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TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

pra1-r3r4-117top-5.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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UKT notes
Pranayama 'restraint of the prana or breath'

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p117top-5

प्रणम्य (praNamya)
Skt: प्रणम्य (praNamya) - offering obeisances - OnlineSktDict

प्रणयेन (praNayena)
Skt: प्रणयेन (praNayena) - out of love - OnlineSktDict

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प्राण prāṇa
Skt: प्राण prāṇa  m. breath - SpkSkt

प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma  
Skt: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma - restraint of the prana or breath - Wiki.

See my note on Pranayama

प्राणश्वास  prāṇaśvāsa
Skt: प्राणश्वास  prāṇaśvāsa  m. breath - SpkSkt

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p117b1

प्रणव (praNava)
Skt: प्रणव (praNava) - another name for AUM - OnlineSktDict

प्रणवः (praNavaH)
Skt: प्रणवः (praNavaH) - the three letters a-u-m - OnlineSktDict

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p117b1-2

प्रणश्यति (praNashyati)
Skt: प्रणश्यति (praNashyati) - one falls down - OnlineSktDict

प्रणश्यन्ति (praNashyanti)
Skt: प्रणश्यन्ति (praNashyanti) - become vanquished - OnlineSktDict

प्रणश्यामि (praNashyaami)
Skt: प्रणश्यामि (praNashyaami) - am lost - OnlineSktDict

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p117b1-3

प्रणष्टः (praNashhTaH)
Skt: प्रणष्टः (praNashhTaH) - dispelled - OnlineSktDict

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p117b1-4

प्रणालि (praNaali)
Skt: प्रणालि (praNaali) - f. system - OnlineSktDict

प्रणाली (praNaalii)
Skt: प्रणाली (praNaalii) - system - OnlineSktDict

प्रणिधान (praNidhaana)
Skt: प्रणिधान (praNidhaana) - dedication - OnlineSktDict

प्रणिधाय (praNidhaaya)
Skt: प्रणिधाय (praNidhaaya) - laying down - OnlineSktDict

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p117b2

प्रणिपातेन (praNipaatena)
Skt: प्रणिपातेन (praNipaatena) - by approaching a spiritual master - OnlineSktDict

प्रणुदति (praNudati)
Skt: प्रणुदति (praNudati) - to push, to press, to ring a bell - OnlineSktDict

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p117b2-2

प्रत (prata)
Skt: प्रत (prata) - Quality - OnlineSktDict

प्रतपन्ति (pratapanti)
Skt: प्रतपन्ति (pratapanti) - are scorching - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यय- पत्र   pratyaya- patra
= प ् र त ् य य
Skt: प्रत्यय- पत्र   pratyaya- patra   n.   letter of credit - SpkSkt

प्रत्ययपत्त्र   pratyayapattra
Skt: प्रत्ययपत्त्र   pratyayapattra   n.   letter of accreditation - SpkSkt

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p117b2-3

प्रतापवान् (prataapavaan.h)
Skt: प्रतापवान् (prataapavaan.h) - the valiant - OnlineSktDict

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p117b2-4

प्रति (prati)
Skt: प्रति (prati) - towards - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिक्रान्ति (pratikraanti)
Skt: प्रतिक्रान्ति (pratikraanti) - counter - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिजानीहि (pratijaaniihi)
Skt: प्रतिजानीहि (pratijaaniihi) - declare - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिजाने (pratijaane)
Skt: प्रतिजाने (pratijaane) - I promise - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिदिनं (pratidinaM)
Skt: प्रतिदिनं (pratidinaM) - every day - OnlineSktDicts

प्रतिध्वनि  pratidhvani  m. echo - SpkSkt
प्रतिशब्द  pratiśabda  m. echo - SpkSkt
प्रत्याह्वय  pratyāhvaya  m. echo, resonance - SpkSkt

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p117b3

प्रतिनिधिः (pratinidhiH)
Skt: प्रतिनिधिः (pratinidhiH) - m. representative - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिनिविष्ट (pratinivishhTa)
Skt: प्रतिनिविष्ट (pratinivishhTa) - perverse, obstinate - OnlineSktDict

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p117b3-2

प्रतिपत्ति (pratipatti)
Skt: प्रतिपत्ति (pratipatti) - f. (non-verb) getting (gerund) - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिपद् (pratipad.h)
Skt: प्रतिपद् (pratipad.h) - root word for 'to get' - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिपद्यते (pratipadyate)
Skt: प्रतिपद्यते (pratipadyate) - attains - OnlineSktDict

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p117b3-3

प्रतिबिम्बम् (pratibimbam.h)
Skt: प्रतिबिम्बम् (pratibimbam.h) - n. reflection - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिभूति (pratibhuuti)
Skt: प्रतिभूति (pratibhuuti) - security - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिभूति (pratibhuuti)
Skt: प्रतिभूति (pratibhuuti) - security - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिभूतिः (pratibhuutiH)
Skt: प्रतिभूतिः (pratibhuutiH) m. secirities - OnlineSktDict

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p117b3-4

प्रतिमा (pratimaa)
Skt: प्रतिमा (pratimaa) - f. status - OnlineSktDict

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p117b4

प्रतियोत्स्यामि (pratiyotsyaami)
Skt: प्रतियोत्स्यामि (pratiyotsyaami) - shall counterattack - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिलोम (pratiloma)
Skt: प्रतिलोम (pratiloma) - going against the grain - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिवसति (prativasati)
Skt: प्रतिवसति (prativasati) - lives adjunctly - OnlineSktDict

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p118top 

प्रतिवाहकता (prativaahakataa)
Skt: प्रतिवाहकता (prativaahakataa) - susceptibility - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिवृत्त (prativRitta)
Skt: प्रतिवृत्त (prativRitta) - report - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिवेशिन् (prativeshin.h)
Skt: प्रतिवेशिन् (prativeshin.h) - m. neighbour - OnlineSktDict

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p118top-2

प्रतिष्ठा (pratishhThaa)
Skt: प्रतिष्ठा (pratishhThaa) - the rest - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिष्ठाप्य (pratishhThaapya)
Skt: प्रतिष्ठाप्य (pratishhThaapya) - placing - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिष्ठितं (pratishhThitaM)
Skt: प्रतिष्ठितं (pratishhThitaM) - situated - OnlineSktDict

प्रतिष्ठिता (pratishhThitaa)
Skt: प्रतिष्ठिता (pratishhThitaa) - fixed - OnlineSktDict

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p118top-3

प्रतीची (pratiichii)
Skt: प्रतीची (pratiichii) - f. west - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यय (pratyaya)
Skt: प्रत्यय (pratyaya) - phenomenon - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यवायः (pratyavaayaH)
Skt: प्रत्यवायः (pratyavaayaH) - diminution - OnlineSktDict

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p118b1

प्रत्यक्ष (pratyakSha)
Skt: प्रत्यक्ष (pratyakSha) - direct evidence - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यक्षं (pratyakShaM)
Skt: प्रत्यक्षं (pratyakShaM) - standing before the eye - OnlineSktDict

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p118b1-2

प्रत्याख्याति (pratyaakhyaati)
Skt: प्रत्याख्याति (pratyaakhyaati) - to rebuff - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यानीकेषु (pratyaaniikeshhu)
Skt: प्रत्यानीकेषु (pratyaaniikeshhu) - on the opposite sides OnlineSktDict

प्रत्यास्थ (pratyaastha)
Skt: प्रत्यास्थ (pratyaastha) - adj. elastic - OnlineSktDict

प्रत्याहार (pratyaahaara)
Skt: प्रत्याहार (pratyaahaara) - control of the senses - OnlineSktDict

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p118b1-3

प्रत्युपकारार्थं (pratyupakaaraarthaM)
Skt: प्रत्युपकारार्थं (pratyupakaaraarthaM) - for the sake of getting some return - OnlineSktDict

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p118b1-4

प्रथम (prathama)
Skt: प्रथम (prathama) - first - OnlineSktDict

प्रथमं (prathamaM)
Skt: प्रथमं (prathamaM) - in the first place - OnlineSktDict

प्रथमोपचारः (prathamopachaaraH)
Skt: प्रथमोपचारः (prathamopachaaraH) - m. first -aid - OnlineSktDict

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p118b2

प्रथा (prathaa)
Skt: प्रथा (prathaa) - f. fame - OnlineSktDict

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p118b2-2

प्रथित (prathita)
Skt: प्रथित (prathita) - renowned - OnlineSktDict

प्रथितः (prathitaH)
Skt: प्रथितः (prathitaH) - celebrated - OnlineSktDict

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p118b2-3

प्रदध्मतुः (pradadhmatuH)
Skt: प्रदध्मतुः (pradadhmatuH) - sounded - OnlineSktDict

प्रदर्शयति (pradarshayati)
Skt: प्रदर्शयति (pradarshayati) - to display, to exhibit - OnlineSktDict

प्रदर्शिनी (pradarshinii)
Skt: प्रदर्शिनी (pradarshinii) - f. exhibition - OnlineSktDict

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p118b2-4

प्रदा (pradaa)
Skt: प्रदा (pradaa) - one that bestows - OnlineSktDict

प्रदाः (pradaaH)
Skt: प्रदाः (pradaaH) - causing - OnlineSktDict

प्रदान (pradaana)
Skt: प्रदान (pradaana) - giving - OnlineSktDict

प्रदिग्धान् (pradigdhaan.h)
Skt: प्रदिग्धान् (pradigdhaan.h) - tainted with - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3

प्रदिष्टं (pradishhTaM)
Skt: प्रदिष्टं (pradishhTaM) - indicated - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3-2

प्रदीपः (pradiipaH)
Skt: प्रदीपः (pradiipaH) - (Masc.Nom.S) lamp; name of a person - OnlineSktDict

प्रदीप्तं (pradiiptaM)
Skt: प्रदीप्तं (pradiiptaM) - blazing become polluted - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3-3

प्रदुष्यन्ति (pradushhyanti)
Skt: प्रदुष्यन्ति (pradushhyanti) - become polluted - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3-4

प्रदेय (pradeya)
Skt प्रदेय (pradeya): - worth diving - OnlineSktDict

प्रदेश (pradesha)
Skt: प्रदेश (pradesha) - Territory - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3-5

प्रद्विषन्तः (pradvishhantaH)
Skt: प्रद्विषन्तः (pradvishhantaH) - blaspheming - OnlineSktDict

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p118b3-6

प्रधान (pradhaana)
Skt: प्रधान (pradhaana) - important -OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Pranayama

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pranayama 100515

Pranayama (Skt: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit word meaning "restraint of the prana or breath". The word is composed of two Sanskrit words, Prāna, life force, or vital energy, particularly, the breath, and "āyāma", to suspend or restrain. It is often translated as control of the life force (prana).[1][2][3][4] When used as a technical term in yoga, it is often translated more specifically as "breath control".[5][6][7] Literal translations include A. A. Macdonell's "suspension of breath"[8] and I. K. Taimni's "regulation of breath".[9]

Etymology

Pranayama ( प्राणायाम, prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit compound.

V. S. Apte provides fourteen different meanings for the word prana ( प्राण, prāṇa) including these:[10]

Breath, respiration
The breath of life, vital air, principle of life (usually plural in this sense, there being five such vital airs generally assumed, but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of)[11]  
Energy, vigor
The spirit or soul

Of these meanings, the concept of "vital air" is used by Bhattacharyya to describe the concept as used in Sanskrit texts dealing with pranayama.[12] Thomas McEvilley translates "prana" as "spirit-energy".[13] Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood, and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women.[14]

Monier-Williams defines the compound prāṇāyāma as (m., also pl.) "N. of the three 'breath-exercises' performed during Saṃdhyā (See pūraka, recaka, kumbhaka"[15][16] This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes as explained by Bhattacharyya: pūraka (to take the breath inside), kumbhaka (to retain it), and recaka (to discharge it).[17] There are also other processes of pranayama in addition to this three-step model.[17]

Macdonell gives the etymology as prāṇa + āyāma and defines it as "m. suspension of breath (sts. pl.)".[18]

Apte's definition of āyāmaḥ derives it from ā + yām and provides several variant meanings for it when used in compounds. The first three meanings have to do with "length", "expansion, extension", and "stretching, extending", but in the specific case of use in the compound prāṇāyāma he defines āyāmaḥ as meaning "restrain, control, stopping".[19]

An alternative etymology for the compound is cited by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that:

"Expansion of individual energy into cosmic energy is called prāṇāyāma (prāṇa, energy + ayām, expansion)."[20]

The word "yama" (Devanagari: याम, yāma) means "cessation"[21][22] or more generally "control" or "restraint".[23][22]

Hatha and Raja Yoga Varieties

Some scholars distinguish between hatha and raja yoga varieties of pranayama, with the former variety usually prescribed for the beginner. According to Taimni, hatha yogic pranayama involves manipulation of pranic currents through breath regulation for bringing about the control of chitta-vrittis and changes in consciousness, whereas raja yogic pranayama involves the control of chitta-vrittis by consciousness directly through the will of the mind. [24] Students qualified to practice pranayama are therefore always initiated first in the techniques of hatha pranayama.[25]

Bhagavad Gita

Pranayama is mentioned in verse 4.29 of the Bhagavat Gita.[26]

Quotes :

Prana is a subtle invisible force. It is the life-force that pervades the body. It is the factor that connects the body and the mind, because it is connected on one side with the body and on the other side with the mind. It is the connecting link between the body and the mind. The body and the mind have no direct connection. They are connected through Prana only and this Prana is different from the breathing you have in your physical body. -- Swami Chidananda Saraswati 27

Yoga works primarily with the energy in the body, through the science of pranayama, or energy-control. Prana means also 'breath.' Yoga teaches how, through breath-control, to still the mind and attain higher states of awareness. The higher teachings of yoga take one beyond techniques, and show the yogi, or yoga practitioner, how to direct his concentration in such a way as not only to harmonize human with divine consciousness, but to merge his consciousness in the Infinite. -- Paramahansa Yogananda 28

Yoga sutras of Patanjali

Pranayama is the fourth 'limb' of the eight limbs of Raja Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.[9][29] Patanjali discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, and devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice.[30] Patanjali does not fully elucidate the nature of prana, and the theory and practice of pranayama seem to have undergone significant development after him.[31] He presents pranayama as essentially an exercise that is preliminary to concentration, as do the earlier Buddhist texts.[31]

Many yoga teachers advise that pranayama should be part of an overall practice that includes the other limbs of Patanjali's Raja Yoga teachings, especially Yama, Niyama, and Asana.[32]

Buddhism

According to the Pali Buddhist Canon, the Buddha prior to his enlightenment [UKT: during most of the 6 year of mispractice] practiced a meditative technique which involved pressing the palate with the tongue and forcibly attempting to restrain the breath. This is described as both extremely painful and not conducive to enlightenment.[33] [UKT ]

UKT: For six long years Buddha followed the methods of his various masters diligently. After completing each method he realised that he was still "dissatisfied" which signaled to him that he was not "free" of mental anguish. Finally, he abandoned all methods, all "revelations" that had been taught, swept away all assumptions and tried to find an immutable natural law that would transcend "time" and "space". He arrived at "all sentient beings (humans and higher animals) that we can see with our own eyes (excluding "devas" and "creator" which we are not sure existed) are not free from mental suffering. This is how I understand the First Principle of Buddhism "the Duk~hka. Thic~sa" or the Principle of Suffering. -- UKT 100515

According to the Buddhist scheme, breathing stops with the fourth jhana, though this is a side-effect of the technique and does not come about as the result of purposeful effort.[34]

The Buddha did incorporate moderate modulation of the length of breath as part of the preliminary tetrad in the Anapanasati Sutta. Its use there is preparation for concentration.[31] According to commentarial literature, this is appropriate for beginners.[35]

For the Buddha, the most important aspect of breath meditation is the consciousness attending to the breath.[36] Buddhist tradition in general has urged moderation in the area of manipulation of the breath.[37]

Medical

Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress related disorders,[38] improving autonomic functions,[39] relieving symptoms of asthma,[40][41] and reducing signs of oxidative stress.[42][43] Practitioners report that the practice of pranayama develops a steady mind, strong will-power, and sound judgement,[32] and also claim that sustained pranayama practice extends life and enhances perception.[44]

Cautions

Many yoga teachers recommend that pranayama techniques be practiced with care, and that advanced pranayama techniques should be practiced under the guidance of a teacher. These cautions are also made in traditional Hindu literature.[45][46][47]

Go back pranayama-note-b

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