Update: 2012-01-02 11:47 PM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{k~Sa.} क्ष = क ् ष : See also {hka.} hka-058top-2.htm
{k~Sa} क्षा
{k~Si.} क्षि
{k~Si} क्षी 
{k~Su.} क्षु
{k~Su} क्षू
{k~Sι} क्षे
{k~Sau:} क्षो

UKT notes
• Pronouncing the unpronounceable conjuncts: the problem of phoneme [kʰ]
  € क्षन्तव्य   kṣantavya   adj.   to be borne =  क ् ष न ् त व ् य  
• Kshatriya, {hkϋt~ti.ya.}

UKT: Note to TIL HTML-editor
I've found the following entries in k-medials - k-med-056b3-2.htm
These files belong to this folder.


• क्षकिरणः (kShakiraNaH)
Skt: क्षकिरणः (kShakiraNaH) - (m) X-ray - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयरोगः (kShayarogaH)
Skt: क्षयरोगः (kShayarogaH) - (m) tuberculosis - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयरोग  kṣayaroga  m.  tuberculosis - SpkSkt


• क्षेत्राधिकारः (kShetraadhikaaraH)
Skt:क्षेत्राधिकारः (kShetraadhikaaraH) - (m) jurisdiction - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Sa.} क्ष = क ् ष

• क्षणं (kShaNaM) //
Skt: क्षणं (kShaNaM) - one second - OnlineSktDict

• क्षणप्रभा (kShaNaprabhaa)
Skt: क्षणप्रभा (kShaNaprabhaa) - f.  lightning - OnlineSktDict

• क्षणवियोग (kShaNaviyoga)
Skt: क्षणवियोग (kShaNaviyoga) - momentary separation - OnlineSktDict

• क्षणवीक्षित (kShaNaviikshita)
Skt: क्षणवीक्षित (kShaNaviikshita) - glance - OnlineSktDict

• क्षत्रिय (kShatriya) 
Skt: क्षत्रिय (kShatriya) - the caste of princes and warriors - OnlineSktDict
Pal: khattiya  m. a prince, nobleman - UPMT-PED081
Pal: {hkϋt~ti.ya.} - UHS-PMD0343

See my note on Kshatriya from Skt: क्षत्र kṣatra , {hkϋt~ti.ya.}
Don't forget the pronunciation of English word <bun> /bʌn/ --> {bϋn:}

• क्षत्रियबलं (kShatriyabalaM)
Skt: क्षत्रियबलं (kShatriyabalaM) - the power or might of the kshatriyas or kings - OnlineSktDict

• क्षत्रियस्य (kShatriyasya)
Skt: क्षत्रियस्य (kShatriyasya)  - of the ksatriya - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षत्रियाः (kShatriyaaH)
Skt: क्षत्रियाः (kShatriyaaH) - the members of the royal order - OnlineSktDict

• क्षन्तिः (kShantiH)
Skt: क्षन्तिः (kShantiH) - tolerance - OnlineSktDict
Pal: khanti  f.  patience, forbearance, endurance - UPMT-PED081
Pal: {hkϋnti} - UHS-PMD0344

• क्षमता (kShamataa)
Skt: क्षमता (kShamataa) - ability - OnlineSktDict

• क्षमा (kShamaa)
Skt: क्षमा (kShamaa) - forgivance - OnlineSktDict

• क्षमी (kShamii)
Skt: क्षमी (kShamii) - forgiving - OnlineSktDict

• क्षय (kShaya)
Skt: क्षय (kShaya) - loss, weakening, scaricity - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयं (kShayaM)
Skt: क्षयं (kShayaM) - destruction - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयकृत् (kShayakRit.h)
Skt: क्षयकृत् (kShayakRit.h) - the destroyer - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयति (kShayati)
Skt: क्षयति (kShayati) - (1 pp) to decay - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयात् (kShayaat.h)
Skt: क्षयात् (kShayaat.h) - (from) consunption/ destruction - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षयाय (kShayaaya)
Skt: क्षयाय (kShayaaya) - for destruction - OnlineSktDict

• क्षर (kShara)
Skt: क्षर (kShara) - prone to end, destructible - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: {hka.ya.}  m.  a dwelling, loss, diminution, end, destruction - UPMT-PED081
*Pal: {hka.ra.}  adj. solid, sharp, hoarse; m. an ass, saw - UPMT-PED081

• क्षरं (kSharaM)
Skt: क्षरं (kSharaM) - to the fallible - OnlineSktDict

• क्षरः (kSharaH)
Skt: क्षरः (kSharaH) - constantly changing - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Sa} क्षा

• क्षात्रं (kShaatraM)
Skt: क्षात्रं (kShaatraM) - of a ksatriya - OnlineSktDict

• क्षान्तिः (kShaantiH)
Skt: क्षान्तिः (kShaantiH) - tolerance - OnlineSktDict

• क्षामये (kShaamaye)
Skt: क्षामये (kShaamaye) - ask forgiveness - OnlineSktDict

• क्षार (kShaara)
Skt: क्षार kṣāra (kShaara) - salty - OnlineSktDict
Skt: क्षार  kṣāra  m.  salt  - SpkSkt
Pal: khāra  adj.   salty, alkaline - UPMT-PED082
Pal: {hka-ra.} - UHS-PMD0347
• क्षालयति (kShaalayati)
Skt: क्षालयति (kShaalayati)  - (10 pp) to wash - OnlineSktDict 

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{k~Si.} क्षि

• क्षितिपाल (kShitipaala)
Skt: क्षितिपाल (kShitipaala) - (m) protector of the earth, king - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षिप (kShip) (UKT: transcript sp?)
Skt: क्षिप (kShip) - (root) to throw - OnlineSktDict

• क्षिपति (kShipati)
Skt: क्षिपति (kShipati) - 6pp  to throw - OnlineSktDict
Pal: khipati  v. (√khip) to throw, shoot - UPMT-PED082
Pal: {hki.pa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0348

• क्षिपामि (kShipaami)
Skt: क्षिपामि (kShipaami) - I put - OnlineSktDict

• क्षिप्त (kShipta)
Skt: क्षिप्त (kShipta) - neglected or distracted - OnlineSktDict

• क्षिप्रं (kShipraM)
Skt: क्षिप्रं (kShipraM) - soon - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Si} क्षी

• क्षी (kShii)
Skt: क्षी (kShii) - to diminish - OnlineSktDict

• क्षीणकल्मषाः (kShiiNakalmashhaaH)
Skt: क्षीणकल्मषाः (kShiiNakalmashhaaH) - who are devoid of all sins - OnlineSktDict

• क्षीणे (kShiiNe)
Skt: क्षीणे (kShiiNe) - spent-up/ weakened state of - OnlineSktDict

• क्षीर (kShiira)
Skt: क्षीर (kShiira) - milk - OnlineSktDict
Pal: khīra  n.  milk  - UPMT-PED082
Pal: {hki-ra.} - UHS-PMD0349

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{k~Su.} क्षु

• क्षुद्र (kShudra)
Skt: क्षुद्र (kShudra) - insignificant, small - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षुद्रं (kShudraM)
Skt: क्षुद्रं (kShudraM) - petty - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुद्र (kShudra)
Skt: क्षुद्र (kShudra) - insignificant, small - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुद्रं (kShudraM)
Skt: क्षुद्रं (kShudraM) - petty - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुध (kShudh)
Skt: क्षुध (kShudh) - hunger - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुधा (kShudhaa)
Skt: क्षुधा (kShudhaa) - hunger - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षुधार्त (kShudhaarta)
Skt: क्षुधार्त (kShudhaarta) - hungry - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुध्यति (kShudhyati)
Skt: क्षुध्यति (kShudhyati) - (4 pp) to be hungry - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुभ्यति (kShubhyati)
Skt: क्षुभ्यति (kShubhyati) - (4 pp) to tremble - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुर (kShura)
Skt: क्षुर (kShura) m. knife - OnlineSktDict
Pal:  khura  m. a razor, sharp blade, hoof - UPMT-PED082
Pal: {hku.ra.} - UHS-PMD0350

• क्षुरक्रिया (kShurakriyaa)
Skt: क्षुरक्रिया (kShurakriyaa) - (fem) shaving, cutting with a knife - OnlineSktDict

• क्षुरपत्रम् (kShurapatram.h)
Skt: क्षुरपत्रम् (kShurapatram.h) - (n) blade - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Su} क्षू

• क्षूद्र (kShuudra)
Skt: क्षूद्र (kShuudra) - weak (here) - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Sι} क्षे

• क्षेत्र (kShetra)
Skt: क्षेत्र (kShetra) - field - OnlineSktDict
Skt: क्षेत्र kṣetra  n.  field - SpkSkt

• क्षेत्रं (kShetraM)
Skt: क्षेत्रं (kShetraM) - the field - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेत्रज्ञ (kShetraGYa)
Skt: क्षेत्रज्ञ (kShetraGYa) - and the knower of the body - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षेत्रज्ञं (kShetraGYaM)
Skt: क्षेत्रज्ञं (kShetraGYaM) - the knower of the field - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेत्रज्ञः (kShetraGYaH)
Skt: क्षेत्रज्ञः (kShetraGYaH) - the knower of the field - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेत्रज्ञयोः (kShetraGYayoH)
Skt: क्षेत्रज्ञयोः (kShetraGYayoH) - and the knower of the field - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेत्री (kShetrii)
Skt: क्षेत्री (kShetrii) - the soul - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेत्रेषु (kShetreshhu)
Skt: क्षेत्रेषु (kShetreshhu) - in bodily field - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेपणस्त्रः (kShepaNaastraH)
Skt: क्षेपणस्त्रः (kShepaNaastraH) - (m) missile - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेपणी (kShepaNii)
Skt: क्षेपणी (kShepaNii) - (f) rocket - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेमं (kShemaM)
Skt: क्षेमं (kShemaM) - protection - OnlineSktDict

• क्षेमतरं (kShemataraM)
Skt: क्षेमतरं (kShemataraM) - better - OnlineSktDict

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{k~Sau:} क्षो

• क्षोउति (kShouti)
Skt: क्षोउति (kShouti) - to sneeze - OnlineSktDict

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• क्षोभं (kShobhaM)
Skt: क्षोभं (kShobhaM) - disturbance - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Kshatriya क्षत्रिय

by UKT 100430

My interest in the {hkϋt~ti.ya.} is purely linguistic. I am interested in the language used by Gaudama Buddha to preach in his native land - Magadha straddling the border of the present-day Nepal and India. The Buddha was one of the {hkϋt~ti.ya.}. So was his contemporary, Mahavira , the founder of Jainism.

Both religions were atheistic, the opposite of Vedic Hinduism with the idea of a creator God or Gods. The literatures of both Buddhism and Jainism were in Pali - Prakrits 'proto-languages' as opposed to Sanskrit 'refined-language'. How were these speeches written down? Were they written in what we call Brahmi at the present. It is interesting to note that the present day Myanmar script is similar to the Brahmi in about 33% of the graphemes.

Yet we find prominent differences between the Brahmi script and Myanmar the latter being formed from circles - NOT just the rounded shapes of the south Indian scripts.

Why was the Myanmar script based on circles? It was suggested by Taw Seinkho that the circular writing is due to it being written on palm leaves. However, the discovery of a palm-leaf writing of the 11th century on which non-circular graphemes were written shows that Taw Seinkho's suggestion might be wrong. The reason for the circles of Myanmar script may be due to another cause.

Perhaps, [just pure conjecture - mind you!], might be due to its being a hidden writing [not based on phonetics] representing ideas. It was an ideographic way of writing - to convey ideas as in Bur-Myan {ing:} or runes.

The above {ing:} gives a message: the message of perfection (revealed to me by an unknown source - comparable to Kekulι 'dreaming' about the benzene ring being formed from dancing monkeys or snake in the flames of the fireplace: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_August_Kekul%C3%A9_von_Stradonitz 110921 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzene 110921).

"Count clockwise. {sa.} means 'the beginning' - you are an imperfection - a circle with an imperfection on the left. You must perfect yourself but will not succeed on the first try. {Da.} means the stage after the first try - an imperfection on the bottom - with regards to sexual conduct. Don't despair. Try. {ba.} means the stage after the second try - an imperfection on top. Now the imperfection is in your head - wrong ideas: attachment to material things and ideas. Try. {wa.} means the perfection - a full circle. Now you are perfect."

At present, Jaina texts are in Pali-Gujarati, and the Theravada Buddhist texts are in Pali-Myanmar in the country of Myanmar. So how did Pali sounded in the days of the Buddha? Was Pali or Magadhi the language of Magadha rhotic like Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, or Tibeto-Burman like Burmese? Was the very rhotic vowel ऋ present?

Was the language thibilant with the sound of /θ/, or sibilant [hissing sounds in the coda of syllables] in which /s/ dominates?

We find quite a lot of {la.} /l/ sounds [ {lya.}, {lwa.}, {lha.}; {lhya.}, {lhwa.}] in present day Bur-Myan, and so we must ask was the ancient language, sometimes presently dubbed as 'Vedic Sanskrit' similar to the present day Pal-Myan? Why had the labial vowel ऌ of Vedic disappeared and is not present in classical Sanskrit of Panini?

Perhaps, from the language, the ethnicity of the Buddha and his prominent facial features can be known.


Excerpt from: http://www.indiancultureonline.com/Mystica/html/varna.htm - download date not recorded

The Rig-Veda (a holy book), divides ancient Indian society into four separate but interdependent castes or classes of people.

According to the Puranas (another holy book of Hindu religion), the Brahmins or priests were born of the mouth of Lord Brahma and can speak with and pray to the gods on behalf of mankind. The Kshatriyas or rulers and warriors were born of Lord Brahma's arms and were given the task of protecting society and using weapons. The Vaishyas (business people and originally farmers) were born of his thighs and took care of trade, business activities, and farming. The Shudras (or common laborers) were born of Brahma's feet and their only purpose was to serve the other three castes. They became almost like slaves. This group became the farmers and herders as the business class became richer and more powerful.

In addition to the four named castes, another category was later made. This category of people called the Chandalas. They were the outcastes or "untouchables" that were considered outside of the system. They did not live within the cities or villages, nor were they allowed to enter, except to scavenge and collect night soil (manure).

This "caste sytem" grew in the later days of Magadhan imperialism (i.e. after 500 B.C.E.). Buddhism and Jainism were both against this system and drew converts from all groups of people.

UKT inserts from other sources:
   The main Europeans to arrive in ancient India were Greeks. The Greeks are referred to in ancient Indian history as Yavanas. Even the most famous ancient Greek conqueror, Alexander the Great [Macedonian], arrived in India. But actually he arrived up to the present India-Pakistan border. But there were other Greeks who arrived in India and established kingdoms. Many of these Greek communities later on adopted Hinduism and integrated in the Indian caste system. Even today there are communities in Kashmir who claim to be of Greek origin. Not all Greeks arrived in India to conquer it. There were also Greek scientists who arrived in India for scientific research, especially in astronomy and mathematics.
-- from http://adaniel.tripod.com/europeans.htm 080213
   My interest on Greeks is because of the strong rhotic vowels (sometimes referred to as vocalic r ), ऋ ṛ (short) and ॠ ṝ (long), present in Sanskrit. This vowel is present in the Macedonian language. Even if the indigenous languages in India just south of the Himalyas had been non-rhotic, they were bound to integrate this vowel into their own languages. My conjecture (pure speculation without concrete evidence) is the indigenous languages, such as Magadhi in which Gaudama Buddha had preached, had been Tibeto-Burman without the rhotic accent. Only when Pali the Prakrit was developed from Magadhi, did the rhotic accent crept into Buddha's teachings. However, languages of peoples well to the east, such as Burmese, did not come to have this vowel, and have retained the original sounds. I am suggesting therefore that Pali-Myanmar is more in line the sounds of the original Buddha's teachings. -- UKT 100428

Rulers and Warriors Class - "Kshatriya" or "protectors of gentle people"

The Kshatriyas were kings and warriors. They were said to have come from the arms of Brahma, meaning that their role in society was the protection of people and livestock. They were supposed to be brave and fearless, and to live and die by a code of honor and loyalty. They could eat meat and drink liquor. Their most exalted death was to die in battle.

Young men of this caste also studied with a guru (teacher) to learn the holy texts and become "twice born", but their training included the use of weapons. Only men of this class could have such training. Certain weapons were also forbidden to the other classes.

Men of this class also spoke Sanskrit, while the lower classes spoke the common language of the area.

Women of this caste had little political power. Their families would often arrange their marriages to build alliances or to achieve other political or economic goals for the family. Polygamy (having more than one wife) was permitted to all who could afford and it was especially popular among Kshatriaysa for political reasons. Girls were married between ages 8 and 10.

This class included the landowners.


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshatriya 100429

Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, kṣatriya from Skt: क्षत्र, kṣatra) or Kashtriya meaning warrior is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. शर्म ब्राहमणस्य वर्म क्षत्रियस्य गुप्तेती वैश्यस्य Prasar grhaysutras). It traditionally constituted the military and ruling order of the Vedic-Hindu social system outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu. Kshatriyas used to hold the top rank in the ancient Indian society: Rama, Krishna, Siddhartha Gautama, all of the Tirthankaras of Jainism from Parsvanatha to Mahavira were kshatriyas.


In Sanskrit, it is derived from kṣatra, meaning "roof, umbrella, dominion, power, government" from a root kṣī  "to rule, govern, possess". Old Persian xšaθra ("realm, power"), xšaθrya ("royal"), and xšāyaθiya ("emperor") are related to it, as are the New Persian words šāh ("emperor") and šahr ("city", "realm"). The Thai word for "king", kasat, and the Malay word for "knight" or "warrior", kesatria or satria, are also derived from it. The term denotes aristocratic status.

In the early Vedic civilization, the warrior caste was called rājanya (or kšatrīys ). Rājanya was an adjectival form of rājan "ruler, king" from a root rāj "to rule", cognate to the Latin rex "king", the German Reich "empire/realm", and the Thai racha "king". In Persia, the satraps, or "kshatrapa", were the governors, or "protectors", of the Persian Empire's provinces.


Initially in ancient Vedic society, this position was achieved on the merits of a person's aptitude (Sam), conduct (Sam), and nature (Sam). The earliest Vedic literature listed the Kshatriya (holders of kṣatra, or authority) as first in rank , second the Brahmins (priests and teachers of law) , before the Vaisya (merchant-traders, farmers and some artisan castes) , and the Sudra (labourers, some farming castes and other artisan castes) . Movements of individuals and groups from one class to another, both upward and downward, were not uncommon; a rise in status even to the rank of Kshatriya was a recognized reward for outstanding service to the rulers of the day.[1] [UKT Ά]

Over the years it became hereditary. In modern times, the Kshatriya varna includes a broad class of caste groups, differing considerably in status and function but united by their claims to ruler-ship, the pursuit of war, or the possession of land. The legend that the Kshatriyas, with the exception of the Ikshvakus, were destroyed by Parasurama, the sixth reincarnation of Vishnu, as a punishment for their tyranny is thought by some scholars to reflect a long struggle for supremacy between priests and rulers that ended in victory for the former. By the end of the Vedic era, the Brahmins were supreme, and the Kshatriya had fallen to second place. Texts such as the Manusmṛti (a book of Hindu law) and most other dharmashastras (works of jurisprudence) report a Brahman victory, but epic texts often offer a different account, and it is likely that in social reality rulers have usually ranked first. The persistent representation of deities (especially Vishnu, Krishna, and Rama) as rulers underscores the point, as does the elaborate series of ritual roles and privileges pertaining to kings through most of Hindu history.[2]. With the rise of Buddhism, Kshatriyas regained their position as first of the four varnas. The murder of the last Maurya emperor Brhadrata by his Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga and the subsequent decline of Buddhism in India, marked Brahmin supremacy once more in Eastern India. Western India remained a stronghold of Kshatriya clans as epitomized by Rajputana and the powerful Kshatriya empire that ruled from Ujjain right up to the Islamic incursions led to a downfall of the Chauhan Kshatriyas in Delhi.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Pronouncing the unpronounceable conjuncts:
the problem of phoneme /kʰ/

-- by UKT 100429

Skt-Dev, an Indo-European (IE) language, is full of conjuncts most of which are not pronounceable - at least for Burmese speakers. This is not true for Bur-Myan, a typical Tibeto-Bur (Tib-Bur) language. For a beginner learning Skt-Dev, it is best to take the conjunct apart as illustrated below:

€  ज्ञ =  ज ् ञ  : the diacritic on ज्ञ indicates a conjunct.
€  क्ष = क ् ष

These unpronounceable conjuncts present no problem when they are present in the coda. However, when an unpronounceable occur as the onset, the usual way is to take it apart and pronounce the first akshara as if it had not been killed. Thus, {k~sa.} is pronounced simply as {ka.sa.} /kəsa/ - the inherent vowel of the first akshara is pronounced as a schwa. Similar cases are found in English-Latin, as in <knot> /nɒt/ (US) /nɑːt/ -- <k> becomes silent.

Since no silent letters are allowed in Bur-Myan, and schwa is not indicated, representing onset conjuncts such as क्ष (= क ् ष ) becomes a problem. One of the ways suggested is to introduce a superscripted akshara similar to the {king:si:}. e.g. क्ष = क ् ष --> or . Thus, क्षणं (kShaNaM) //.

A word containing this conjunct as the onset is
  Skt. क्षत्रिय (kShatriya)
  Pal: {hkat~ti.ya.} - UHS-PMD0343
  Pal: khattiya  m.  a prince, nobleman - UPMT-PED081

The problem with Skt. क्षत्रिय (kShatriya) vs. Pal: {hkϋt~ti.ya.} can be traced to the inability of the IE speakers to pronounce the well-defined velar phoneme [kʰ] which the IE speakers thought is just an allophone of [k] - an aspirated [k]. The problem seems to have persisted to modern times as can be seen from the failure of the IPA developers to set aside a dedicated grapheme for it.

I'm waiting for comments from my Sanskrit-speaking peers. -- UKT 100428

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