely trigonous, carunculate ,endosperm copious, fleshy. Flowering period: July - September. Fruiting period: August - November -- KS-TMN

• An small evergreen tree about 15-20 feet producing capsules similar to those of castor, but devoid of spines, leaves 2-4 in. yellowish when dry, rarely elliptic or oblong, sometimes glandular beneath, nerves 2-3 pairs above the basal long-petioled flowers in racemes, small, stamens 15-20 ovary stellately hispid -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Grows wild in Myanmar. Planted. -- KS-TMN

• Shan States, Pyinmana, wild sources in Upper Burma, moderately abundant in Tenasserim -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Seed: Ascites; Febrifuge; Leprosy; As an antidote for scorpion stings -- KS-TMN

• Seeds as drastic purgative -- UHM

 

Constituents:

• 1. The kernel contains about 50 % of fixed oil. 2. Very albuminous substance Croton, a mixture of croton albumin and croton globulin and comparable to Ricin. 3. Croton oil is composed of the glycerides of the following acids: stearic, palmatic, myristic, lauric, oleic, tiglic, acetic, butyric, formic and valeric. -- UHM

Contents of this page

Emblica officinalis  

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0502: {hsi:hpru} Emblica officinalis
• Chklist: Shabyu, Zibyu
• LSR 165: {hsi:hpru} Emblica officinalis , Phyllanthus emblica
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 098: Zibyu; Shabyu Phyllanthus emblica
• Nagathein 1-425: {hsi:hpru} Emblica myrobalan ,
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling:
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hsi:hpru} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 100
{hsi:hpru} - n. Eastern gooseberry; emblic myrobalan, Emblica officinalis.-- Myan-Engl-Dict 132
{thhya:hpru} - - TravPo-M-Dict 342
{thhya:hpru} - n. same as {hsi:hpru} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 527

Chklist data:
• Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Chay-ahkya, Htakyu, Ku-hlu, Mai-hkam, Set-kalwe, Set-thalwe, Shabyu, Tasha, Taya, Zibyu

Hindi :
Sanskrit
 

Indian Name : Indian Gooseberry (Amla)
Botanical Name :Emblica officinalis, Euphorbiaceae
Other Names : Indian Gooseberry, Emblic myrobalan, Amla, Amalaki
-- http://emblica-officinalis.101herbs.com/

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0502: Emblic Myrobala
• Chklist: NK
• LSR 165: Emblic Myrobalan; Indian Gooseberry
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 098: Emblic Myrobalan tree; Easten Goose-berry
• Nagathein 1-425: NL
• UHM : NL

 

Picture:
• Leader from http://toptropicals.com/pics/garden/05/10/0742.jpg
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters:

• A middle sized tree, deciduous; trunks crooked, branches slender, spreading, bark greenish gray, younger stems pubescent. Leaves alternate distichous, closely and symmetrically set along the branch lets, appear like the leaflets of a pinnate leaf, simple; stipules ovate, scarious; subsessile; laminae linear-oblong or narrowly linear, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary cymes, densely fasicled along the leaf bearing branchlets, often on the naked portion below the leaves; bracts fimbriate. Flowers ebracteolate, the staminates pedicellate, the pistillates subsessile, unisexual, monoecious, actinomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers numerous; calyx aposepalous, the sepals 6, oblong, obtuse, 2-seriate, greenish yellow. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 3, the staminal column short, central, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal; intrastaminal disc obsolete; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers few: calyx as in the staminates. Petals absent; intrastaminal disc a lacerate cup. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-locuted the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locule, pendulous, micropyle carunculate, the styles 3, basally connate, each 2-fid, the arms recurved, the stigmas 6, very large filiform branches. Fruit fleshy with 3-bony 2-valved cocci, indehiscent, depressed globose, obscurely 6-lobed; seeds 3-gonous, endosperm fleshy. Flowering period: November - December. Fruiting period: January - July. -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Common in mixed deciduous forests up to 4,000ft. Also cultivated.

 

Parts used and uses:

• Fruit-- Dysuria; Polyuria; Constipation; Dysentery; Hiccough. Seed: Blennorrhoea -- KS-TMN

• Emblica officinalis is effective in the treatment of amlapitta [peptic ulcer]and in dyspepsia. The fruits exhibit hypolipiadaemic and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits & rats. The fruit extract has antimutagenic activity on certain directly acting mutagens in some strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The extract of amla also has antimicrobial properties. Amlaki is an antioxidant with free radical scavenging properties which may be due to the presence of high levels of super oxide dismutase.
   Indian Gooseberry or Amla is used for all Pitta diseases, all obstinate urinary conditions, anemia, biliousness, bleeding, colitis, constipation, convalescence from fever, cough, diabetes, gastritis, gout, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, liver weakness, to relieve stress ,osteoporosis, palpitation, spleen weakness, tissue deficiency, vertigo rebuilds blood, bones, cells, and tissues. It increases red blood cell count and regulates blood sugar; heart tonic, cleanses mouth, stops gum bleeding, stops stomach and colon inflammation; cleanses intestines, strengthens teeth, aids eyesight, worms, acidity, eye and lung inflammations, ulcerations, G.I. disorders, painful urination, and internal bleeding. -- http://emblica-officinalis.101herbs.com/

UKT: The following is a bit of interesting information www.lagosforum.com/interv.php?NR=326 on an African plant belonging to the same genus as {zi:phru-thi:}
   "Phytochemical analysis of Phyllanthus amarus by pharmacognosists at the Pharmacognosy Laboratory College of Medicine University of Lagos (CMUL), Idi-Araba, shows that the whole plant is very bitter due to the presence of a group of substances such as alkaloid, sesquiterpene, essential oils, phyllanthine. These substances, according to the Senior Laboratory Attendant, Mr. Isaac Adeleke, are generally referred to as having bitter principle.
   "Ihesie told The Guardian that local clinical trials of Phyllanthus amarus in ElizKaf Herbal Home shows that it possesses a very active blood cleansing property, increases the elimination of waste from the blood and the body through the kidneys, lungs, skin and liver. The blood purifying effects of Phyllanthus amarus, he said is enhanced by mixing equal quantity of it with chickweed (Stellaria media). This mixture according to Ihesie, when used as an infusion could help those suffering from weight related arthritis or rheumatism.
   "Ihesie continued: "Phyllanthus is one bitter tonic herb, which helps in promoting the function of the liver. It is one of the herbs recommended in most liver disorder especially, in acute phases of viral hepatitis jaundice. Even after recovery from the disease, it is often taken orally for a long period in order to help prevent the degenerative changes that might later occur in the liver due to the viral infection. Such changes include the cirrhosis of the liver or the cancer of the liver. "

 

Constituents :

• Amla is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. Amla's traditional uses include as a laxative, eye wash, appetite stimulant, restorative tonic, and to treat anorexia, indigestion, diarrhea, anemia, and jaundice. Amla is becoming increasingly well known for its unusually high levels of Vitamin C, which is resistant to storage and heat damage due to cooking.
   Amla is highly nutritious and is an important dietary source of Vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration 3-fold and ascorbic acid concentration 160-fold compared to that of the apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apples. Glutamic acid, proline, aspartic acid, alanine, and lysine are 29.6%, 14.6%, 8.1%, 5.4% and 5.3% respectively of the total amino acids. The pulpy portion of fruit, dried and freed from the nuts contains: gallic acid 1.32%, tannin, sugar 36.10%; gum 13.75%; albumin 13.08%; crude cellulose 17.08%; mineral matter 4.12% and moisture 3.83%. Amla fruit ash contains chromium, 2.5 ppm; zinc 4 ppm; and copper, 3 ppm.
   Key Active Constituents: Emblicanin A&B, Puniglucanin, Pedunculagin, 2-keto-gluconolactone (Vitamin-C equivalents). Ellagic acid, Hexahydroxy-diphenic acid and conjugates.
-- http://emblica-officinalis.101herbs.com/

The following references are given by -- http://emblica-officinalis.101herbs.com/ in support of the material given above:
CAS, IP, Ayurveda book etc.
1. Chem Abstr, 1992 [116- 19982, 127273]; 1993 [119-103470]; 1989[110-73906];
    Vohora, Indian Drugs, [1989-26(10), 526]; Janjua, Hamdard, 1991 [34(2)-104];
    Yaqeenudin et. al.,  Pakist J Sci Ind Res, 1990 [33-268].
2. Roy, A.K. et. al., Int. J.of Pharmacog., 1991, v. 29(2), 117-126.
3. Mand, J.K. et. al., J. Res. Edu. in Ind.Med., 1991, v., 10(2), 1-7.
4. Ghosh, A. et. al., Int. J. of Pharmacog., 1993, v. 31(2), 116-120.
5. Mathur, R. et. al., J. of Ethnopharmacol., 1996, v., 50(2), 61-68.
6. Singh, B.N. and Sharma, P.V., J.Res. Ind. Med., 1971, 5, 223.
7. Ramaswamy, Minor Forest Products, Mysore, 1945,55;
    Damodaran & Nair,Biochem. J. 1936,30,1014;
    Giri,Indian J. med. Res., 1939, 27, 429; Mitra & Ghosh,Ann. biochem.1941, 1, 307; 
    Srinivasan, loc. cit.
8. Chawla et. al., 1982, Indian J. Med. Res. 76 (Suppl.), 95-98.

 

Euphorbia hirta 

syn. E. pilulifera

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 10-0249:  {kywθ:kyaung:ming-sι:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 093 : {kywθ:kyaung:ming-hsι:}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-214: {kywθ:kyaung:ming-hsι:}
• UHM 24: Kywe-chaung-myin-si, Kya-bahon

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : Not listed as such.
{kywθ:} - meaning "water buffaloe" -- TravPo-M-Dict 038
{this-sι:} - meaning "exudate from a plant" -- -- TravPo-M-Dict 334
UKT: since this plant exudes a "milky sap" (English name in Myanmar: "milk weed"), the appropriate spelling is {kywθ:kyaung:ming-sι:}.
- not listed under {kywθ:kyaung:} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 049

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 10-0249:  Milk weed; Australian Asthma weed
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 093 : Milk weed; Australian Asthma weed
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-214: not given
• UHM 24: not given

 

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein 1-215. The large variety is on the left, and the small variety is on the right.

 

Plant identification characters :

• Nagathein, free translation by UKT: A small annual usually found in rainy season in Myanmar. Hair on the plant.Height about 1 foot. Branches and shoots reddish in colour. Opposing leaves about 1 inch in length and pointed at tip. Fruits in the middle and resembles "corn" seeds. Exudes sap on breaking a branch.
  1. Two kinds of (large) plants: pointed leaves reddish in colour and round leaves greenish in color. In some parts of Myanmar known as {kra.ba.hoan°:}
  2. A small kind of plant: leaves reddish in colour, grows close to ground. Though known as {kywθ:kyaung:ming-sι:}

• An erect or ascending hispid annual herb, 1-2', leaves opposite, elliptic-oblong, obovate or oblong-lanceolate obliquely cordate, acute, serrate or serulate. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Widely distributed. A common weed occurring frequently on or beside roads and paths -- UHM

 

Part used and uses :

• Dried stems and leaves. Used as respiratory troubles, dysentery, colic and worms in children.-- UHM

 

Constituents :

•1. Gallic acid. 2. Querecetin. 3. Traces of an alkaloid. 4. An essential oil.(9)  5. l-Iinosital and an alkaloid xanthorhamnin isolated. (21) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Jatropha curcas

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 08-0193:  {krak-hsu-kri:} / {siΡ:ro: krak-hsu}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-167: () {krak-hsu (siΡ:ro: krak-hsu kri:)}  
• UHM 30: Si-yo-kyet-su

UKT: Nagathein on {krak-hsu}
    Jatropha curcas is {siΡ:ro: krak-hsu} or {krak-hsu  (siΡ:ro:)} (which literally means "the {krak-hsu} that grows along hedges". It is to be differentiated from the "castor oil plant" which is Ricinus communis of the same family Euphorbiaceae.
   Nagathein listed two kinds of {siΡ:ro: krak-hsu}: the large and the small. He identified the large kind as J. curcus, and the small kind as J. glandulifera . He also differentiated them by their Hindi names.
   Nagathein further listed two more kinds of {krak-hsu}: the large {krak-hsu (a.kri:)} and the small {krak-hsu (a.ngθύ)}. He identified both of them as R. communis but differentiated them by their Hindi names. He noted further that the large kind is the imported species, whereas the small kind is the native species.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{krak-hsu} -   TravPo-M-Dict 031
{krak-hsu} - n. castor oil plant, Ricinus communis -- Myan-Engl-Dict 041

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 08-0193:  not given
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein not given 
• UHM 30: Si-yo-kyet-su

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein: left (small kind), right (large kind)
• See J. curcus from: http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/shoyaku/photo/Phil/84Jat.jpg

 

Plant identification characters :

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:
The small variety of this kind grows wild anywhere, however, the preferred location is dry rocky ground. The approximate height is 4 to 12 feet. The leaves are red and are similar in shape {krak-hsu} leaves. The leaves produces a milky sap. The fruit has a 3-pointed cross-section, and is similar in shape to {ka.na.hko} (Croton tiglium , family: Euphorbiaceae). This variety is also known as {siρ:ro: krak-hsu-ka.lι:},  {ka.na.hko a.rein:}, {tau:ka.na.hko}, {Bau-za-keing:}, {na-ga.hsauk}.

The large variety of this kind is a small tree 10-15 feet high. The branches and the leaves are very green in colour. Leaves: 3-lobed. Fruit: round, about the size of large {kwam:thi:} (UKT: areca nut -- about 1 inch), in clusters of 4, 5, 6. Leaves and leafstalk on breaking off gives out a white thick sap. The seed within the fruit is similar in shape to the seed of {krar} (UKT: water-lily), and has a sweetish creamy taste, and is as strong a purgative as {ka.na.hko}. The root, the milky sap, and the seed are medicinally useful.

• A large or small evergreen tree, leaves 4-6" diam, lobes obtuse or acute, quite entire, petiole as long as the blade, flowers yellow, capsule 1-1 1/2 in., Poison. -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Yawnghwe, Shwe Nyaung, Hsi-Seng, Mongnai (Southern Shan State). -- UHM

Part used and uses:
• All parts are considered toxic but in particular the seeds. Contains a purgative oil and a phytotoxin or toxalbumin (curcin) similar to ricin in Ricinis. Curcin is found mainly in the seeds and also in the fruit and sap. Purgative oil - the seed yields 40% oil, known as hell oil,  pinheon oil, oleum infernale or oleum, ricini majoris, which  contains small amounts of an irritant curcanoleic acid, which is  related to ricinoleic acid and crotonoleic acid, the principle active ingredients of castor oil and croton oil respectively  (Joubert et al., 1984). Jatropha is an ornamental plant naturalised in many tropical areas.   The roots, stems, leaves seeds and fruits of the plant have been widely used in traditional folk medicine in many parts of West Africa.  The seeds of J. curcas have been used as a purgative, anthelmintic and abortifacient as  well as for treating ascites, gout, paralysis and skin diseases. The seed  oil of the plant has been used as an ingredient in the treatment of  rheumatic conditions, itch and parasitic skin diseases, and in the treatment of fever, jaundice and gonorrhoea, as a diuretic agent, and a mouth-wash.  The leaf has been used  as a haemostatic agent and the bark as a fish poison.  In certain African  countries people are accustomed to chewing these seeds when in need of a  laxative. J. curcas seeds have been found to be highly effective against Strongyloides papillosus infection in goats (Adam & Magzoub, in press).   It has also been suggested that J. curcas seeds could be a useful chemotherapeutic agent  provided that it is active at a non-lethal dose (Adam, 1974).  This may be because of it's reported antihelminthic activity. -- edited extract from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/plant/jcurc.htm. Used as powerful purgatives.

Constituents:
• 1. About 20 percent of a fixed oil. 2. Curcin, a substance comparable to ricin.- UHM

Contents of this page

Jatropha multifida

Family : Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 17-0440:  {sι:ma.hkan:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN 097: Hsay-makhan; Bein-hpo
• Nagathein 1-393: {sι:ma.hkan:}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{sι:ma.hkan:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 087
{sι:ma.hkan:} - n. coral plant, Jatropha multifida -- Myan-Engl-Dict 003

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 17-0440: coral bush
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : not given
• KS-TMN 097: Coral Plant; Coral-bush; French Physic Nut; Small Physic Nut
• Nagathein 1-393: not given
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein
• Photos: left - habit with flowers; right - habit. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A large shrub or a small tree; younger stems glabrous, sap milky. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules multifid stalks; petioles long, canaliculated; laminae orbicular, palmatisect, 3- to 5-lobed, incised into many narrow entire or lobulate segments, the bases rounded or cordate, the margins entire or glandular semulated, the tips caudate-acuminate, 5- to 10-costate, reticulate, glabrous, the upper surfaces green, the lower reddish green glaucous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary corymbose scorpioid cymes; peduncles long; bracts subulate, minute, green. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, monoecious, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers 8-12: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, companulate, the lobes ovate, petaloid, orange-red. Corolla synpetalous, connate only at the bases, the petals 5, obovate, cuneate, each base with a glandular disc, red or orange-red. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 10, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, erect, dorsifixed, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal; intrastaminal disc entire; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers 2-3: solitary, axillary, calyx and corolla as in the staminate flowers; intrastaminal disc urceolate. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule 1in each locule, pendulous, micropyle carunculate, the style short, the stigmas 3, each 2-fid. Fruit a septifragal capsule, globose, 3-lobed, splitting into three 2-valved, 1 -seeded crustaceous cocci,  dehiscing ventrally, green when young, yellow or pale black when mature; seeds 3, carunculate, pale black, endosperm fleshy. Flowering period: Throughout the year. Fruiting period: Throughout the year -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Planted. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

Leaf, fruit, seed, latex -- Haemorrhoids; Common cold; Ascites. Leaf -- Scabies. Seed -- Aphrodisiac; Abortifacient. Latex -- Common cold; Heals boils and pustules. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Mallotus philippinensis

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 27-0710: {tau:thi-ting:}
• FAO :
• Lθ-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN:
• Nagathein 3-404: {thi-ting: (tau:)}
• UHM 31: Taw-thi-din, Po-thi-din

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : (UKT: Listed a species named {thi-ting:} which bears red fruits.  The seeds provide a red dye. However, this species may or nay not be M. philippensis .)
{thi-ting:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 324
{thi-ting:} - n. annato; lipstick tree, Bixa orellana -- Myan-Engl-Dict 496

 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 27-0710: Kamala tree
• FAO :
• Lθ-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 3-404: not given
• UHM 31: Rottlera, Kameela, Glandulae, Rottlerae

 

Picture:
• Leader from: Kamala, drawing 175X220, http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/k/kamala01-s.jpg
• Photo: left Mallotus philippinensis  http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au/database/Mall_philippinensis.htm mp, right Mallotus philippinensis  http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/plantatlas/images.asp?plantID=1994#

 

Plant identification characters :

• A tree with alternate, ovate or oblong-ovate coriaceous evergreen leaves, racemes of staminate and pistillate flowers, and glandular-hairy 3 celled septifragally dehiscent capsules. -- UHM

• Kamala. U. S. 1890. Kamala. Glandulae Rottlerae.—The U. S. Pharmacopoeia, under the name of Rottlera, U. S., 1870, Kameela, formerly recognized the glands and hairs from the capsules of Mallotus philippinensis (Lamarck) Muell.-Arg. (Fam. Euphorbiaceae.) This tree grows in Abyssinia, Southern Arabia, Hindostan, the East India Islands, China, and Australia, reaching a height of from fifteen to twenty feet, and yielding a roundish, three-valved, three-locular capsule about the size of a small cherry, thickly covered with a red powder, which is collected in Hindostan by rolling the berries about in large baskets until the freed powder sifts through the open wicker-work. -- US Dispensatory, 1918: Kamala. Mallotus philippinensis. Rottlera. The Dispensatory of the United States of America.

 

Distribution of Myanmar:

• Central Range, Hsi-Seng (Southern Shan States.) -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

• The hairs obtained from the capsules. Used as taenifuge, anthelmintic to remove ascaris and thread worms, as a dye stuff. -- UHM

 

Constituents:

• 1. An active taenifuge principle called rottlerin. 2. A red resin. 3. A yellow resin. 4. Wax, tannin, colouring matter. (7) -- UHM

 

Contents of this page

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0502: {hsi:hpru} Emblica officinalis
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 165: {hsi:hpru} Emblica officinalis , Phyllanthus emblica
• KS-TMN 098: Zibyu; Shabyu Phyllanthus emblica
• Nagathein 1-425: {hsi:hpru} Emblica myrobalan ,
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling:
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
- - -- TravPo-M-Dict 100
-- -- TravPo-M-Dict 342
n. Eastern gooseberry; emblic myrobalan, Emblica officinalis.-- Myan-Engl-Dict 132

For more information, go to Emblica officinalis

Contents of this page

Ricinus communis

Family Euphorbiaceae

Listed as {krak-hsu-ro:ni} in Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database 2005.

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 08-0194:  {krak-hsu-ro:ni}
• FAO :
• Lθ-seik-shin 059: {krak-hsu kri:}
• KS-TMN 101: Kyet-su
• Nagathein 1-165: {krak-hsu (a.kri:} / {krak-hsu (a.ngθύ)}
• UHM : NL

UKT: See Nagathein on {krak-hsu}

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{krak-hsu}-   TravPo-M-Dict 031
{krak-hsu} - castor oil plant, Ricinus communis -- Myan-Engl-Dict 041

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 08-0194:  Castor oil plant
• Nagathein 1-165: Castor oil plant
     Nagathein 1-165: Castor oil plant
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 059: Castor oil plant
• KS-TMN 101: Castor-oil Plant; Palma Christi.
• UHM : NL

 

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein: large kind
• Photos: left - habit with flowers and fruits, right - flowers and fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters:

• Evergreen small trees or annual herbs; stems cylindrical, hollow, glabrous, the younger ones and the infloreseence axes red or green. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules intrapetiolor, linear; petioles long, red or green; laminae palmatipartite, 5-to 11-lobed, the lobes oblong to linear, the bases peltate, the margins dentate or serrate, the tips acauminate, 5-to 11-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, membranous, green or reddish-green. Inflorescences thyrsiform, terminal, the cymules 3- to 6-flowered; bracts ovate, persistent. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, monoecious, the staminates borne on the lower part of the peduncle, the pistillates on the upper part, apetalous, actinomorphic, hypogynous. Staminate flowers: Pedicels short. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, ovate, glabrous, Androecium polyadelphous, the bundles 1-6, stamens numerous, the filaments much branched, the anthers dithecous, cells distinct, globose, divergent, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Pedicels long. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, ovate, deciduous. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, usually 3-carpelled, cyncarpous, 3-loculed, 4-carpelled and 4-loculed rare, the placentation apical, the ovule one in each locule, pendulous, the styles 3, terminal, the stigmas bifid, plumose. Fruit a dehiscent regma, spiny, globosely  oblongoid, green, red or reddish-green, dehiscing into 3, 2-valued coccae when ripe, the cocci 1-seeded; seeds ovoid, oblongoid or cuboid, testa crustaceous, variously coloured, grey, brown, black, reddish brown or deep chocolate brown, the markings or mottlings various, white or brown or wholly black and non mottled, endosperm oily and fleshy. Flowering and fruiting periods: October-May -- KS-TMN

 

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:
A large, evergreen shrub. Leaves: palmate about a foot wide. Both male and female flowers on the same plant. Fruits: 3-lobed, 1/2 to 1 inch. Covered with soft spines.

 

The plants are termed "white" (green) or "red" depending on the colour of leaves. Depending on the size of the plants, the plants can also be divided into the "large" and the "small" kind.

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Commonly grows wild, naturalized or cultivated in Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Seed -- Promotes spermatogenesis; Cathartic; Dysentery; Ascites; Colic; Hyperlipaemia; Hepatitis; Carminative; Cough; As an expectorant; Asthma; Backache; Head-ache; Orchitis; Haemorrhoids; Gouty arthritis; Leprosy; Pyrexia -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:
Highly indigestible. Promotes production of semen. Promotes internal heat. Purgative. Useful for "wind" and "phlegm" diseases. Used in colic, fever, cough, dysentery, backache, headache, leprosy, hyperlipemia, orchitis, etc.

The large and small variety are equally effective in medicine. However, the practitioners of the past preferred to use the small variety. Note: The large variety is the imported species, whereas the small variey is native.

• Considered anodyne, antidote, aperient, bactericide, cathartic, cyanogenetic, discutient, emetic, emollient, expectorant, insecticide, lactagogue, larvicidal, laxative, POISON, purgative, tonic, and vermifuge, castor or castor oil is a dangerous ingredient in folk remedies for abscess, anasarca, arthritis, asthma, boils, burns, cancer, carbuncles, catarrh, chancre, cholera, cold, colic, convulsions, corns, craw-craw, deafness, delirium, dermatitis, dogbite, dropsy, epilepsy, erysipelas, fever, flu, gout, guineaworm, headache, inflammation, moles, myalgia, nerves, osteomyelitis, palsy, parturition, prolapse, puerperium, rash, rheumatism, scald, scrofula, seborrhea, skin, sores, stomachache, strabismus, swellings, toothaches, tuberculosis, tumors, urethritis, uteritis, venereal disease, warts, whitlows, and wounds. The oil and seed have been used as folk remedies for: warts, cold tumors, indurations of the abdominal organs, whitlows, lacteal tumors, indurations of the mammary gland, corns, and moles, etc. Castor-oil is a cathartic and has labor-inducing properties. Ricinoleic acid has served in contraceptive jellies. Ricin, a toxic protein in the seeds, acts as a blood coagulant. Oil used externally for dermatitis and eye ailments. Seeds, which yield 45–50% of a fixed oil, also contain the alkaloids ricinine and toxalbumin ricin, and considered purgative, counter-irritant in scorpion-sting and fish poison. Leaves applied to the head to relieve headache and as a poultice for boils. (Duke and Wain, 1981). -- http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Ricinus_communis.html#Uses

 

Constituents :

• Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain on a zero-moisture basis, 24.8 g protein, 5.4 g fat, 57.4 g total carbohydrate, 10.3 g fiber, 12.4 g ash, 2,670 mg Ca, and 460 mg P. The seed contains 5.1–5.6% moisture, 12.0–16.0% protein, 45.0–50.6% oil, 3.1–7.0 NFE, 23.1–27.2% CF, and 2.0–2.2% ash. Seeds are high in phosphorus, 90% in the phytic form. The castor oil consists principally of ricinoleic acid with only small amounts of dihydroxystearic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids. The unsaponifiable matter contains b-sitosterol. The oil-cake from crushing whole seeds contain 9.0% moisture, 6.5% oil, 20.5% protein, 49.0% total carbohydrate and 15.0% ash. The manural value is 6.6% N, 2.6% P2O5, and 1.2% K2O (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). There are 60 mg/kg uric acid and 7 ppm HCN in the seed. The seeds contain a powerful lipase, employed for commercial hydrolysis of fats, also amylase, invertase, maltase, endotrypsin, glycolic acid, oxidase, ribonuclease, and a fat-soluble zymogen. Sprouting seeds contain catalase, peroxidase and reductase. -- http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Ricinus_communis.html#Chemistry

Contents of this page

Croton spp.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Results of search for 'Croton' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 9 Aug 2006.
• Croton argyratus Blume. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi
• Croton birmanicus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi, Yangon.
• Croton calderi T. Chakrabarty & N.P. Balakr. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Croton calococcus Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kanakho-gale
• Croton caudatus Geisel. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Awle, Taung-salat
• Croton chlorocalyx Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Sagaing
• Croton erythrostachys Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Croton flocculosus Kurz. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Thala
• Croton joufra Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, Sagaing, Taninthayi. Common Names: Thetyin-gale, Thetyin-kado
• Croton meeboldianus T. Chakrabarty & N. P. Balakr. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Croton oblongifolius Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Thetyin-gyi
• Croton rhodostachyus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing
• Croton robustus Kurz. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Bago, Mon, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Thetyin
• Croton roxburghianus N.P. Balakr. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Ha-yang, Maisat-lan, Thetyin-gyi, Umawng
• Croton sublyratus Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mon, Rakhine, Taninthayi
• Croton tiglium L. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kanakho, Mai-hkang
• Croton tomentosus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mon, Taninthayi
• Croton wallichii Muell. Arg. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mandalay, Mon, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Thetyin-kado

Contents of this page

Emblica spp.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Results of search for 'Emblica' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 7 May 2006.
• Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Chay-ahkya, Htakyu, Ku-hlu, Mai-hkam, Set-kalwe, Set-thalwe, Shabyu, Tasha, Taya, Zibyu

USDA-NRCS-data:
"EMOF","Emblica officinalis Gaertner",">>Phyllanthus emblica","Euphorbiaceae"

Contents of this page

Phyllanthus spp.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Results of search for 'Phyllanthus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 6 May 2006.
• Glochidion helferi Hook. f. Cited as: Phyllanthus helferi Muell. Arg. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Glochidion laevigatum (Muell. Arg.) Hook. f. Cited as: Phyllanthus laevigatus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels. Cited as: Cicca acida (L.) Merr. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Mak-hkam-sang-paw, Star gooseberry, Thinbaw-zibyu
• Phyllanthus albizzioides (Kurz) Hook. f. Cited as: Cicca albizzioides Kurz. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide.  Common Names: Sha-ma, Shit-sha
• Phyllanthus baeobotryoides Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Phyllanthus birmanicus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Phyllanthus clarkei Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Shan
• Phyllanthus columnaris Muell. Arg. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Kalon-letthe, Mak-sup-ka-lawn, Ye-tasha
• Phyllanthus distichus Muell. Arg. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Thin-baw-ziphyu
• Phyllanthus elegans Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Mon, Taninthayi
• Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Phyllanthus hamiltonianus Muell. Arg. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Sagaing
• Phyllanthus lanceolarius (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. Cited as: Glochidion lanceolarium (Roxb.) Voigt. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Shan, Taninthayi. Common Names: Hta-min-sok, Tamasok
• Phyllanthus macrocarpus (Blume) Muell. Arg. Cited as: Cicca macrocarpa (Blume) Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay. Common Names: Taw-ziphyu
• Phyllanthus nanus Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mye-shit-sha-gale
• Phyllanthus niruri L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Flor-de-joja, Kyet-tha-hin, Yaung-ma-ywet
• Phyllanthus parvifolius Buch.-Ham. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Kachin
• Phyllanthus pomiferus Hook. f. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Chyahkya, Mai-mak-hkam, Sha-byu, Zibyu
• Phyllanthus prainianus Collett & Hemsl. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Yangon
• Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Yangon
• Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Cited as: Cicca reticulata (Poir.) Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Ye-chin-yar
• Phyllanthus rheedii Wight. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Ma-shaw, Ma-shaw-se
• Phyllanthus roeperianus Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Shan.
• Phyllanthus simplex Retz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing. Common Names: Shit-sha
• Phyllanthus urinaria L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mye-shit-sha, Mye-ziphyu

USDA-NRCS-data
"PHYLL","Phyllanthus L.","leafflower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHAB","Phyllanthus abnormis Baill.","Drummond's leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHABA","Phyllanthus abnormis Baill. var. abnormis","Drummond's leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHDR2","Phyllanthus drummondii Small",">>Phyllanthus abnormis var. abnormis","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHGA2","Phyllanthus garberi Small",">>Phyllanthus abnormis var. abnormis","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHABR","Phyllanthus abnormis Baill. var. riograndensis G.L. Webster","Rio Grande leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHAC3","Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels","Tahitian gooseberry tree","Euphorbiaceae"
"CIAC2","Cicca acidua (L.) Merr.",">>Phyllanthus acidus","Euphorbiaceae"
"CIDI3","Cicca disticha L.",">>Phyllanthus acidus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHDI10","Phyllanthus distichus (L.) Muell.-Arg.",">>Phyllanthus acidus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHAC7","Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl","Jamaican gooseberry tree","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHAM5","Phyllanthus amarus Schumacher & Thonn.","carry me seed","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHAN9","Phyllanthus angustifolius (Sw.) Sw.","foliage flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHCA9","Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt.","Carolina leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHCAC","Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt. ssp. caroliniensis","Carolina leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHCAS","Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt. ssp. saxicola (Small) G.L. Webster","Carolina leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPR6","Phyllanthus pruinosus auct. non Poepp. ex L.C. Rich. [misapplied]",">>Phyllanthus caroliniensis ssp. saxicola","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHSA5","Phyllanthus saxicola Small",">>Phyllanthus caroliniensis ssp. saxicola","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHDE4","Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.","niruri","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHDI8","Phyllanthus distichus Hook. & Arn.","pamakani mahu","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHSA6","Phyllanthus sandwicensis Muell.-Arg.",">>Phyllanthus distichus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHSAD2","Phyllanthus sandwicensis Muell.-Arg. var. degeneri Sherff",">>Phyllanthus distichus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHSAE","Phyllanthus sandwicensis Muell.-Arg. var. ellipticus Muell.-Arg.",">>Phyllanthus distichus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHEM2","Phyllanthus emblica L.","emblic","Euphorbiaceae"
"EMOF","Emblica officinalis Gaertner",">>Phyllanthus emblica","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHEP","Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus L.","swordbush","Euphorbiaceae"
"XYEP","Xylophylla epiphyllantha (L.) Britt.",">>Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHER2","Phyllanthus ericoides Torr.","heather leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHFR5","Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster","gulf leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHJU2","Phyllanthus juglandifolius Willd.","gamo de costa","Euphorbiaceae"
"ASGR13","Asterandra grandifolia (L.) Britt.",">>Phyllanthus juglandifolius","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHLI13","Phyllanthus liebmannianus Muell.-Arg.","Florida leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHLIP2","Phyllanthus liebmannianus Muell.-Arg. ssp. platylepis (Small) G.L. Webster","Florida leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPL2","Phyllanthus platylepis Small",">>Phyllanthus liebmannianus ssp. platylepis","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHMA31","Phyllanthus marianus Mόll. Arg.","","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHNI2","Phyllanthus niruri L.","gale of the wind","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHNIL","Phyllanthus niruri L. ssp. lathyroides (Kunth) G.L. Webster","gale of the wind","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHLA11","Phyllanthus lathyroides Kunth",">>Phyllanthus niruri ssp. lathyroides","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHNIN2","Phyllanthus niruri L. ssp. niruri","gale of the wind","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHOR10","Phyllanthus orbicularis Kunth","wedge leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"ANCU","Andrachne cuneifolia Britt.",">>Phyllanthus orbicularis","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHCU4","Phyllanthus cuneifolius (Britt.) Croizat",">>Phyllanthus orbicularis","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPE7","Phyllanthus pentaphyllus C. Wright ex Griseb.","fivepetal leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPEP2","Phyllanthus pentaphyllus C. Wright ex Griseb. ssp. pentaphyllus","fivepetal leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPEF2","Phyllanthus pentaphyllus C. Wright ex Griseb. ssp. pentaphyllus var. floridanus G.L. Webster","fivepetal leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPEP","Phyllanthus pentaphyllus C. Wright ex Griseb. ssp. polycladus (Urban) G.L. Webster","fivepetal leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPO6","Phyllanthus polycladus Urban",">>Phyllanthus pentaphyllus ssp. polycladus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPO3","Phyllanthus polygonoides Nutt. ex Spreng.","smartweed leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPU6","Phyllanthus pudens L.C. Wheeler","birdseed leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHPU11","Phyllanthus pulcher Wallich ex Muell.-Arg.","tropical leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHSA15","Phyllanthus saffordii Merr.","","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHST5","Phyllanthus stipulatus (Raf.) G.L. Webster","stipulate leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHDI11","Phyllanthus diffusus Klotzsch",">>Phyllanthus stipulatus","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHTE5","Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.","Mascarene Island leaf-flower","Euphorbiaceae"
"PHUR","Phyllanthus urinaria L.","chamber bitter", "Euphorbiaceae"

 Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file