Update: 2006-08-06 01:14 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Brassicaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Brassicaceae 3 entries
• Brassica alba • {moan-ัhing:hpru}
• Brassica juncea • {moan-ัhing:ni}  
• Brassica nigra • {moan-ัhing:nak}
• Brassica spp.

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Brassica alba

Family: Brassicaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1196: {moan-ัing:hpru}
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin 355: {moan-ัhing:hpru}
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-462: {moan-ัhing:hpru}
• UHM 09: Mon-nyin-phyu

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{moan-ัing:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 243
{moan-ัing:} - n. mustard, Myan-Engl-Dict 357
{moan-ัing:-ping} - Myan-Ortho 197

UKT: Notice how Nagathein and L่-seik-shin have spelled the Burmese-Myanmar name. In Nagathein and L่-seik-shin, there is the aspirate {ha.} modifying {ัa.}. Since, r2c5 {ัa} is a nasal consonant, adding the aspirate {ha.}, makes the pronunciation of the syllable very difficult for non-native Burmese-Myanmar speakers, and should be avoided wherever possible.

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1196: White mustard; Chinese mustard
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin 355: Chinese mustard
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-462: not given
• UHM 09: White Mustard

 

Picture :
• Leader from http://www.toildepices.com/fr/plantes/angio_dic/brassicacee/brassica/alba01.jpg
• Leaves and flowers http://www.willowisland.co.uk/images/herbs/mustwite.gif

 

Plant identification characters :

• An annual herb attaining a height of 0.6 m with pinnatifid leaves arranged in alternate fashion along bristly branches -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar: Throughout Burma, wild and planted

 

Part used and used as :

• Dried ripe seed Used as rubefacient, emetic and condiment -- UHM

 

Constituents :

• 1. Fixed oil 20-25 % 2. Glcoside - sinalbin 3. Enzyme - myrosin (7) -- UHM

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Brassica juncea

Family: Brassicaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1194: {moan-ัing:ni}
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-464: {moan-ัhing:ni}
• UHM 09: Mon-nyin-ni

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{moan-ัing:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 243
{moan-ัing:} - n. mustard, Myan-Engl-Dict 357
{moan-ัing:-ping} - Myan-Ortho 197

UKT: Notice how Nagathein has spelled the Burmese-Myanmar name. In Nagathein and L่-seik-shin, there is the aspirate {ha.} modifying {ัa.}. Since, r2c5 {ัa} is a nasal consonant, adding the aspirate {ha.}, makes the pronunciation of the syllable very difficult for non-native Burmese-Myanmar speakers, and should be avoided wherever possible.

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

 

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1194: Brown mustard
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-464: {moan-ัhing:ni}
• UHM 09: Black Mustard or Brown Mustard

 

Picture :
• Leader http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Koeh-168.jpg/300px-Koeh-168.jpg
• Flower: www.agr.gouv.qc.ca/dgpar/arico/herbierv/brsju/brsju1d1.jpg
• Habit: http://biology.missouristate.edu/Herbarium/

 

Plant identification characters :

• An erect annual herb possessing a great variety of forms, leaves radical, large oval or obovate, toothed, tapering into a narrow petiole with leafy appendages, stem leaves, sessile, entire, oblong lanceolate above, petioled and toothed below, small yellow flowers and elongated, slender rounded silique fruits -- UHM

• Perennial herb, usually grown as an annual or biennial, up to 1 m or more tall; branches long, erect or patent; lower leaves petioled, green, sometimes with a whitish bloom, ovate to obovate, variously lobed with toothed, scalloped or frilled edges, lyrate-pinnatisect, with 1–2 lobes or leaflets on each side and a larger sparsely setose, terminal lobe; upper leaves subentire, short petioled, 30–60 mm long, 2–3.5 mm wide, constricted at intervals, sessile, attenuate into a tapering, seedless, short beak 5–10 mm long. Rooting depth 90–120 cm. Seeds about 5,660–6,000 per 0.01 kg (1/3 oz). -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_juncea.html

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Wa State, Kachin State -- UHM

Distribution elsewhere:

Primary center of origin thought to be central Asia (northwest India), with secondary centers in central and western China, eastern India, Burma, and through Iran to Near East. Has been cultivated for centuries in many parts of Eurasia. The principle growing countries are Bangladesh, Central Africa, China, India, Japan, Nepal, and Pakistan, as well as southern Russia north of the Caspian Sea. Considered a principle weed in Canada, a common weed in Argentina and Australia, and a weed in Fiji, Mexico, and the United States, Indian Mustard is widely distributed as a cultivar and escape in subtropical and temperate climates. -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_juncea.html

 

Part used and uses :

• Ripe seeds: Uses: Externally, as a rubfacient and counter-irritant. Internally, as a condiment and emetic. -- UHM

• Reported to be anodyne, apertif, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, and stimulant, Indian Mustard is a folk remedy for arthritis, footache, lumbago, and rheumatism (Duke and Wain 1981). Seed used for tumors in China. Root used as a galactagogue in Africa. Sun-dried leaf and flower are smoked in Tanganyika to "get in touch with the spirits." Ingestion may impart a body odor repellent to mosquitoes (Burkill, 1966). Believed to be aperient and tonic, the volatile oil is used as a counterirritant and stimulant. In Java the plant is used as an antisyphilitic emmenagogue. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve headache (Burkill, 1966). In Korea, the seeds are used for abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomach disorders. Chinese eat the leaves in soups for bladder, inflammation or hemorrhage. Mustard oil is used for skin eruptions and ulcers (Perry, 1980).
   Young tender leaves of mustard greens are used in salads or mixed with other salad greens. Older leaves with stems may be eaten fresh, canned or frozen, for potherbs, and to a limited extent in salads. Mustard greens are often cooked with ham or salt pork, and may be used in soups and stews. Although widely and extensively grown as a vegetable, it is being grown more for its seeds which yield an essential oil and condiment. Easier to grow than Black Mustard (B. nigra), it has nearly replaced it in brown mustard preparations since 1945. Mustard Oil is one of the major edible oils in India, the fixed oil content of rai varying between 28.6% and 45.7%. Oil is also used for hair oil, lubricants and, in Russia, as a substitute for olive oil. Adding 1.1–2.2% mustard oil to fresh apple cider retards fermentation. Seed residue is used as cattle feed and in fertilizers (Reed, 1976). -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_juncea.html

 

Constituents :

• 1. Fixed oil 30-35%. 2. Glucoside - sinigrin (Potassium myrenate). 3. Enzyme - myresin. 4. Acid sinapine sulphate. 5. Proteids. 6. Mucilage -- UHM

• Mustard greens are high in Vitamin A and C, and iron; a cupful (140 gm) providing an adult with ca 60% of his recommended daily Vitamin A requirement, all the Vitamin C requirement and about one-fifth the iron. Per 100 g, the leaf is reported to contain 24 calories, 91.8 g H2O, 2.4 g protein, 0.4 g fat, 4.3 g total carbohydrate, 1.0 g fiber, 1.1 g ash, 160 mg Ca, 48 mg P, 2.7 mg Fe, 24 mg Na, 297 mg K, 1825 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.06 mg thiamine, 0.14 mg riboflavin, 0.8 mg niacin, and 73 mg ascorbic acid. Per 100 g, the root is reported to contain 38 calories, 85.2 g H2O, 1.9 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 8.8 g total carbohydrate, 2.0 g fiber, 3.8 g ash, 111 mg Ca, 65 mg P, 1.6 mg Fe, 447 mg K, 45 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.05 mg thiamine, 0.12 mg riboflavin, 0.7 mg niacin, and 21 mg ascorbic acid. Per 100 g, the seed is reported to contain 6.2 g H2O, 24.6 g protein, 35.5 g fat, 28.4 g total carbohydrate, 8.0 g fiber, and 5.3 g ash. Seed sterols contain 19.2% brassicasterol (9.1% esterified), 23.6% free campesterol (34.0% esterified), 57.2% sitosterol (55.2% esterified), 1.7% esterified D-5-avenasterol, and a trace of D-7-stigmasterol. Contains the glucosinolate sinigrin (potassium myronate) and the enzyme myrosin (myrosinase); sinapic acid; sinapine (sinapic acid choline ester); fixed oils (25 to 37%) consisting mainly of glycerides of erucic, eicosenoic, arachidic, nonadecanoic, behenic, oleic, and palmitic acids, among others; proteins (e.g., globulins); and mucilage (Leung, 1980). Sinigrin on hydrolysis by myrosin (myrosinase) yields allyl isothiocyanate, glucose, and potassium bisulfate. Allyl isothiocyanate is volatile; its yield from B. juncea is 0.25 to 1.4% (usually ca 0.9%). Other minor volatile components that are also set free by enzymatic hydrolysis include methyl, isopropyl, sec-butyl, butyl, 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, phenyl, 3-methylthiopropyl, benzyl, and b-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Allyl isothiocyanate is irritant, rubefacient and vesicant. It is also lachrymatory and has counterirritant properties when greatly diluted (e.g., 1 in 50). It should not be tasted or inhaled when undiluted. It is one of the most toxic essential oils. Isothiocyanates such as those present in mustard have been implicated in endemic goiter (hypothyroidism with thyroid enlargement). They also have been reported to produce goiter in experimental animals. Volatile mustard oil has strong antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) properties. Sinigrin has been reported to be toxic to certain insect larvae but harmless to others. -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_juncea.html

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Brassica nigra

Family: Brassicaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1195: • {moan-ัhing:nak}
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-463: {moan-ัhing:nak}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{moan-ัing:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 243
{moan-ัing:} - n. mustard, Myan-Engl-Dict 357

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1195: • Black mustard
• FAO : NL
• L่-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-463: {moan-ัhing:nak}
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader: www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mustar65-l.jpg
• Leaf and inflorescence: www.dijon.inra.fr/malherbo/phototheque/photos/photos-b/images/brassica_nigra-1f.jpg
• www.ogrod.uj.edu.pl/_img/Biblijne/Brassica%20nigra%204011.jpg

 

Plant identification characters :

• Much-branched, aromatic, fast-growing, pubescent annual herb, to 4 m tall, with taproot; lower leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, With 1–3 pairs of lateral lobes and larger terminal lobe, hispid on both surfaces; upper leaves linear-oblong, entire or sinuate, glabrous, dentate, all leaves petiolate; flowers in enlongate racemes, regular petals yellow, 7–9 mm long, stamens 6, fruit a silique, long slender beaked pod, 1.0–2.0 cm long, smooth cylindrical, 1.5–2 mm wide with 10–12 seeds, beak seedless, on short (2.5–6 mm) pedicels; seeds dark reddish-brown to black, oval to spherical, about 1 mm in diameter, more or less covered with white pellicle, taste pungent. Fl. May–June; fr. June–Oct. -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_nigra.html

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

• Black mustard is cultivated for its seeds, the source of commercial table-mustard, used as a condiment and medicine. Seeds contain both a fixed and an essential oil, used as a condiment, illuminant, lubricant, and soap constituent. Black mustard is mixed with white mustard (Sinapis alba) to make mustard flour, used in various condiments as "English Mustard" when mixed with water and "Continental Mustard" with vinegar. Mustard flowers are good honey producers. Mustard is agriculturally used as a cover crop. Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) is used in cat and dog repellents.
   Mustard is considered diuretic, emetic, rubefacient and stimulant. Mustard plaster is used externally for many afflictions, as arthritis and rheumatism. A liquid prepared from the seed, when gargled, is said to help tumors of the "sinax." Seed decoctions are used for indurations of the liver and spleen. It is also used for carcinoma, throat tumors, and imposthumes. Mustard relieves congestion by drawing the blood to the surface as in head afflictions, neuralgia, spasms. Hot water poured on bruised seeds makes a stimulant foot bath, good for colds and headaches. Old herbals suggested mustard for alopecia, epilepsy, snakebite, and toothache. Mustard Oil is said to stimulate hair growth. Mustard is also recommended as an aperient ingredient of tea, useful in hiccough. Mustard flour is considered antiseptic. Oil also useful in pleurisy and pneumonia -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_nigra.html

Caution: Ingestion of powdered mustard seed or of volatile oil of mustard in sufficient amount results in gastroenteritis "which may prove fatal" (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962).  -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_nigra.html

 

Constituents :

• Most important consituent in mustard is a glucoside sinigrin, or potassium myronate, which, upon hydrolysis, yields allyl isothiocyanate, a volatile liquid known as Oil of Mustard. Sinigrin is toxic to certain insect larvae, harmless to others (Leung, 1980). Per 100 g, the leaf is reported to contain 31 calories, 89.5 g H2O, 3.0 g protein, 0.5 g fat, 5.6 g total carbohydrate, 1.1 g fiber, 1.4 g ash, 183 mg Ca, 50 mg P, 3.0 mg Fe, 32 mg Na, 377 mi, K, 4200 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.11 mg thiamine, 0.22 mg riboflavin, 0.8 mg niacin, and 97 mg ascorbic acid. Per 100 g, the mature seed is reported to contain 7.6 g H2O, 29.1 g protein, 28.2 g fat, 30.2 g total carbohydrate, 11.0 g fiber, and 0.5 g ash.  -- www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_nigra.html

 

Contents of this page

Brassica spp.

Family: Brassicaceae

Results of search for 'Brassica' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 May 2006.

• Brassica alba Boiss. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Monnyin-byu, White mustard
• Brassica campestris L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Colze, Swedish turnip, Wild mustard
• Brassica campestris subsp. napus . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Mon-nyin, Rape
• Brassica juncea Coss. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Brown mustard, Indian mustard, Monnyin-ni, Samon-ni
• Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Black mustard, Monnyin-net, True mustard
• Brassica oleracea L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kale
• Brassica oleracea subsp. botrytis L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kobi-pwint, Monla-paw, Pan-kobi, Pan-mon-la, Thaba-paw
• Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Cabbage, Kobi-htoke, Monla-htoke, Mon-laptus, Thapa-bo
• Brassica oleracea subsp. caulorapa L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Kabu, Kha-an, Kha-lay-oo, Knol-Khol, Kohlrabi, No-ko-Hdi, No-ko-oo
• Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Zenk. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Brussels sprout, Kobidok-gale, Monla-dok-nge, Mon-nyin-ywet, Phat-ka, Tarok-mon-nyin
• Brassica rapa L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Kabu-hpyu, Monla, Tayok-monla, Turnip
• Brassica rapa var. dichotoma . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Monny-in-net
• Brassica rapa var. toria . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated

USDA-NRCS-data
"BRAL7","Brassica alba Rabenh., non L.",">>Sinapis alba","Brassicaceae"
"BRHI2","Brassica hirta Moench",">>Sinapis alba","Brassicaceae"
"SIALD","Sinapis alba L. ssp. dissecta (Lag.) Bonnier","","Brassicaceae"
"SIAR4","Sinapis arvensis L.","charlock mustard","Brassicaceae"
"BRAR11","Brassica arvensis Rabenh., non L.",">>Sinapis arvensis","Brassicaceae"
"BRKA","Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler",">>Sinapis arvensis","Brassicaceae"
"BRKAP2","Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler var. pinnatifida (Stokes) L.C. Wheeler",">>Sinapis arvensis","Brassicaceae"
"BRKAS","Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler var. schkuhriana (Reichenb.) L.C. Wheeler",">>Sinapis arvensis","Brassicaceae"
"SIARA","Sinapis arvensis L. ssp. arvensis","wild mustard","Brassicaceae"
"SIARO","Sinapis arvensis L. var. orientalis (L.) W. D. J. Koch & Ziz",">>Sinapis arvensis ssp. arvensis","Brassicaceae"
"SIARS","Sinapis arvensis L. var. schkuhriana (Rchb.) Hagenb.",">>Sinapis arvensis ssp. arvensis","Brassicaceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file