Update: 2012-01-03 11:47 PM +0630

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

pa2-109top-2.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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 {pa} पा

 

UKT notes
• Panchala • Pandu • Pataρjali - Skt: पतञ्जलि

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 {pa} पा
p109top-2

• पा (paa)
Skt: पा (paa) - to bless - OnlineSktDict

• पांडित्यं (paa.nDityaM)
Skt: पांडित्यं (paa.nDityaM) - punditry; expertise or scholarliness - OnlineSktDict

€ पांचाल : Wiki

See my note on Panchala .

 

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p109b1

€ पाक  pāka
Skt: पाक  pāka  m. digestion or assimilation of food - SpkSkt

• पाकशाला (paakashaalaa)
Skt: पाकशाला (paakashaalaa) - f. kitchen - OnlineSktDict

• पाकसिद्धी (paakasiddhii)
Skt: पाकसिद्धी (paakasiddhii) - cooking - OnlineSktDict

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p109b1-2

• पाज्न्चजन्यं (paaJNchajanyaM)
Skt: पाज्न्चजन्यं (paaJNchajanyaM) - the conchshell named Pancajanya - OnlineSktDict

• पाज्न्चालिका (paaJNchaalikaa)
Skt: पाज्न्चालिका (paaJNchaalikaa) - f. doll - OnlineSktDict

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p109b1-3

• पाटलम् (paaTalam.h)
Skt: पाटलम् (paaTalam.h) - n. rose flower - OnlineSktDict

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p109b1-4

• पाठयति (paaThayati)
Skt: पाठयति (paaThayati) - (1 pp, causative) to teach - OnlineSktDict

• पाठशाला (paaThashaalaa)
Skt: पाठशाला (paaThashaalaa) - f. school - OnlineSktDict

• पाठीनः (paaThiinaH)
Skt: पाठीनः (paaThiinaH) - m. prawns - OnlineSktDict

• पाठ्यक्रम (paaThyakrama)
Skt: पाठ्यक्रम (paaThyakrama) - syllabus - OnlineSktDict

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p109b1-5

• पाणि (paaNi)
Skt: पाणि (paaNi) - hands - OnlineSktDict

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p109b2

• पाण्डव (paaNDava)
Skt: पाण्डव (paaNDava) - O son of Pandu - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Pandu पाण्डु - and his unnatural sons.

• पाण्डवः (paaNDavaH)
Skt: पाण्डवः (paaNDavaH) - Arjuna (the son of Pandu) - OnlineSktDict

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p109b2-2

• पाण्डवाः (paaNDavaaH)
Skt: पाण्डवाः (paaNDavaaH) - the sons of Pandu - OnlineSktDict

• पाण्डवानां (paaNDavaanaaM)
Skt: पाण्डवानां (paaNDavaanaaM) - of the Pandavas - OnlineSktDict

• पाण्डवानीकं (paaNDavaaniikaM)
Skt: पाण्डवानीकं (paaNDavaaniikaM) - the soldiers of the Pandavas - OnlineSktDict

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p109b2-3

• पाण्डित्य (paaNDitya)
Skt: पाण्डित्य (paaNDitya) - wisdon - OnlineSktDict

• पाण्डुपुत्राणां (paaNDuputraaNaaM)
Skt: पाण्डुपुत्राणां (paaNDuputraaNaaM) - of the sons of Pandu - OnlineSktDict

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p109b2-4

€ पात paata
Skt: पात paata m. fall, falling - SpkSkt

• पातकं (paatakaM)
Skt: पातकं (paatakaM) - sinful reactions - OnlineSktDict

• पातकमूल (paatakamuula)
Skt: पातकमूल (paatakamuula) - adj. essentially criminal - OnlineSktDict

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p109b2-5

• पातज्न्जली (paataJNjalii)
Skt: पातज्न्जली (paataJNjalii) - author of the Yoga Sutras - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Patanjali

Wiki: Pandu (Skt: पाण्‍डु = प ा ण ् ‍ ड ु) - transcript Pandu wrong - UKT100513

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p109b3

• पाताल (paataala)
Skt: पाताल (paataala) - nether-world - OnlineSktDict

• पातित (paatita)
Skt: पातित (paatita) - taken down - OnlineSktDict

• पातु (paatu)
Skt: पातु (paatu) - may he protect - OnlineSktDict

• पातुं (paatuM)
Skt: पातुं (paatuM) - (infinitive) to drink - OnlineSktDict

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p109b3-2

• पात्र (paatra)
Skt: पात्र (paatra) - vessel - OnlineSktDict

• पात्रे (paatre)
Skt: पात्रे (paatre) - to a suitable person - OnlineSktDict

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€ पाथक pāthaka
Skt: पाथक pāthaka - m. traveller - SpkSk

€ पान्थ pāntha (= प ा न ् थ )
Skt: पान्थ pāntha - m. traveller - SpkSkt

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p109b3-3

• पाद (paada)
Skt: पाद (paada) - foot - OnlineSktDict

• पादं (paadaM)
Skt: पादं (paadaM) - and legs - OnlineSktDict

• पादत्राणम् (paadatraaNam.h)
Skt: पादत्राणम् (paadatraaNam.h) - n. shoes - OnlineSktDict

• पादहस्तासन (paadahastaasana)
Skt: पादहस्तासन (paadahastaasana) - the balancing forward bend posture - OnlineSktDict

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p109b4-

• पादांशुकम् (paadaa.nshukam.h)
Skt: पादांशुकम् (paadaa.nshukam.h) - n. pyjama - OnlineSktDict

• पादाङ्गष्ठ (paadaa.ngushhTha)
Skt: पादाङ्गष्ठ (paadaa.ngushhTha) - the big toe - OnlineSktDict

• पादासन (paadaasana)
Skt: पादासन (paadaasana) - the foot above posture - OnlineSktDict

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p110top

• पादौ (paadau)
Skt: पादौ (paadau) - feet - OnlineSktDict

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p110top-2

• पान (paana)
Skt: पान (paana) - drinking - OnlineSktDict

• पान्थ (paantha)
Skt: पान्थ (paantha) - traveller - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पान्थ pāntha - m. traveller - SpkSkt

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p110top-3

• पाप (paapa)
Skt: पाप (paapa) - Bad deed - OnlineSktDict

• पापं (paapaM)
Skt: पापं (paapaM) - sin - OnlineSktDict

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p110top-4

• पापकृत्तमः (paapakRittamaH)
Skt: पापकृत्तमः (paapakRittamaH) - the greatest sinner - OnlineSktDict

• पापघ्नीं (paapaghniiM)
Skt: पापघ्नीं (paapaghniiM) - which kills the sins (the hymn) - OnlineSktDict

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p110top-5

• पापजन्य (paapajanya)
Skt: पापजन्य (paapajanya) - adj. derived from sin, son of sin :-) - OnlineSktDict

€ पापबुद्धि   pāpabuddhi   adj.   ill-intentioned ; evil-intentioned - SpkSkt

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p110top-6

• पापयोनयः (paapayonayaH)
Skt: पापयोनयः (paapayonayaH) - born of a lower family - OnlineSktDict

• पापवासनीक् (paapavaasaniik.h)
Skt: पापवासनीक् (paapavaasaniik.h) - adj. desirous of sin - OnlineSktDict

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p110b1

• पापाः (paapaaH)
Skt: पापाः (paapaaH) - sinners - OnlineSktDict

• पापाचरणं (paapaacharaNaM)
Skt: पापाचरणं (paapaacharaNaM) - pApa + AcharaNa, sin-practising - OnlineSktDict

• पापात् (paapaat.h)
Skt: पापात् (paapaat.h) - from sins - OnlineSktDict

• पापात्मनां (paapaatmanaaM)
Skt: पापात्मनां (paapaatmanaaM) - of the wicked people - OnlineSktDict

• पापात्मा (paapaatmaa)
Skt: पापात्मा (paapaatmaa) - wicked people, sinners - OnlineSktDict

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p110b1-2

• पापीयान् (paapiiyaan.h)
Skt: पापीयान् (paapiiyaan.h) - sinner - OnlineSktDict

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p110b1-3

• पापेन (paapena)
Skt: पापेन (paapena) - by sin - OnlineSktDict

• पापेभ्यः (paapebhyaH)
Skt: पापेभ्यः (paapebhyaH) - of sinners - OnlineSktDict

• पापेषु (paapeshhu)
Skt: पापेषु (paapeshhu) - unto the sinners - OnlineSktDict

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p110b1-4

• पापैः (paapaiH)
Skt: पापैः (paapaiH) - sin - OnlineSktDict

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p110b2

• पाप्मानं (paapmaanaM)
Skt: पाप्मानं (paapmaanaM) - the great symbol of sin - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Panchala

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchala 100425

Panchala (पांचाल) is an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. During the ancient times, it was home to a confederacy, the Panchalas and in c. 6th century BCE, it was considered as one of the solasa (sixteen) mahajanapadas.

Geographical extent

The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganga. It roughly corresponded to modern Budaun, Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh. The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra, (also known as Adhichhatra and Chhatravati, near present-day Ramnagar village in Aonla tehsil of Bareilly district, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district. The famous city of Kanyakubja or Kannauj was situated in the kingdom of Panchala.

Pachala during the Vedic period

Panchala was the second "urban" center of Vedic civilization, as its focus moved east from the Punjab, after the focus of power had been with the Kurus in the early Iron Age. This period is associated with the Painted Grey Ware culture, arising beginning around 1100 BCE, and declining from 600 BCE, with the end of the Vedic period. The Shaunaka and Taittiriya Vedic schools were located in the area of Panchala.

The ruling confederacy, the Panchalas, as their name suggests, probably consisted of five clans - the Krivis, the Turvashas, The Keshins, the Srinjayas and the Somakas. Each of these clans is known to be associated with one or more princes mentioned in the Vedic texts - the Krivis with Kravya Panchala, the Turvashas with Sona Satrasaha, the Keshins with Keshin Dalavya, the Srinjayas with Sahadeva Sarnjaya and the Somakas with Somaka Sahadevya. The names of the last two clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are also mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan.[1] However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan and Divodasa, Sudas, Srinjaya, Somaka and Drupada (also called Yajnasena) were the most notable rulers of this clan.[2]

Panchala under Magadhan rule

Originally a monarchical clan, the Panchalas appear to have switched to republican corporation around 500 BCE. The Buddhist text, Anguttara Nikaya mentions Panchala as one of the sixteen mahajanapadas of the c. 6th century BCE.[3] The 4th century BCE Arthashastra also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. Panchala was annexed into the Magadha empire during the reign of Mahapadma Nanda.[4]

The Yuga Purana section of the Gargi Samhita informs us that Panchala was invaded and occupied by the Yavana (Greco-Bactrian) army led by King Dhamamita (Demetrius) during Brihadratha's reign. But soon they had to leave to Bactria to fight a fierce battle (probably between Eucratides and Demetrius.[5]

Panchala during post-Mauryan period

Numismatic evidence reveals the existence of the independent rulers of Panchala during the post-Mauryan period. Most of the coins issued by them are found at Ahichatra and adjoining areas. All coins are round, made of a copper alloy and have a set pattern on the obverse -- a deeply incised square punch consisting of a row of three symbols and the ruler's name placed in a single line below them. The reverse bears depiction of the deities or sometimes their attributes, whose names form as a component of the issuers' names (like coins of Agnimitra bear the depiction of Agni). The names of the rulers found from these coins are Vangapala, Yajnapala, Damagupta, Rudragupta, Jayagupta, Suryamitra, Phalgunimitra, Bhanumitra, Bhumimitra, Dhruvamitra, Agnimitra, Indramitra, Vishnumitra, Jayamitra, Prajapatimitra, Varunamitra, Anamitra, Bhadraghosha and Yugasena (reverse of the coins of Varunamitra, Yugasena and Anamitra do not exhibit any deity). Shaunakayaniputra Vangapala, ruler of Ahichatra, whom Vaidehiputra Ashadhasena refers as his grandfather in his Pabhosa inscription, is identified with king Vangapala, known from his coins. The name of Damagupta is also found on a clay sealing.[6][7] Probably, the last independent ruler of Ahichatra was Achyuta, who was defeated by Samudragupta and Panchala was annexed into the Gupta Empire.[8] The coins of Achyuta found from Ahichatra have a wheel of eight spokes on the reverse and the legend Achyu on the obverse.[9]

End of Wikipedia article.

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Pandu

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandu 100513

In the Mahābhārata epic, Pandu (Skt: पाण्‍डु = प ा ण ् ‍ ड ु) is the son of Ambalika and Rishi Ved Vyasa. He is more popularly known as the "father" of the Pandavas.

UKT: I've put the word <father> in the above para within quote marks to show that none of the Pandavas were his natural children. The children were born to his wives through the "blessings" of various "gods" (probably sexual union with unidentified men sanctioned by the husband himself and allowed by the then custom of the land) - UKT100813

Birth

After Vichitravirya's [king of Hastinapur] death his mother Satyavati sent for her first born, Rishi Veda Vyasa. According to his mother's wishes, he visited [had sex with] both the wives of Vichitravirya to grant them a son. Ambalika was instructed by Satyavati to keep her eyes open lest she would bear a blind son like Ambika (Dhritarashtra). She did keep her eyes open but she became pale after seeing the formidable form of the Sage. Therefore, Pandu was born pale.

Life

Pandu was an excellent archer. He became the successor to his kingdom and was corronated Emperor of Hastinapur. Pandu later conquered the territories of Dasarnas, Kashi, Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Magadha etc. and thus re-established their superiority over all the kings and increasing his empire.

Pandu got married to Madri, daughter of the King of Madra, and Kunti, daughter of King Kuntibhoja of Vrishni. While hunting in a forest, (looking from a long distance, his vision partially obscured by plants and trees) Pandu mistook a sage (Rishi Kindama) and his wife for deer and shot an arrow at them, killing the conjugal couple. The dying sage cursed Pandu that as he had killed them in in the midst of lovemaking, as and when he approaches a woman with the intent to make love, he will die. Upset and seeking to repent his action, Pandu renounced his kingdom and lived like an ascetic with his wives.

Childless at the time, Maharaja Pandu left his kingdom in the command of his elder brother, the blind Dhritrashtra, who was then crowned as king of Hastinapura.

When Pandu expressed to Kunti his despair at the prospect of dying childless, Kunti used her boons given by Sage Durvasa to bear three sons — Yudhishtira (by Lord Dharma), Bhima (by Lord Vayu), and Arjuna (by Lord Indra). Also Kunti gave birth to Karna through Surya. She also gave her boons to Madri, who bore Nakula and Sahadeva, twins from the physicians to the gods, the Ashwini Kumaras twins.

Thus the Pandavas of Pandu were born. [None were the natural children of Pandu - UKT100513].

Death

Pandu was suffering from a sexual curse. After 15 years of celibacy, when Kunti and his sons were away, Pandu suddenly became strongly attracted to Madri. Because of the curse, he died after attempting to touch her, and Madri, out of repentance and grief, committing sati, burned herself alive on her husband's funeral pyre.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

From: http://indiatravel17.wordpress.com/2011/02/16/pandukeshwar-and-how-pandavas-were-born/ 110918

Pandukeshwar is a beautifull little village in Chamoli District of Uttaranchal. The village is around 20 km from Joshimath and 25 km from Badrinath.

The place is associated with many legends from Mahabharata and people there will be happy to tell you everything in detail.

It is believed that King Pandu, the father of the Pandavas, performed penances here to atone for the curse he received for killing two mating deers. They were actually a sage and his wife who assumed the form of a deer while they mated in the forest. King Pandu, who was hunting in the forest, not knowing that, shot the male deer with an arrow. Before dying the sage cursed Pandu that he would also die if ever indulge in sensual pleasures.

In the village there is a temple dedicated to king Pandu and also another dedicated to Lord Vishnu. Latter is also called Yogadhyan Badri . It is also said that five sons of Pandu, Pandavas, were born in this place.

Being cursed by a sage, king Pandu told his two wives, Kunti and Madri, about the incident in the forest. Then his wife Kunti told him about the boon she once recieved from the sage Durvasa by which she could invoke any God to visit her. To please the king she invoked first Lord Dharma and by him a first child was born. They named him Yudhisthira. Pandu was very happy so he requested Kunti to invoke another God. This time she invoked Vayu, God of the wind, and second son Bhima was born. Being the son of the Wind God, he was ment to be the most powerful and the most affectionate on the earth. Seeing his two sons, Yudhisthira and Bhima, Pandu wanted another son. This time Lord Indra was invoked. His son was named Arjuna who became a great hero like his father. After that Kunti instructed king’s younger wife, Madri, how to invoke God because she didn’t have any children. Madri invoked Ashvini-kumaras, two twin-Gods and so she was blessed with the twins, Nakula and Sahadeva.

Well, one day, in the season of spring which maddens every creature, the king went for a walk in the forest accompanied by his younger wife Madri. Being alone with his beautiful youthful wife and beholding all the blossoming flowers and bees, Pandu’s desire flamed up. Consumed by desire, the king forgot about everything and embraced his wife. United in intercourse with her he died because of the curse.

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Pataρjali

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pata%C3%B1jali 100109

Pataρjali ( पतञ्जलि, IPA: [pət̪əɲɟəli]; fl. 150 BCE[1] or 2nd c. BCE[2][3]) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice. According to tradition, the same Pataρjali was also the author of the Mahābhāṣya, a commentary on Kātyāyana's vārttikas (short comments) on Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as an unspecified work of medicine (āyurveda). In recent decades the Yoga Sutra has become quite popular worldwide for the precepts regarding practice of Raja Yoga and its philosophical basis. "Yoga" in traditional Hinduism involves inner contemplation, a system of meditation practice and ethics.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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