Update: 2012-01-02 06:36 AM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{yRi.} ऋ - the highly rhotic vowel
{yRik} ऋक् : Pronounced as highly rhotic {rik}
{yRic~} ऋच् : Not be confused with {yRiS~} ऋष्
{yRi.za.} ऋज
{yRi.Na.} ऋण
{yRi.ta.} ऋत
{yRid~} ऋद्
{yRiS~} ऋष्
{IRi.} ऋइ : note the vow-let {I.} rhoticized into a medial


UKT notes :
• R-coloured vowel • rhotic and non-rhotic accents in English • Rutu

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{yRi.} ऋ

{yRik} ऋक् :

UKT: Pronounced as highly rhotic / {ri:k}/. -- UKT 100327

• ऋक् (Rik.h) / ऋक्ष  ṛkṣa = ऋ क ् ष
Skt: ऋक् (Rik.h) - the Rg Veda  - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ऋक्ष  ṛkṣa m.  bear  - SpkSkt
Pal: ikka  m.  bear  - UPMT-PED041

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{yRic~} ऋच् : Not be confused with {yRiS~} ऋष् , nor with {yRi.sa.} ऋष

• ऋचः (RichaH)
Skt: ऋचः (RichaH) - the Rig Veda - OnlineSktDict

¤ ऋच्छति { ऋ } Rcchati { R }
= ऋ च ् छ त ि
Skt: ऋच्छति { ऋ } Rcchati { R } - v. tend upwards - SpkSkt

• ऋचछति (Richchhati)
Skt: ऋचछति (Richchhati) - one attains - OnlineSktDict

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{yRi.za.} ऋज

• ऋजुः (RijuH)
Skt: ऋजुः (RijuH) - (adj) straight - OnlineSktDict

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{yRi.Na.} ऋण

• ऋण (RiNa)
Skt: ऋण (RiNa) - debt - OnlineSktDict

• ऋणपत्रं (RiNapatraM)
Skt: ऋणपत्रं (RiNapatraM) - (n) debenture - OnlineSktDict

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{yRi.ta.} ऋत

UKT: Probably meant to be a "glide" [of IE] from vowel {yRi} to long vowel {I}. It is so foreign to our mode of articulation that it has become a "change" [for Tib-Bur] from {iRi.} to short vowel {I.} and then receding into the interior to become short vowel {U.} . -- UKT 100328


• ऋतं (RitaM)
Skt: ऋतं (RitaM) - truth - OnlineSktDict

• ऋतु (Ritu) 
Skt: ऋतु (Ritu) - season - OnlineSktDict
Pal: उतु  utu  mfn.  season, time; m. the menses -- UPMT-PED047
Pal: {U.tu.} -- UHS-PMD0208

UKT from UHS: m. season depicting cold or hot weather, women menstrual flow
See my note on Ritu ऋतुः  


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• ऋतूनां (RituunaaM)
Skt: ऋतूनां (RituunaaM) - of all seasons - OnlineSktDict

• ऋते (Rite)
Skt: ऋते (Rite) - without, except for - OnlineSktDict

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{yRid~} ऋद्

• ऋद्धं (RiddhaM)
Skt: ऋद्धं (RiddhaM) - prosperous - OnlineSktDict

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• ऋद्धम् (Riddham.h)
= ऋ द ् ध म ्
Skt: ऋद्धम् (Riddham.h) - enriched - OnlineSktDict

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{yRiS~} ऋष्

¤ ऋषभ Rishabh
Traditionally, in our universe and in this time cycle, Rishabh (ऋषभ) is regarded as the first to realize the truth. Mahavira (Vardhamana) was the last (24th) Tirthankara to attain enlightenment (599–527 BC). -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jainism 110525

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• ऋषयः (RishhayaH)
Skt: ऋषयः (RishhayaH) - those who are active within - OnlineSktDict

• ऋषिः (RishhiH)
 Skt: ऋषिः (RishhiH) - the sage  - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: {I.þi.}  - UHS-PMD0195
       UKT from UHS: m. hermit, a highly moral person such as Buddha
  Pal:  इसि  isi  m.  a sage, anchorite  -- UPMT-PED043
  Bur: {ra.þé.}  n.  a hermit, recluse; rishi  -- MED390

• ऋषिन् (Rishhin.h)
Skt: ऋषिन् (Rishhin.h) - great sages - OnlineSktDict

• ऋषिभिः (RishhibhiH)
Skt: ऋषिभिः (RishhibhiH) - by the wise sages - OnlineSktDict

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{IRi.} ऋइ


UKT: Probably meant to be a "glide" [of IE] from vowel {yRi} to long vowel {I} is so foreign
to our mode of articulation has become a "change" [for Tib-Bur] from {iRi.} to short vowel {I.}
which has become a medial. Waiting for comments. -- UKT 100328

• ऋइतं (RiitaM)
Skt: ऋइतं (RiitaM) - truth - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

R-coloured vowel

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel 100101

In phonetics, vocalic r refers to the phenomenon of a rhotic segment such as [r] or [ɹ] occurring as the syllable nucleus. [UKT: From CVC, V = vowel is the syllable nucleus.] This is a feature of a number of Slavic languages such as Czech, Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian, as well as some western Bulgarian and eastern Slovene (Stirian) dialects. It also appears in languages like English and Mandarin Chinese, where it occurs as an r-colored vowel, a vowel whose distinctive feature is a low third formant.

In most rhotic accents of English such as General American [GA], vocalic r occurs in words like butter and church.

A vowel may have either the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue bunched. Both articulations produce basically the same auditory effect, a lowering in frequency of the third formant. Although they are rarely attested, they occur in some non-standard varieties of Dutch and in a number of rhotic accents of English like GA . The English vowel may be analyzed phonemically as an underlying /ər/ rather than a syllabic consonant.


A few dialects of English, particularly GA and Ulster English, contain a vocalic R sound, equivalent to the consonantal R sound [ɹ]. In Ulster English, both long and short versions exist, conditioned by the Scots Vowel Length Rule:

• [wɹ̩k] work (short vowel before the voiceless consonant /k/
• [kɹ̩ːv] curve (long vowel before the voiced consonant /v/

This is a little different from rhotacization described below ([wɝk], [kɝv] as opposed to non-rhotic [wɜːk], [kɜːv]), as [ɹ̩] is not a rhotic vowel or even a vowel, but may be treated as a similar phenomenon in this case, because this [ɹ̩] is phonemically identical to [ɝ], just realized differently. In general, however, a syllabic r (a vocalic r) and a rhotic vowel are different concepts.

The r-colored vowels of GA are written with vowel-r digraphs. Any vowel can be used:

Stressed [ɝ]: hearse, assert, mirth, work, turkey, myrtle
Unstressed [ɚ]: standard, dinner, Lincolnshire, editor, measure, martyr

An example of an r-colored vowel written as a vowel following "r" can be found in the word iron [ˈaɪɚn].

Many vocalists [singers] who would normally speak English with r-colored vowels will replace them with their non-rhotic equivalents when singing in English.  This phenomenon has traditionally been nearly universal and a standard part of vocal training, but there are now numerous exceptions, including many Irish singers and many performers of Country music in particular and, to a lesser extent, recently-arising genres of music in general. The artist Flo Rida is an exaggerated example of heavy rhotacization in hip-hop music, evidenced by the emphasis on the r-coloring of the final vowels in lyrics such as "throw my hands in the air" ([ˈʔeɪjɹ̩]) and "boots with the fur". In this case, a vowel + r is pronounced as two syllables, a non-rhotic vowel followed by a syllabic r.

In English, the pronunciation of /r/ is difficult, and it is one of the most frequently misproduced sounds for a number of reasons including:

• It can be either consonantal or vocalic;
• There is no single defined way to produce the sound either by manner or place of articulation;
• It tends to be a later developing sound; and
• Correct pronunciation is not dependent upon spelling.[1]

Vocalic /r/ evaluation and treatment is most commonly made by a speech-language pathologist.

Sanskrit-Devanagari rhotic vowel [UKT subtitle]
Sanskrit : vocalic r or syllabic r

To go back to the place from where you came from click.

The ancient Indian language Sanskrit possessed short and long versions of a vowel sound often referred to as "vocalic r".[2] It is represented in Devanagari by ऋ (short form) and ॠ (long form), and in IAST transliteration by (short form) and (long form), and is thought to correspond to original vocalic "l" or "r" in Proto-Indo-European (PIE).[2] The grammarian Pāṇini classified this vowel as retroflex[3] and its pronunciation is thought to have been a retroflex approximant [ɻ] in classical Sanskrit (c. 500 BC). Earlier grammarians classified its sound in the Vedic period as velar.[3] In Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the sound developed into a short vowel, usually /i/, but sometimes /a/ or /u/ (the latter sound especially when adjacent to a labial consonant).

UKT: The reader is advised to use the word "Indo-European (IE)" instead of the older "Indo-Aryan" because of the connotation Aryan has with the Nazis.

However, when Sanskrit words containing this sound are borrowed into modern IE such as Hindi or Nepali its pronunciation changes to [ɾɪ] (short form) or [ɾiː] (long form),[4] leading to forms such as "Krishna" for Kṛṣṇa and "Rigveda" for ṛgveda, a pronunciation that is also prevalent among contemporary pundits. [5] In the Southern Indo-Aryan language Sinhala, vocalic r in Sanskrit words is pronounced as [ur] or [ru], depending on the phonological context.

More in Wikipedia article.

Go back Ri-vow-note-b

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Rhotic vowel  

- by UKT : first written on 100328, revised on 110420
¤ Bur-Myan - {ya.}, {ra.}-non-rhotic :
  Pronounced almost the same in ordinary Bur-Myan spoken language, e.g. {rûn-koan} as /{yûn-koan}/,
¤ Pal-Myan - {ra.}-rhotic :
  Pronounced with rhoticity by Bur-Myan monks and nuns especially when reciting religious passages
¤ Skt-Dev - {ra.}-rhotic, {Ra.}-highly rhotic
  I propose to use {Ra.} in BEPS based on the usage by U Hoke Sein on {yhi.} in place of the MLC-approved {rhi.} .

Rhotic vowel: In English, the pronunciation of /r/ is difficult, and it is one of the most frequently misproduced (mis-articulated - the use of 'mispronounced' is deliberately set aside) sounds for a number of reasons including:

• It can be either consonantal or vocalic;
• There is no single defined way to produce the sound either by manner or place of articulation;
• It tends to be a later developing sound; and

The similar Sanskrit R sound represented by ṛ ऋ seems to sound like the middle of {ri.} and {ré.} (from {i.} and {é.}) with rhoticity. Since, it is a vowel, it should be treated as similar to Bur-Myan {i.} and {é}, and should perhaps be represented as {iR.} (introducing cap R into Romabama), or  {éR}, or something in between.
   However, we must not forget that ṛ ऋ could very well be treated as deriving from the approximant {ra.}, equating to {ri.}. Since, Burmese-Myanmar is almost totally non-rhotic, and in many words containing {ra.}, the {ra.} is pronounced as {ya.}, I am considering to represent ṛ ऋ as {yRi.} . -- I am waiting for comment from my peers. UKT091224

Burmese as equal to Pali: It is generally accepted that the Burmese language had been imported into Myanmar with the immigrants from the north-east across the present day China-Myanmar border. Those immigrants were supposed to be the Pyus who eventually changed into Myanmars . It is my suggestion that it is also probable that Burmese had been an indigenous language along with Pali or Magadhi when Sanskrit (the IndoEuropean) come into contact with Tibeto-Burman languages in the Vedic period. As an example I will cite the word for "hermit" in the following languages:

ऋषिः (RishhiH) 
  Skt: the sage  - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: {I.þi.}  - UHS-PMD0195
      UKT from UHS: m. hermit, a highly moral person such as Buddha
  Pal:  इसि  isi  m.  a sage, anchorite  -- UPMT-PED043
  Bur: {ra.þé.}  n.  a hermit, recluse; rishi  -- MED390

The {ra.} of Burmese is not related to the {I.} of Pali, but to Skt. ऋ without rhoticity. -- I am waiting for comments from my peers. UKT 100328

Go back Skt-Dev-rhotic-vow-note

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rhotic and non-rhotic accents

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 091230

English pronunciation can be divided into two main accent groups: A rhotic (pronounced /ˈroʊtɨk/, sometimes /ˈrɒtɨk/) speaker pronounces the letter R in <hard>. A non-rhotic speaker [a typical Burmese-Myanmar speaker] does not pronounce it in hard. In other words, rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ in all positions, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit (see " linking and intrusive R").

In linguistic terms, non-rhotic accents are said to exclude the sound [r] from the syllable coda before a consonant or prosodic break. This is commonly (if misleadingly) referred to as "post-vocalic R".

Development of non-rhotic accent [in English]

The earliest traces of a loss of /r/ in English are found in the environment before /s/ in spellings from the mid-15th century: the Oxford English Dictionary reports bace for earlier barse (today "bass", the fish) in 1440 and passel for parcel in 1468. [UKT ¶ ]

In the 1630s, the word <juggernaut> is first attested, which represents the Sanskrit word jagannāth, meaning "lord of the universe". The English spelling uses the digraph <er> to represent a Hindi sound close to the English schwa. [UKT ¶ ]

UKT: The Sanskrit word jagannāth  is {sa.kra.wa.té: ming:} in Burmese-Myanmar. Since, Burmese is totally non-rhotic, the word is pronounced in mainland Myanmar as {sa.kya.wa.té: ming:} changing {kra.} to {kya.}. The word means the "King of the Universe": the "Universe" being {sa.kra.wa.La}. The {kra.} part is totally non-rhotic in Burmese-Myanmar, but rhotic in Pali-Myanmar. What I propose is to change the grapheme a little to reflect the rhoticity of Pali - {sa.kRRA.wa.La}.

Loss of coda /r/ apparently became widespread in southern England during the 18th century; John Walker uses the spelling <ar> to indicate the broad A of aunt in his 1775 dictionary and reports that card is pronounced "caad" in 1791 (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006: 47).

Non-rhotic speakers pronounce an /r/ in red, and most pronounce it in torrid and watery, where R is followed by a vowel , but not in hard, nor in car or water when those words are said in isolation. [UKT ¶ ]

UKT: Just to say "vowel" is not enough. I would specify the vowel as /i/ or more precisely the semi-vowel /j/ {ya.}. Moreover, though most Burmese-Myanmar speakers can pronounce the "r" in <red> perfectly because of the Pali-Myanmar influence, they cannot pronounce the "r" in coda. Thus, the English word <car> /kɑːʳ/ (US) /kɑːr/ is pronounced as /kaː/ in Myanmar changing the back vowel /ɑ/ {au:} to front-vowel /a/ {a:} in the bargain.

However, in most non-rhotic accents, if a word ending in written "r" is followed closely by a word beginning with a vowel, the /r/ is pronounced — as in water ice. This phenomenon is referred to as "linking R". Many non-rhotic speakers also insert epenthetic /r/s between vowels when the first vowel is one that can occur before syllable-final r (drawring for drawing). This so-called " intrusive R" has been stigmatized, but even speakers of so-called Received Pronunciation [RP] frequently "intrude" an epenthetic /r/ at word boundaries, especially where one or both vowels is schwa; for example the idea of it becomes the idea-r-of it, Australia and New Zealand becomes Australia-r-and New Zealand, and the formerly well-known India-r-Office. The typical alternative used by RP speakers is to insert a glottal stop where an intrusive R would otherwise be placed. (rhotic-wiki-fn01).

For non-rhotic speakers, what was historically a vowel plus /r/ is now usually realized as a long vowel. So in Received Pronunciation (RP) and many other non-rhotic accents card, fern, born are pronounced [kɑːd], [fɜːn], [bɔːn] or something similar; the pronunciations vary from accent to accent. This length may be retained in phrases, so while car pronounced in isolation is [kɑː], car owner is [kɑːɹəʊnə]. But a final schwa usually remains short, so water in isolation is [wɔːtə]. In RP and similar accents the vowels /iː/ and /uː/ (or /ʊ/), when followed by r, become diphthongs ending in schwa, so near is [nɪə] and poor is [pʊə], though these have other realizations as well, including monophthongal ones; once again, the pronunciations vary from accent to accent. The same happens to diphthongs followed by R, though these may be considered to end in /ər/ in rhotic speech, and it is the /ər/ that reduces to schwa as usual in non-rhotic speech: tire said in isolation is [taɪə] and sour is [saʊə]. ( rhotic-wiki-fn02). For some speakers, some long vowels alternate with a diphthong ending in schwa, so wear may be [wɛə] but wearing [wɛːɹiŋ].

Merger characteristic of non-rhotic accents

Some phonemic mergers are characteristic of non-rhotic accents. These usually include one item that historically contained an R (lost in the non-rhotic accent), and one that never did so. The section below lists mergers in order of approximately decreasing prevalence.

• panda-pander. In the terminology of Wells (1982) this consists of the merger of the lexical sets commA and lettER. It is found in all or nearly all non-rhotic accents, (rhotic-wiki-fn03), and is even present in some accents that are in other respects rhotic, such as those of some speakers in Jamaica and the Bahamas. (rhotic-wiki-fn03). Other possible homophones include area-airier, cheetah-cheater, cornea-cornier, formally-formerly, manna-manner/manor, rota-rotor, schema-schemer, tuba-tuber and pharma-farmer.

• father-farther In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets PALM and START. It is found in the speech of the great majority of non-rhotic speakers, including those of England, Wales, the United States, the Caribbean, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. It may be absent in some non-rhotic speakers in the Bahamas. (rhotic-wiki-fn03). Other possible homophones include alms-arms, balmy-barmy, lava-larva and spa-spar 

• pawn-porn. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets THOUGHT and NORTH. It is found in the same accents as the father-farther merger described above, but is absent from the Bahamas and Guyana. (rhotic-wiki-fn03). Other possible homophones include awe-or, caulk-cork, gnaw-nor, laud-lord, stalk-stork, talk-torque, taught-tort and thaw-Thor.

• caught-court. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets THOUGHT and FORCE. It is found in those non-rhotic accents containing the pawn-porn merger that have also undergone the horse-hoarse merger. These include the accents of Southern England, Wales, non-rhotic New York City speakers, Trinidad and the Southern hemisphere. In such accents a three-way merger awe-or-ore/oar results. Other possible homophones include bawd-board, flaw-floor, fought-fort, law-lore, paw-pour/pore, raw-roar, sauce-source, saw-sore/soar and Shaw-shore.

• calve-carve. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets BATH and START. It is found in some non-rhotic accents with broad A in words like "bath". It is general in southern England (excluding rhotic speakers), Trinidad, the Bahamas, and the Southern hemisphere. It is a possibility for Welsh, Eastern New England, Jamaican, and Guyanese speakers. Other possible homophones include aunt-aren't, fast-farced and pass-parse.

• paw-poor. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets THOUGHT and CURE It is found in those non-rhotic accents containing the caught-court merger that have also undergone the pour-poor merger. Wells lists it unequivocally only for the accent of Trinidad, but it is an option for non-rhotic speakers in England, Australia and New Zealand. Such speakers have a potential four-way merger taw-tor-tore-tour. (rhotic-wiki-fn04). Other possible homophones include Shaw-sure, tawny-tourney and yaw-your

• batted-battered. This merger is present in non-rhotic acents which have undergone the weak vowel merger. Such accents include Australian, New Zealand, most South African speech, and some non-rhotic English speech. Other possible homophones include arches-archers, chatted-chattered, founded-foundered, matted-mattered, offices-officers, sauces-saucers, splendid-splendo(u)red and tended-tendered.

• dough-door. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets GOAT and FORCE. It may be found in some southern US non-rhotic speech, some speakers of African American Vernacular English, some speakers in Guyana and some Welsh speech. (rhotic-wiki-fn03). Other possible homophones include coat-court, flow-floor, foe-four/fore, go-gore, hoe-whore, poach-porch, poke-pork, row-roar, show-shore, snow-snore, stow-store, toe-tore and woe-wore.

• show-sure. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets GOAT and CURE. It may be present in those speakers who have both the dough-door merger described above, and also the pour-poor merger. These include some southern US non-rhotic speakers, some speakers of African American Vernacular English, and some speakers in Guyana. (rhotic-wiki-fn03). Other possible homophones include Poe-poor, toe-tour, and goad-gourd 

• often-orphan. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets CLOTH and NORTH. It may be present in old-fashioned Eastern New England accents, ( rhotic-wiki-fn05), some New York speakers (rhotic-wiki-fn06) and also in some speakers in Jamaica and Guyana. It was also present in some words in old-fashioned Received Pronunciation. Other possible homophones include moss-Morse and off-Orff.

• God-guard. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets LOT and START. It may be present in non-rhotic accents that have undergone the father-bother merger. These may include some New York accents (rhotic-wiki-fn07), some southern US accents (rhotic-wiki-fn08),  and African American Vernacular English (rhotic-wiki-fn09). Other possible homophones include cod-card, hot-heart, lodge-large, pot-part, potty-party, and shop-sharp.

• shot-short. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets LOT and NORTH. It may be present in some Eastern New England accents (rhotic-wiki-fn10) (rhotic-wiki-fn11). Other possible homophones include cock-cork, cod-cord, con-corn, odder-order and stock-stork.

• oil-earl. In Wells's terminology, this consists of the merger of the lexical sets CHOICE and NURSE preconsonantally. It was present in older New York accents, but became stigmatized and is sharply recessive in those born since the Second World War (rhotic-wiki-fn12). Other possible homophones include adjoin-adjourn, Boyd-bird, coil-curl, oily-early and voice-verse

In some accents, syllabification may interact with rhoticity, resulting in homophones where nonrhotic accents have centering diphthongs. Possibilities include Korea-career (rhotic-wiki-fn13), Shi'a-sheer, and Maia-mire (rhotic-wiki-fn14), while skua may be identical with the second syllable of obscure. (rhotic-wiki-fn15)

Distribution of rhotic and non-rhotic accents

Examples of rhotic accents are: Mid Ulster English, Canadian English and General American [GA]. Non-rhotic accents include RP, New Zealand, Australian, South African and Estuary English.

Most speakers of most of North American English are rhotic, as are speakers from Barbados, Scotland and most of Ireland.

In England (rhotic-wiki-fn16), rhotic accents are found in the West Country (south and the west of a line from near Shrewsbury to around Portsmouth), the Corby area, most of Lancashire (north and east of the centre of Manchester), some parts of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and in the areas that border Scotland. The prestige form, however, exerts a steady pressure towards non-rhoticity. Thus the urban speech of, say, Bristol or Southampton is more accurately described as variably rhotic, the degree of rhoticity being reduced as one moves up the class and formality scales. (rhotic-wiki-fn17)

Most speakers of Indian English have a rhotic accent. (rhotic-wiki-fn18) Other areas with rhotic accents include Otago and Southland in the far south of New Zealand's South Island, where a Scottish influence is apparent.

Areas with non-rhotic accents include Australia, most of the Caribbean, most of England (including RP speakers), most of New Zealand, Wales, and Singapore.

Canada is entirely rhotic except for small isolated areas in southwestern New Brunswick, parts of Newfoundland, and Lunenburg and Shelburne Counties, Nova Scotia.

In the United States, much of the South was once non-rhotic, but in recent decades non-rhotic speech has declined. Today, non-rhoticity in Southern American English is found primarily among older speakers, and only in some areas such as New Orleans (where it is known as the Yat dialect); central and southern Alabama, Savannah-GA, and Norfolk-VA. ( rhotic-wiki-fn19). Parts of New England, especially Boston, are non-rhotic as well as New York City and surrounding areas. The case of New York is especially interesting because of a classic study in sociolinguistics by William Labov showing that the non-rhotic accent is associated with older and middle- to lower-class speakers, and is being replaced by the rhotic accent. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is largely non-rhotic.

There are a few accents of Southern American English where intervocalic /r/ is deleted before an unstressed syllable and at the end of a word even when the following word begins with a vowel. In such accents, pronunciations like [kæəlaːnə] for Carolina and [bɛːʌp] for "bear up" are heard. (rhotic-wiki-fn20). These pronunciations also occur in AAVE. (rhotic-wiki-fn21)

In Asia, India (rhotic-wiki-fn18) and the Philippines have rhotic dialects. In the case of the Philippines, this may be explained because the English that is spoken there is heavily influenced by the American dialect. In addition, many East Asians (in China, Japan, and Korea) who have a good command of English generally have rhotic accents because of the influence of American English.

Similar phenomena in other languages

[UKT: not copied]

Effect on spelling

Spellings based on non-rhotic pronunciation of dialectal or foreign words can result in mispronunciations if read by rhotic speakers. In addition to juggernaut mentioned above, the following are found:

• "Er", to indicate a filled pause, as a British spelling of what Americans would render "uh".
• The Korean family name usually written "Park" in English.
• The game Parcheesi.
• British English slang words:
 ¤ "char" for "cha" from the Mandarin Chinese pronunciation of 茶 (= "tea" (the drink))
  ¤ "nark" (= "informer") from Romany "nāk" (= "nose").
• In Rudyard Kipling's books:
 ¤ "dorg" instead of "dawg" for a drawled pronunciation of "dog".
  ¤ Hindu god name Kama misspelled as " Karma" (which refers to a concept in several Asian religions, not a god).
  ¤ Hindustani कागज़ "kāgaz" (= "paper") spelled as "kargaz".
• "Burma" and "Myanmar" for Burmese [bəmà] and [mjàmmà].
• The development of "ass" (buttocks) as a variant of arse (later standardized as US usage).

[UKT: End of Wikipedia article]


rhotic-wiki-fn01. Wells, Accents of English, 1:224. rhotic-wiki-fn01b

rhotic-wiki-fn02. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary  rhotic-wiki-fn02b

rhotic-wiki-fn03. a b c d e f Wells (1982) rhotic-wiki-fn03b

rhotic-wiki-fn04. Wells, p. 287 rhotic-wiki-fn04b
rhotic-wiki-fn05. Wells, p. 524 rhotic-wiki-fn05b
rhotic-wiki-fn06. Wells (1982), p. 503 rhotic-wiki-fn06b
rhotic-wiki-fn07. Wells (1982), p. 504 rhotic-wiki-fn07b
rhotic-wiki-fn08. Wells (1982), p. 544 rhotic-wiki-fn08b
rhotic-wiki-fn09. Wells (1982), p. 577 rhotic-wiki-fn09b
rhotic-wiki-fn10. Wells, p. 520 rhotic-wiki-fn10b

rhotic-wiki-fn11. Dillard, Joey Lee (1980). Perspectives on American English. The Hague; New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 53. ISBN 9027933677. http://books.google.com/books?id=6zPgjduXBcQC.  rhotic-wiki-fn11b

rhotic-wiki-fn12. Wells (1982), pp. 508-509 rhotic-wiki-fn12b
rhotic-wiki-fn13. Wells (1982), p. 225 rhotic-wiki-fn13b

rhotic-wiki-fn14. Upton, Clive; Eben Upton (2004). Oxford rhyming dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0192801155. rhotic-wiki-fn14b 
rhotic-wiki-fn15. Upton, Clive; Eben Upton (2004). Oxford rhyming dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 0192801155. rhotic-wiki-fn15b 

rhotic-wiki-fn16. Wakelyn, Martin: "Rural dialects in England", in: Trudgill, Peter (1984): Language in the British Isles, p.77 rhotic-wiki-fn16b

rhotic-wiki-fn17. Trudgill, Peter (1984). Language in the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521284090, 9780521284097.  rhotic-wiki-fn17b

rhotic-wiki-fn18. a b Wells, J. C. (1982). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 629. ISBN 0521285410.  rhotic-wiki-fn18b

rhotic-wiki-fn19. Labov, Ash, and Boberg, 2006: pp. 47–48. rhotic-wiki-fn19b

rhotic-wiki-fn20. Harris 2006: pp. 2–5. rhotic-wiki-fn20b

rhotic-wiki-fn21. Pollock et al., 1998. rhotic-wiki-fn21b


• Harris, John. 2006. "Wide-domain r-effects in English" (pdf). Accessed March 24, 2007.
• Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg. 2006. The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8.
• Pollock, K., et al. 1998. "Phonological Features of African American Vernacular English (AAVE)". Accessed March 24, 2007.
• Wells, J. C. Accents of English. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

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Ritu ऋतुः  

From Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritu_Indian_season 110420

Ritu (Skt: ऋतुः) is a season in the Hindu calendar, and there are six ritus (also transliterated rutu) or Indian seasons. [UKT ¶]

UKT: In Bur-Myan calendar, the six ritu are again regrouped into three: {nwé} 'summer', {mo:} 'rains', and  {hsaung:} 'winter'. In the inset, I have given the approximate grouping from 'summer' through 'winter'. In Myanmar particularly the middle and northern parts, {nwé} 'summer' is hot and dry, {mo:} 'rains' is cool and wet, and {hsaung:} 'winter' is cool and dry. These three seasons are quite regular because of the highly seasonal monsoon winds conditioned by the physical geography of the country.

The word is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Rtu, a fixed or appointed time, especially the proper time for sacrifice (yajna) or ritual in Vedic Religion; this in turn comes from the word Rta (ऋत), as used in Vedic Sanskrit literally means the "order or course of things".

Seasonal table

The following table gives an overview about the partition of the year in the traditional Indian calendar.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

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