Update: 2006-07-16 12:05 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database
Family: Asclepiadaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Asclepiadaceae 4 entries
Calotropis gigantae {mu.ro:kri:}
Calotropis procera  {mu.ro:}
Dregea volubilis {hkw:htauk-nw}
Leptadenia reticulata {goan-hka:}/ {goan-cho}
Calotropis spp.
Leptadenia spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
TIL-DB Indices: Akshara | Alphabet-Botanical | Alphabet-Family
Index of Collected papers
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Calotropis gigantea R.Br

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 061: Mayoe-gyi
Nagathein : NL
UHM 10: Ma-yo

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {ma.ro:}
-- TravPo-M-Dict 235

Hindi: NL
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar
Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 061: Madar, Vercum gigantic swallow-wort
Nagathein : NL
UHM 10: Gigantic Swallow Root

 

Picture

Leader -- stamp from http://www.ne.jp/asahi/plant/stamps/stamps/kiribati/1981calotropis_gigantea.jpg
Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN
Leaf http://www.comfsm.fm/~dleeling/botany/2000/images/silverina/calotropis_gigantea_leaf.jpg

 

Plant identification characters

A tall shrub; bark pale, yellowish white, the younger stems terete with fine appressed pubescence, sap milky. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules minute; subsessile; laminae elliptic-oblong or obovate-oblong, the bases cordate, sometimes amplexicaul, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, thick, glaucous, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower with cottony tomentum. Inflorescences in axillary umbelliform cymes. Flowers with very long pedicels, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, ovate, acute, pubescent. Corolla sunpetalous, 5-lobed, broadly campanulate, the lobes deltoid-ovate, the tube short, terminated at its mouth with a ring of corona, the corona-lobes narrow, shorter than the staminal coulumn with 2 obtuse auricles just below the rounded uncut apex. Androecuim monadelphous, stamens 5, the filaments united into a fleshy staminal column, its apex united to the dilated part of the style to form a gynostegium, the anthers dithecous, pollen granular forming pollinia or pollen-masses, 1 in each cell. Pistil 1, the ovaries 2, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules pendulous,, imbricated in several series on a ventral and parietal palcenta, the styles 2, the stigma 5-lobed. Fruit a follicetum of 2 follicles (one aborts); seeds broadly ovoid, compressed, with a tufted micropylar coma of long silky hairs, endosperm thin and small. Flowering period: March-July. Fruiting period: May-Aungust -- KS-TMN

A tall shrub, 2-3 m high with stout branches, the younger branches are covered with fine cottony hairs, the older ones with less hair, leaves cuneate-obovate, base cordate axils bearded, smooth above, cottening beneath, Umbels peduncled, simple or compound, bracts long, flowers pale purple -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Commonly grows wild throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN

Throughout Burma -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

Whole plant: root, leaf, flower, fruit and latex -- Flatulence; Diarrhoea; Coughs; Splenomegaly; Haemorrhoids; Abdominal tumours; Intestinal colicp; Pruritis; Sores: Leprosy. Root -- Antidote for snake bites and scorpion stings; Antidote for various poisons; Oedema; Muscle spasticity in legs; Haematinic; Elephantiasis; Eye diseases; Skin diseases; Leprosy. Root bark -- Tooth-aches. Leaf -- Paralysis; Arthritis; Oedema; Cough; as an expectorant; Pneumonia in children; Flatulence in children; Ear-ache; Antidote for snake bite; Elephantiasis. Stem -- Internal haemorrhoids . Flower -- Cholera; Lithiasis. White flowers -- Antisialagogue; For the treatment of cough, asthma, loss of appetite . Latex -- Brain disease; Oliguria; Epilepjsy; Antidote for snake bite; Antirabies; Knee-ache; As an expectorant; Prevents freckle formation -- KS-TMN

Roots. Skin diseases, enlargement of abdominal viscera, intestinal works, cough, ascites, small doses cause vomitting and diarrhoea -- UHM

 

Constituents :

1. Proteolytic enzyme 2. Glycosides - calotropin, uscharin and calotoxin (3) -- UHM

 

Contents of this page

Calotropis procera

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 43-1132: {ma.ro:}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 329 : {ma.ro:}
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 2-396: {ma.ro: hpyu}, {ma.ro: ni}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {ma.ro:}
--TravPo-M-Dict235

Hindi :
अक {a.ka.} -- Nagathein, transliteration by UKT
Sanskrit :

English common name used in Myanmar
Agri.Dept.2000 43-1132: Swallow-wart
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 329 : Swallow-wart
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 2-396: not given
UHM : NL

 

Picture
Leader from http://herbarium.literal.si/images/img/db/4/9/8/53498
Photo left - habitat: http://www.nizwa.net/env/biodiversity/bio8.gif

 

Plant identification characters

{L-seik-shing:} 329, free translation by UKT : Bush-like shrub 10 to 15'. Straight stem. Stem on breaking exudes white milky sap. Leaves alternate. Flowers: white or pinkish purple. Flowering period, {nat-tau} - {pra-tho} (UKT: Nov-Dec). Fruit, curved 3 to 4 in. long. Fruiting period, {pra-tho} - {ta.po.tw:} (UKT: Jan-Feb}

 

 

Distribution in Myanmar

 

Part used and uses

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Calotropis spp

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Note by UKT:
C. gigantea is listed by
  KS-TMN 061(as Mayoe-gyi) and
  UHM 10: as (Ma-yo), whereas Agri.Dept.2000, L-seik-shin and Nagathein did not list it.
C. procera, on the other hand, is listed by
  Agri.Dept.2000 43-1132 as {ma.ro:},
  L-seik-shin 329 as {ma.ro:} , and Nagathein 2-396 as {ma.ro: hpyu}, {ma.ro: ni}  , whereas KS-TMN , and UHM did not list it.

However, from the user's point of view, the above point is probably not important because the drugs from both plants were used under the same name Calotropis (Synonym.Mudar). The following is an excerpt from: The British Pharmaceutical Codex. Published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1911.Caveat: Note the date of publication. -- www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/index.html

"Calotropis is the dried root-bark of Calotropis procera, R. Brown, and of Calotropis gigantea, R. Brown (N.O. Asclepiadeae). The drug occurs in short, more or less quilled pieces, about 2 to 5 millimetres thick, and 2 to 3.5 centimetres wide, to which rootlets are sometimes attached. Externally, it is covered with a soft, pale buff, longitudinally furrowed and wrinkled cork; on the inner surface it is pale yellow and granular. The fracture is short and mealy, the fractured surface being white. The taste is bitter and acrid. A transverse section exhibits a thick buff-coloured cork, and a white inner portion. The starch, chiefly situated in the cortex, is very characteristic, consisting of simple or compound grains, the former being mostly 3m to 10m long, with a distinct hilum and conspicuous striations; the compound grains are usually composed of two constituent grains. The cortex and bast contain abundant laticiferous vessels, and the medullary rays are one cell wide.

"Constituents.The chief constituents of calotropis are a yellow bitter resin, a black acid resin, a crystalline colourless substance (madaralban), an amber-coloured viscid substance (madarfluavil), and caoutchouc.

"Action and Uses.Calotropis resembles ipecacuanha (more) in its action; small doses are diaphoretic and expectorant, and large doses cause vomiting and diarrhoea.
   "Dose.As an expectorant 2 to 6 decigrams (3 to 10 grains); as an emetic, 2 to 4 grammes (30 to 60 grains)."

 

Chklist data:
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. ex W.T. Aiton. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Magway, Mandalay. Common Names: Giant swallow-wort, Mayo-gyi, Vercum
Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan. Common Names: Mayo, Swallow-wort

Contents of this page

Dregea volubilis

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 13-0336:  {hkw:htauk}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 121: {hkw:htauk-nw}
KS-TMN 062: Gwedauk-nwe
Nagathein1-304:  {hkw:htauk-nw}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{hkw:htauk} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 061
{hkw:htauk} - n. kind of climber with edible leaves which are also used in treating boils -- Myan-Engl-Dict 080

UKT: In {hkw:tauk-nw}, {nw} meaning a "creeper" or "vine", though a word in its own right is used as an affix. Note that there is no white space between and . However, there is no change in meaning if a white space is inserted as .

Hindi :
दौडी   {dauk-i} -- Nagathein, transliteration from Devanagari into Myanmar given by Nagathein.
Sanskrit

UKT: Referring to the Hindi-Devanagari name, note that the first character द (U0926) corresponding to Myanmar r4c3 {da.} has been modified with the sign of the vowel {Au}. In Hindi-Devanagari it is ौ (U094C). This would give us a transliteration of {dau-i}.

English common name used in Myanmar
Agri.Dept.2000 -- Not given
FAO -- NL
L-seik-shin -- Not given
KS-TMN -- Not given
Nagathein --
UHM -- NL

 

Picture

Leader from Nagathein 1-304
Photos:left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters

A tall stout shrub; stems lianous, the younger ones green, smooth, the older branches ash-coloured, glabrous. Leaves opposite and distinchous, simple; stipules minute; petioles long; laminae broadly ovate or suborbicular, the bases rounded or cordate, the margins entire, the tips acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous or puberulent. Inflorescences in axillary umbelliform cymes, many-flowered, subglobose, pendant; peduncles longer than pedicels. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes ovate-oblong. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, the lobes broadly triangular-ovate, overlapping to the right, the tubes short, greenish; corona staminal, the lobes large, fleshy, spreading, cuspidate, obliquely truncate at top, the inner cusp minute, incumbent on the anthers tops. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 5, the filaments united into a fleshy very short staminal column, the apex united to the dilated part of the style (dome-shaped ) to form a gynostegium, the anthers dithecous, the tips broadly ovate-oblong, pollen granular forming pollinia or pollen masses, pollinia oblongoid, 1 in each cell. Pistil 1,2-carpelled, ovaries 2, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules pendulous, imbricated in several series on a ventral and parietal placenta, the style 2, short, the stigma 1, dome-shaped. Fruit a follicetum of 2 follicles (one aborts), ellipsoid, rugosely striated; seeds broadly ovoid, smooth, with a tufted micropylar coma of long silky hairs, endosperm thin and small. Flowering period: May-June. Fruiting period: June-September -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar

Commonly grows wild in warmer plains. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses

Haematemesis; Aphrodisiac; Sore throat; Abdomial tumours; Appetizer; Carminative; Heals carbuncles; Eczema; Asthma; Antidote for poison; Possess haematinic effect; Infections. Leaf -- Opthalmia; Herpes; Colds; Heals carbuncles -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Leptadenia reticulata

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.200014-0366: {goan-hka:} 
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 065: Gone-cho (UKT: transcript: {goan-cho})
Nagathein1-333 :  {goan-hka:}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{goan} -- -- TravPo-M-Dict 067
{goan} -- n. kind of edible creeper, Leptadenia reticulata  -- Myan-Engl-Dict 088

UKT: According to TravPo-M-Dictionary 067, there are five kinds of {goan}:
{goan-cho}; {goan-hka:}; {goan-bau-Di.}; {goan-lak-to}; {goan-tha.mya:}.
However, a popular vegetable {goanmin:} does not belong to this group: it is a Zingiberaceae.

Hindi :
डौरी   -- Hindi-Myanmar name according to Nagathein is {auk-ri}
Sanskrit

UKT: Referring to the Hindi-Devanagari name, note that the first character ड(U0921) corresponding to Myanmar r3c3   has been modified with the sign of the vowel {Au}. In Hindi-Devanagari it is ौ (U094C). This would give us a transliteration of {au-ri}.

English common name used in Myanmar
Agri.Dept.200014-0366: NG (not given)
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 065: NG
Nagathein1-333 : NG
UHM : NL

 

Picture

Leader from KS-TMN
Photos: left -- flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN
   UKT: Drawings available in Nagathein p334-337: {goan-hka:}, {goan-cho} and {goan-bau-Di.}

 

Plant identification characters

  A twining shrub; stems lianous, much branched, leafy, the younger ones tereted, hoary-puberulous, bark corky, sap milky. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules minute; petioles puberulous; laminae broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, the bases rounded or cuneate, the margins entire, the tips acute to retuse, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower with hoary pubescence, coriaceous. Inflorescences umbellform cymes, axillary, the cymes solitary or in pairs, many-flowered; peduncles hoary-puberulous. Flowers ebracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentuncles hoary-puberulous. Calyx synsepalous, turbinate, shortly 5-lobed, the lobes obtuse. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, rotate, the tube short, the lobes thick, ovate-oblong, the margins revolute, pubescent, greensih yellow; corona double, corolline corona of 5 quadrate truncate fleshy lobes at the sinuses, staminal corona minute, annular, close to the staminal column at the base of the anther dithecous, globose, wihtout terminal appendages, incumbent on the style top, pollen granular forming pollinia or pollen-masses, pollinia 1 in each cell, erect, the tips pellucid. Pistill 1, ovaries 2, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules pendulous, imbricated in several series on a ventral and parietal placenta, the styles 2, the stigma 5-lobed. Fruit a follicetum of 2 follicles (one aborts), straight, turgid, smooth, beaked, woody; seeds narrowly ovoid, with a tufted micropylar coma of long silky hairs, endosperm thin and small. Flowering period: April-July. Fruiting period: August-September. -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar

Grows wild, common in dry zone plains -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses

Root -- Aphthae; Appetiser; Aphrodisiac; Clears voice; Expectorant; Carminative; Gonorrhoea; Paralysis; Abdominal tumours; Flatulence; Indigestion; Cough; Pyrexia; Antidote for poisons; For longevity of life. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents

Principal constituents: Leptadenol, n-triaceontane, cetyl alcohol, -sitosterol, -amyrin acetate, lupanol 3-O-diglucoside and leptidin. The plant is stimulant and restorative and shows anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/aboutayurveda/cahl.htm . (UKT -- Sanskrit Indian names given web-site: Jivani, Jivanti, Madhusrava. We note that  "Jivanti", according to Nagathein is {goancho} p335)

Contents of this page

Leptadenia spp.

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Results of search for 'Leptadenia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 1 May 2006.
Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. Habit: Shrub, Climber. Distribution: Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Gon-cho, Gon-nwe

Data from USDA-NRCS
UKT: It is interesting to note that Leptadenia is not given as a genus.

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts ( Agri.Dept.2000 : Chklist: LSR : FAO : KS-TMN: Nagathein : UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file