Update: 2012-01-03 12:28 AM +0630

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

ga-058b3-3.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{ga.} ग
{gn} गं
{ga.ka.} गक
{ga.ga.} गग
{gn~ga} गङ्गा : See spelling differences in Skt-Dev, Hin-Dev, Bangala-Bengali, Pal-Myan
{ga.sa.} गच
{gic~} गच्
{ga.Na.} गण
{ga.ta.} गत
{ga.da.} गद
{gn~Da.} गन्ध
{ga.ma.} गम
{gm} गम्
{ga.ra.} गर
{ga.ri} गरी
{ga.ru.} गरु

 

UKT notes
Eagle posture Gaja-Kesari Yoga Ganesh Gandava Goddess Ganga Ganges River

गुंभीर  guṃbhīra  {gon-Bu-ra.} - m.  crocodile
गोमुख  gomukha {gau:mu.hka.} - m.  crocodile

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{ga.} ग

{gn} गं
p058b3-3

गं (ga.n)
Skt: गं (ga.n) - the letter of sound 'ga.n - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.ka.} गक
p058b3-4

गकारः (gakaaraH)
Skt: गकारः (gakaaraH) - being with the letter 'ga' - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.ga.} गग
not entered in OnlineSktDict

गगनमध्य  gaganamadhya  n.  zenith  - SpkSkt

p058b3-5

गगनयात्रिकः (gaganayaatrikaH)
Skt: गगनयात्रिकः (gaganayaatrikaH) - (m) astronaut - OnlineSktDict

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{gn~ga} गङ्गा
p058b3-6

गङ्गा (ga.ngaa) 
Skt: गङ्गा (ga.ngaa) - river Ganga - OnlineSktDict
Skt: गङ्गा gaṅgā - the Ganges - SpkSkt
Hindi: गंगा Ganga - Wiki (UKT note: {ga.th:th:ting})
Bengali: গঙ্গা Gnga - Wiki (UKT note: {ga.nga.tht})
Pal-Myan: {gn~ga} - UHS-PMD0352

See my notes on Goddess Ganga and Ganges River in my notes.

 

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p058b4

गङ्गासागर (ga.ngaasaagara)
Skt: गङ्गासागर (ga.ngaasaagara) - the sea of Ganga (banks of the Ganges) - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.sa.} गच

{gic~} गच्
p058b4-2

गच्छताम् (gachchhataam.h)
Skt: गच्छताम् (gachchhataam.h) - (may the two) go - OnlineSktDict

गच्छति (gachchhati)
Skt: गच्छति (gachchhati) - goes - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gacchati  v.  (√gam) to go, depart, proceed - UPMT-PEDict083
Pal: {gic~hsa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0352

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p059top

गच्छन् (gachchhan.h)
Skt: गच्छन् (gachchhan.h) - going - OnlineSktDict

गच्छन्ति (gachchhanti)
Skt: गच्छन्ति (gachchhanti) - they reach - OnlineSktDict

गज gaja (gaja)
Skt: गज (gaja) - Elephant - OnlineSktDict
Skt: गज  gaja  m.  elephant - SpkSkt
Pal: gaja  m.  an elephant; *tā  f.  a herd of elephants - UPMT-PED083
Pal: {ga.za.} - UHS-PMD0353

गजः (gajaH)
Skt: गजः (gajaH) - elephant - OnlineSktDict

गजकेशरियोग (gajakeshariyoga) 
Skt: गजकेशरियोग (gajakeshariyoga) - Yoga in which the Moon is in an angular position (Kendra) - OnlineSktDict

See my note on gajakesriyoga aka 'elephant-lion astrological combination'.

गजदन्त  gajadanta  m.  ivory - SpkSkt
   UKT: literary translation: 'elephant tooth'.

गजयूथ  gajayūtha  n. herd of elephants - SpkSkt

गजराज  gajarāja  m.  noble elephant - SpkSkt

गजवदन  gajavadana  -  elephant faced - SpkSkt

गजेन्द्राणां (gajendraaNaaM)
= ग ज े न ् द ् र ा ण ा ं
Skt: गजेन्द्राणां (gajendraaNaaM) - of lordly elephants - OnlineSktDict

गज्न्जीफा (gaJNjiiphaa)
= ग ज ् न ् ज ी फ ा
Skt: गज्न्जीफा (gaJNjiiphaa) - playing cards - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.Na.} गण
p059top-2

गण् (gaN.h)
Skt: गण् (gaN.h) - to count, to consider - OnlineSktDict

गण (gaNa)
Skt: गण (gaNa) - number - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gaṇa - m. a multitude, number, herd, troop, chapter of monks - UPMT-PED083
Pal: {ga.Na.} - UHS-PMD0353 

गणकऋषिः (ganakaRishhiH)
Skt: गणकऋषिः (ganakaRishhiH) - the rishi of this stotra is gaNaka - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: gaṇaka  m.  (√gaṇ)  an accountant, treasurer, astrologer - UPMT-PED083
* {ga.Na.ka.} - UHS-PMD0353 

UKT: I couldn't get the meaning of 'stotra' either in AHTD or http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/stotra 100610

गजस्नानम्  gajasnānam  fig.  unproductive effort; useless effort 

गजानन  gajānana  --  elephant faced

गजः कथं मृतः ?   gajaḥ kathaṃ mṛtaḥ ?  --  How did the elephant die ?
गजं कः मारितवान् ?  gajaṃ kaḥ māritavān ?  -- Who has killed the elephant ?

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p059b1

गणना gaṇana 
Skt: गणना (gaNanaa) - consideration - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: gaṇana  fn. counting, arithmetic - UPMT-MED084
*Pal: {ga.Na.na.} - UHS-PMD0353 

गणपतये (gaNapataye)
Skt: गणपतये (gaNapataye) - to gaNapati - OnlineSktDict

गणपति (gaNapati)
Skt: गणपति (gaNapati) - goNaanaaM pathiH or lord of groups (of devas) - OnlineSktDict

गणपतिं (gaNapatiM)
Skt: गणपतिं (gaNapatiM) - Ganesh - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on Ganesh

गणपतिर्देवता (gaNapatirdevataa)
Skt: गणपतिर्देवता (gaNapatirdevataa) - the god of this stotra - OnlineSktDict

गणपती (gaNapatii)
Skt: गणपती (gaNapatii) - god of luck and wisdom - OnlineSktDict

गणपति (gaNayati)
Skt: गणपति (gaNayati) - (10 up) to count - OnlineSktDict

गणित (gaNita)
Skt: गणित (gaNita) - mathematics - OnlineSktDict

गणेश gaṇeśa - Wiki

गणेशविद्या (gaNeshavidyaa)
Skt: गणेशविद्या (gaNeshavidyaa) - the knowledge of gaNeshha - OnlineSktDict

ग्णड gaṇḍa 
Skt: ग्णड (gaNDa) - the cheek - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gaṇḍa  m.  the cheek, elephant's temples, boil - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {gN~da.} - UHS-PMD0354

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{ga.ta.} गत
p059b2

गत (gata)
Skt: गत (gata) - gone - OnlineSktDict

गत(ः) (gata(H))
Skt: गत(ः) (gata(H)) - (Nasc.Nom.S) having gone or the person who has gone - OnlineSktDict

गतं (gataM)
Skt: गतं (gataM) - reached (past part). - OnlineSktDict

गतः (gataH)
Skt: गतः (gataH) - returned - OnlineSktDict

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p052b2-2

गतचिन्ता (gatachintaa)
Skt: गतचिन्ता (gatachintaa) - thinking of - OnlineSktDict

गतरसं (gatarasaM)
Skt: गतरसं (gatarasaM) - tasteless - OnlineSktDict

गतवति (gatavati)
Skt: गतवति (gatavati) - while gone - OnlineSktDict

गतव्यथाः (gatavyathaaH)
Skt: गतव्यथाः (gatavyathaaH) - freed from all distress - OnlineSktDict

गतसङ्गस्य (gatasa.ngasya)
Skt: गतसङ्गस्य (gatasa.ngasya) - of one unattached to the modes of material nature - OnlineSktDict

गता (gataa)
Skt: गता (gataa) - became - OnlineSktDict

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p059b3

गताः (gataaH)
Skt: गताः (gataaH) - having achieved - OnlineSktDict

गतागतं (gataagataM)
Skt: गतागतं (gataagataM) - death and birth - OnlineSktDict

गतासून् (gataasuun.h)
Skt: गतासून् (gataasuun.h) - gata + asuun.h: departed life (dead people) - OnlineSktDict

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p059b3-2

गति gati 
Skt: गति (gati) - the movement - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gati  f. going, journey, course, refuge, issue, destiny, prudence - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {ga.ti.} - UHS-PMD0355

गतिं (gatiM)
Skt: गतिं (gatiM) - grogress - OnlineSktDict

गतिः (gatiH)
Skt: गतिः (gatiH) - entrance - OnlineSktDict

गत्वा (gatvaa)
Skt: गत्वा (gatvaa) - attaining - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.da.} गद
p059b3-3

गदति gadati 
Skt: गदति (gadati) - 1pp.  to say - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gadati  v. to speak - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {ga.da.ti.} - UHS-PMD0356

गदा  gadā 
Skt: गदा  gadā  f.  mace - SpkSkt
Pal: gadā  f. a club - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {ga.da} - UHS-PMD0356

गदिनं (gadinaM)
Skt: गदिनं (gadinaM) - with maces - OnlineSktDict

गन्तव्यं (gantavyaM)
Skt: गन्तव्यं (gantavyaM) - to be reached - OnlineSktDict

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p059b4

गन्तासि (gantaasi)
Skt: गन्तासि (gantaasi) - you shall go - OnlineSktDict

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{gan~Da.} गन्ध
p060top 

गन्ध gandha
Skt: गन्ध (gandha) - m. smell - OnlineSktDict
Skt:  गन्ध gandha  m.  smell - SpkSkt
Pal:  gandha  m.  smell, odour, perfume, fragrance - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {gn~Da.} - UHS-PMD0356

गन्धः (gandhaH)
Skt: गन्धः (gandhaH) - fragrance - OnlineSktDict

गन्धर्व (gandharva)
Skt: गन्धर्व (gandharva) - of the Gandharvas - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Gandharva .

गन्धर्वाणां (gandharvaaNaaM)
Skt: गन्धर्वाणां (gandharvaaNaaM) - of the citizens of the Gandharva planet - OnlineSktDict

गन्धान् (gandhaan.h)
Skt: गन्धान् (gandhaan.h) - smells - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.ma.} गम
p060top-2

गमः (gamaH)
Skt: गमः (gamaH) - take to - OnlineSktDict

गमन (gamana)
Skt: गमन (gamana) - Going - OnlineSktDict

गमनं (gamanaM)
Skt: गमनं (gamanaM) - going - OnlineSktDict

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{gm} गम्
p060top-3

गम्यते (gamyate) = ग म ् य त े
Skt: गम्यते (gamyate) - one can attain - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.ra.} गर

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{ga.ri} गरी
p060top-4

गरीयः (gariiyaH)
Skt: गरीयः (gariiyaH) - better - OnlineSktDict

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p060b1

गरीयसि (gariiyasi)
Skt: गरीयसि (gariiyasi) - (fem.Nom.S) better (thing or person) - OnlineSktDict

गरीयसे (gariiyase)
Skt: गरीयसे (gariiyase) - who are better - OnlineSktDict

गरीयान् (gariiyaan.h)
Skt: गरीयान् (gariiyaan.h) - glorious - OnlineSktDict

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{ga.ru.} गरु
p060b1-2

गरुड (garuDa)
= ग र ु ड
Skt: गरुड (garuDa) - eagle - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: garuḷa  m. a fabulous bird - UPMT-PED085
*Pal: {ga.ru.La.} - UHS-PMD0356
*Bur: {ga.Loan} - UKT: a mythical bird - NOT 'eagle' {aim:]

UKT: This is an example of importance of the /l/ sound over the rhotic /r/ in Bur-Myan. - UKT100627

गरुडासन (garuDaasana)
Skt: गरुडासन (garuDaasana) - the eagle posture - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on the Eagle posture

 

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UKT notes

Eagle posture : Garudasana

From Ann Pizer, About.com Guide, update: 080704
http://yoga.about.com/od/yogaposes/a/eagle.htm 100505

Type of pose: Standing, balancing

Benefits: Strengthens legs, improves balance, stretches the shoulders

Instructions:

1. From Utkatasana shift your weight onto the right leg.
2. Bring the left leg up and cross the left thigh over the right.
3. Hook the left foot around the right calf.
4. Bring the arms out in front.
5. Cross the right arm over the left and bring the palms to touch.
6. Lift the elbows while keeping the shoulders sliding down the back.
7. Hold 5-10 breaths.
8. Repeat on the other side.

Beginners: If you have trouble with the balance, rest your backside on a wall. If you can't hook the left foot around the right calf, put a block under the left foot instead. 

Advanced: Start to come into a forward bend, bringing the elbows in front of the knees. Bring the thumbs to your third eye. (See photo)

Go back eagle-pose-note

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GAJAKESRI YOGA

Inset from: www.spokensanskrit.de
गज  gaja  m.  elephant + केसरिन्  kesarin  m.  lion - SpkSkt

from: http://www.eastrovedica.com/html/vedic_astrology33.htm 100107

GAJAKESRI YOGA
Angular Jupiter, angular to the Moon confers Gaja Kesari Yoga. " Sahasra Masecha Jeevitham " meaning that they will live up to 1000 lunar months. Minimum longevity 70/80 years. Will have tremendous oratorial capacity which can move audiences as a monarch sways his dominions. They will be the leader of their place, reputed and famous. Uninterrupted influx of income.

Go back gajakesri-note-b

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Ganesha

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganesha 100506

Ganesha (Skt: गणेश Gaṇeśa ), also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh and also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, and Pillaiyar, is one of the best-known and most widely worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.[5] His image is found throughout India and Nepal.[6] Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations.[7] Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India.[8]

Although he is known by many other attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.[9] Ganesha is widely revered as the Remover of Obstacles[10] and more generally as Lord of Beginnings and Lord of Obstacles (Vighnesha, Vighneshvara),[11] patron of arts and sciences, and the deva of intellect and wisdom.[12] He is honoured at the beginning of rituals and ceremonies and invoked as Patron of Letters during writing sessions.[13] Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha emerged a distinct deity in clearly recognizable form in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors.[14] His popularity rose quickly, and he was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya, (Sanskrit: गाणपत्य; gāṇapatya), who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity, arose during this period.[15] The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.

Etymology and other names

Ganesha has many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vigneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Skt: श्री; śrī, also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a Ganesha Sahasranama, a litany of "a thousand names of Ganesha". Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the Ganesha Purana, a Hindu scripture venerating Ganesha.[17]

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Skt: गण; gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Skt: ईश; īśa), meaning lord or master.[18] The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Śiva).[19] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.[20] Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaņas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.[21] Ganapati (Skt:  गणपति; gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".[20] The Amarakosha,[22] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vignesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers),[23] Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST: gajānana) ; having the face of an elephant).[24]

Vinayaka (Skt: विनायक; vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.[25] This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (aṣṭavināyaka).[26] The names Vignesha (Skt: विघ्नेश; vighneśa) and Vigneshvara (Skt: विघ्नेश्वर; vighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles)[11] refers to his primary function in Hindu mythology as the creator and remover of obstacles (vighna).[27]

A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pille or Pillaiyar (Little Child).[28] A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pille means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child". He adds that the words pallu, pella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk of an elephant", but more generally "elephant".[29] Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".[30]

UKT: Bur-Myan: {ma.ha-pain~n:} .

Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art.[31] Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time.[32] He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, sitting down, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.

Images of Ganesha first appeared in Sri Lanka at least as early as the 2nd century CE. The earliest known image occurs at the Kantaka Cetiya in Mihintale, which is dated to earlier than the 1st century BC. The figure is a one-tusked Gana (dwarf) attended by other ganas, who hold the various attributes of the deity.[33]

Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century.[34] The figure shown to the right is typical of Ganesha statuary from 9001200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example features some of Ganesha's common iconographic elements. A virtually identical statue has been dated between 9731200 by Paul Martin-Dubost,[35] and another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal.[36] Ganesha has the head of an elephant and a big belly. This statue has four arms, which is common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand. The motif of Ganesha turning his trunk sharply to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a particularly archaic feature.[37] A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century.[38] Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standard configuration, Ganesha typically holds an axe or a goad in one upper arm and a noose in the other upper arm.

The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but rather is turned toward the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (abhaya mudra).[39] The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.[40]

Common attributes

Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art.[42] Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head.[43] One of his popular forms, Heramba-Ganapati, has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known.[44] While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, in most stories he acquires the head later.[45] The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was born with a human head and body and that Shiva beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati. Shiva then replaced Ganesha's original head with that of an elephant.[46] Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary according to different sources.[47] [UKT ]

In another story, when Ganesha was born, his mother, Parvati, showed off her new baby to the other gods. Unfortunately, the god Shani (Saturn), who is said to have the evil eye, looked at him, causing the baby's head to be burned to ashes. The god Vishnu came to the rescue and replaced the missing head with that of an elephant.[48] Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva's laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.[49]

Ganesha's earliest name was Ekadanta (One Tusk), referring to his single whole tusk, the other having been broken off.[50] Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk.[51] The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the Mudgala Purana, which states that the name of Ganesha's second incarnation is Ekadanta.[52] Ganesha's protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (fourth to sixth centuries).[53] This feature is so important that, according to the Mudgala Purana, two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: Lambodara (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and Mahodara (Great Belly).[54] Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (Skt: udara).[55] The Brahmanda Purana says that Ganesha has the name Lambodara because all the universes (i.e., cosmic eggs; IAST: brahmāṇḍas) of the past, present, and future are present in him.[56] The number of Ganesha's arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms.[57] Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts.[58] His earliest images had two arms.[59] Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in central India during the 9th and 10th centuries.[60] The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms.[61] According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vāsuki around his neck.[62] Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: yajyopavīta)[63] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha's forehead there may be a third eye or the Shaivite sectarian mark (Skt: tilaka), which consists of three horizontal lines.[64] The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead.[65] A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra (IAST: bhālacandra; "Moon on the Forehead") includes that iconographic element. Specific colors are associated with certain forms.[66] Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography. For example, white is associated with his representations as Heramba-Ganapati and Rina-Mochana-Ganapati (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage).[67] Ekadanta-Ganapati is visualized as blue during meditation on that form.[68]

Vahanas

The earliest Ganesha images are without a vahana (mount/vehicle).[69] Of the eight incarnations of Ganesha described in the Mudgala Purana, Ganesha has a mouse in five of them, uses a lion in his incarnation as Vakratunda, a peacock in his incarnation of Vikata, and Shesha, the divine serpent, in his incarnation as Vighnaraja.[70] Of the four incarnations of Ganesha listed in the Ganesha Purana, Mohotkata has a lion, Mayūreśvara has a peacock, Dhumraketu has a horse, and Gajanana has a rat.[71] Jain depictions of Ganesha show his vahana variously as a mouse, elephant, tortoise, ram, or peacock.[72]

Ganesha is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse or rat.[73] Martin-Dubost says that the rat began to appear as the principal vehicle in sculptures of Ganesha in central and western India during the 7th century; the rat was always placed close to his feet.[74] The mouse as a mount first appears in written sources in the Matsya Purana and later in the Brahmananda Purana and Ganesha Purana, where Ganesha uses it as his vehicle only in his last incarnation.[75] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa includes a meditation verse on Ganesha that describes the mouse appearing on his flag.[76] The names Mūṣakavāhana (mouse-mount) and Ākhuketana (rat-banner) appear in the Ganesha Sahasranama.[77]

The mouse is interpreted in several ways. According to Grimes, "Many, if not most of those who interpret Gaṇapati's mouse, do so negatively; it symbolizes tamoguṇa as well as desire".[78] Along these lines, Michael Wilcockson says it symbolizes those who wish to overcome desires and be less selfish.[79] Krishan notes that the rat is destructive and a menace to crops. The Sanskrit word mūṣaka (mouse) is derived from the root mūṣ (stealing, robbing). It was essential to subdue the rat as a destructive pest, a type of vighna (impediment) that needed to be overcome. According to this theory, showing Ganesha as master of the rat demonstrates his function as Vigneshvara (Lord of Obstacles) and gives evidence of his possible role as a folk grāmata-devatā (village deity) who later rose to greater prominence.[80] Martin-Dubost notes a view that the rat is a symbol suggesting that Ganesha, like the rat, penetrates even the most secret places.[81]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Gandhava

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandharva 100505

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, the Gandharvas (Skt: गंधर्व, gandharva) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras. Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse. They have superb musical skills. They guarded the Soma [the health drink] and made beautiful music for the gods in their palaces. A connection between their name and that of the Greek centaurs was proposed in the 19th century, but has met with strong opposition from some Indo-Europeanists.

In Hindu theology, Gandharvas act as messengers between the gods and humans. In Hindu law, a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and without formal rituals.

Gandharvas are mentioned extensively in the epic Mahabharata as associated with the Devas (as dancers and singers) and with the Yakshas, as formidable warriors. They are mentioned as spread across various territories.

In Buddhism

A Gandharva (Skt) or Gandhabba (Pal) is one of the lowest-ranking devas in Buddhist theology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas, and are subject to the Great King Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Guardian of the East. Beings are reborn among the Gandharvas as a consequence of having practiced the most basic form of ethics (Janavasabha-sutta, DN.18). It was considered embarrassing for a monk to be born in no better birth than that of a gandharva.

Gandharvas can fly through the air, and are known for their skill as musicians. They are connected with trees and flowers, and are described as dwelling in the scents of bark, sap, and blossom. They are among the beings of the wilderness that might disturb a monk meditating alone.

The terms gandharva and yakṣa are sometimes used for the same person; yakṣa in these cases is the more general term, including a variety of lower deities.

Among the notable gandharvas are mentioned (in DN.20 and DN.32) Panāda, Opamaa, Naḷa, Cittasena, Rājā. Janesabha is probably the same as Janavasabha, a rebirth of King Bimbisāra of Magadha. Mātali the Gandharva is the charioteer for Śakra.

Timbarū was a chieftain of the gandharvas. There is a romantic story told about the love between his daughter Bhaddā Suriyavaccasā (Sanskrit: Bhadrā Sūryavarcasā) and another gandharva, Pacasikha (Sanskrit: Pacaśikha). Pacasikha fell in love with Suriyavaccasā when he saw her dancing before Śakra, but she was then in love with Sikhandī (or Sikhaddi), son of Mātali the charioteer. Pacasikha then went to Timbarū's home and played a melody on his lute of beluva-wood, on which he had great skill, and sang a love-song in which he interwove themes about the Buddha and his Arhats.

Later, Śakra prevailed upon Pacasikha to intercede with the Buddha so that Śakra might have an audience with him. As a reward for Pacasikha's services, Śakra was able to get Suriyavaccasā, already pleased with Pacasikha's display of skill and devotion, to agree to marry Pacasikha.

Pacasikha also acts as a messenger for the Four Heavenly Kings, conveying news from them to Mātali, the latter representing Śakra and the Trāyastriṃśa devas.

Gandharva or gandhabba is also used in a completely different sense, referring to a being (or, strictly speaking, part of the causal continuum of consciousness) in a liminal state between birth and death.

In Indian classical music

There are many singers known as Gandharvas for their mastery of Indian Classical Music. All of them, at one time or another, were theater actors who performed in various musicals. Their style of music is known as Natya Sangeet in Marathi, literally "Dance Music." They are regarded as masters of Indian Classical music by the vast majority of the general population, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Goddess Ganga

Excerpt from: Ganga The River Goddess - Tales in Art and Mythology , Article of the Month - August 2003
http://www.exoticindia.com 100502
UKT: [...] are my additions for explanation.

In India of the seventeenth century, a Brahmin poet named Jagannatha transcended the restrictions of his caste and fell in love with a Muslim girl. The incensed elders of his lineage immediately expelled him from the hallowed circles of his social environment. Jagannatha, being a devout Hindu, tried his best to explain and convince his elders of the supreme sacredness of the emotion of love, which he stressed was beyond all man made divisions. He went up to Banaras, Hinduism's most sacred city, and attempted to restore his status among his brethren. Coming up against a rigid wall of rejection, he mused upon the river Ganges (Ganga), and called upon her to validate the purity and righteousness of his bearing. The dejected bard went to the banks of the Ganges and sat atop the fifty-two steps of the stairs bordering the river. Gaining from his majestic perch a splendorous view of the mighty river, he was moved enough to compose fifty-two soul-stirring lyrics directed to the river. Legend has it that with each verse he composed, the river rose a step, consuming him at the end of his last hymn.

Jagannatha's collection of poems is entitled 'Ganga-Lahiri', or The Waves of Ganga. In his verses, the poet addresses the river as a mother, comforter, and supporter. A typical hymn runs as follows:

I come to you as a child to his mother.
I come as an orphan to you, moist with love.
I come without refuge to you, giver of sacred rest.
I come a fallen man to you, uplifter of all.
I come undone by disease to you, the perfect physician.
I come, my heart dry with thirst, to you, ocean of sweet wine.
Do with me whatever you will.

A river that inspires such outstanding and pious creative devotion must be some river indeed. Truly Ganga is a river that has been at the core of sacred Hindu lore and tradition since time immemorial. The esteem in which she is held and her consequent deification as a full-blown woman echoes the timeless ethos of Hindu wisdom.

Here we will attempt to understand the wonder that is Ganga within the following contexts:

1). Ganga and the Purifying Waters of Heaven
2). Ganga's Descent to the Earth from Heaven
3). Ganga as a Mother
4). Iconography of Ganga
5). Ganga and the Hindu Temple
[UKT: I've given here only some of the above.]

Ganga's Descent to the Earth from Heaven:

In the eternal struggle between good (gods) [Deva] and bad (demons) [Asura], the latter once got the upper hand. Employing an ingenious strategy, the demons hid in the ocean during daytime, and attacked only in the night. The harassed gods in desperation, appealed to the celebrated saint Agastya, who solved the problem by gobbling up the entire ocean in one go. Exposed, the demons were then easily vanquished.

Their mission accomplished, the gods then requested Agastya to release the ocean. His reply astounded them. Taking a deep burp, he informed them that having partaken of the ocean, he had now digested it, and thus some other means would have to be found to fill up the ocean bed again. The gods and people of the world were aghast. Perplexed, they approached Lord Vishnu, the savior of the world, who gave them some good news. Vishnu asked them not to worry since it was destined that Ganga, the heavenly river, would flow on earth, quenching the thirst (both physical and spiritual) of its inhabitants, and also fill up the dried ocean. On enquiring when this would happen, the Great Lord informed them that this would take place in a happy confluence of auspicious circumstances, the process towards which had already begun.

Indeed, in a far corner of the world, a mighty king named Sagara was performing a great sacrificial ritual, which would herald him as the undisputed ruler over all earth. Little did he know that he was destined to be the instrument for fulfilling the cosmic drama being enacted elsewhere.

UKT: The "great sacrificial ritual" being described here is Ashvamedha or Horse Sacrifice. The following is an excerpt from: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvamedha 100227
   "The Ashvamedha (अश्वमेध aśvamedh; " horse sacrifice") [Pal: assamedha - m.  horse-sacrifice - UPMT-PED029] was one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 2225 and the pertaining commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.15). The Rigveda does have descriptions of horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda."
   See a1Sh-thut-022b2-4.htm for my note.

The ritual consisted of letting lose a white horse, who would be free to wander anywhere upon earth. Following it would be the mighty army of Sagara. Wherever the horse ventured, the king of that domain would have to give him free way, and accept the suzerainty of Sagara, presenting him with material gifts of supplication. In the event of this not happening, Sagara's army was free to challenge the errant ruler in question. Not surprisingly, given king Sagara's prestige and power, no ruler on the way dared hold up the horse.

The news of the impending victory of Sagara reached the ears of Indra, the king of gods [Deva]. Fearing a challenge to his own throne, Indra disguised himself as a human being, went to the earth and laid his hands on the sacrificial horse. Taking it by the rein, he hid it in the hermitage of sage Kapila. This sage was an extremely accomplished yogi, his inner being made extremely potent by long spells of extreme asceticism.

It was not long before the army of king Sagara, led by his sons (legend puts their number at sixty-thousand), traced the horse to the ascetic's retreat. Incensed at the sage's perceived temerity, the haughty princes rushed towards him in a fit of anger, calling him a thief. The sage, who had hitherto sat unperturbed and unaware throughout the entire proceedings taking place behind his back, was roused from his meditations. Opening his eyes, he had merely gazed at the princes with trepidation, than they were reduced to ashes.

The news of the unfortunate demise of his sons soon reached king Sagara. Now the traditional Indian belief is that if someone dies an untimely death, he or she remains a ghost and is not liberated until something is done to purify the soul from the residue of its accumulated sins. Sagara too, was extremely desirous of ridding the souls of his sons from the after-effects of curse of the wise sage Kapila. On asking, the latter informed the monarch that it was only Ganga, having the auspicious nature of purifying anybody and everybody who crossed her path, who was capable of liberating his sixty thousand sons, and wash away their ashes in her overwhelming flow.

Hearing this, king Sagara immediately handed over the throne to his surviving grandson and went to the Himalayas to perform austerities to Brahma, the Supreme Creator, attempting to convince him to ask Ganga to flow to the earth. Though he tried hard and sincerely, Sagara died before accomplishing his goal. After him his grandson tried to call upon Brahma, but he too was unsuccessful. In this manner, generation after generation of Sagara tried to woo and please Brahma to no avail. It was only the seventh descendant of Sagara, a just and noble king named Bhagiratha who could manage enough austerities to make Brahma appear before him. Happy with Bhagiratha's conduct and also that of his preceding ancestors, Brahma asked Bhagiratha for any boon he wished. Naturally enough, he asked Brahma to request Ganga to flow to the earth from her current abode in heaven. Brahma acquiesced, but also informed the prince that since Ganga flowed with a massive torrential force, if she coursed directly to the terrestrial world the earth would be helpless against her overwhelming current, and all life would be washed away in its flood. The only recourse open was to pray to Lord Shiva, whose matted hair held sufficient power to withstand the onslaught of Ganga's forceful fall.

Thus the prince began another severe penance, this time directed towards Lord Shiva, who appeared soon before him and agreed to soften Ganga's fall in his matted hair locks. Having tied up all loose ends, and acquiring the grace of both Brahma and Shiva, Bhagiratha now felt secure about accomplishing his objective. But there were still hiccups on his path, before all issues could be successfully resolved.

Ganga is visualized in Indian thought as a virtuous, but mischievous and restless maiden, just as many young lasses are. She followed Brahma's diktat to descend to earth, but couldn't playfully resist the unwarranted and undeserved feeling that she could sweep away even the mighty Shiva in her forceful current. Shiva, gauging her thoughts, decided to teach her a lesson. Spreading open his serpentine coils of hair, he covered the entire sky, and collected all the waves of Ganga in his outspread locks.

Then with a mighty swoop, he collected his hair, tied into a neat and tight bun, and captured Ganga in the infinite swirls and whirls of his hair. Ganga still flowed with tremendous force, but could not escape, and remained imprisoned and confined inside Shiva's hair.

Bhagiratha, perplexed at the happenings, appealed to Shiva to release Ganga, so that she could wash away the sins of his ancestors, symbolized in their mortal remains. Shiva relented, and in any case Ganga had learnt her lesson. Thus Ganga again followed Bhagiratha, who showed her the way. But there were still more adventures to come.

Just near their ultimate destination lay the hermitage of another accomplished sage, known as Jahnu. Ganga, ever the playful maiden, hurried over to what she perceived was a new and curious place. And lo, barely had she entered upon the precincts of the ashram (hermitage), that it became flooded, and all sacrificial fires were extinguished. The ritual utensils and tools were washed away, and the inhabitants of the sanctuary became frightened and anxious. The leader of the ashram, sage Jahnu, became livid at Ganga's intrusion. He then chanted a mantra, and took a sip of the water flowing all around his hermitage. With the power of his mantra, he swallowed away Ganga with all her waters. All traces of Ganga were gone. Bhagiratha was in a fix. No sooner had he overcome one hurdle, than another was created, mostly due to the impulsiveness and restlessness of Ganga. He hurried over to Jahnu, and explained to him the magnitude and significance of the task he was out to accomplish. Jahnu gave him a sympathetic hearing and appreciated his hard work in bringing Ganga to the earthly realm. Consoling Bhagiratha, he said: " For you, I will release Ganga immediately," and saying this, he made a cut in his left thigh, and the waters of Ganga flew out like a fountain. Hence did Ganga came to be known as Jahnvi, the daughter of sage Jahnu.

Thankfully, the rest of the way was without any further adventures, and Bhagiratha successfully showed Ganga the way to the ashes of his ancestors. As soon as Ganga touched the ashes, the ancestors arose, glowing forth in their astral bodies, and ascended towards heaven. Carrying away their mortal remains, Ganga merged into the ocean, which hitherto had been dry. From that day onwards, the ocean came to be known as 'Sagara,' in honor of the king who started it all in the first place. The place where Ganga merged in the ocean, came to be known as Ganga-Sagar, and to this day, a great festival is held here every year, to celebrate Ganga's birthday, or the day when she came to earth. This occasion is knows as Ganga Dassehra.

This legend makes amply clear that Ganga's purity and auspiciousness springs in no small measure from her proximity to various important divinities and holy sages. Falling onto Shiva's head, where she meanders through his tangled locks, the mighty Ganga appears in this world after having been made more sacred by her direct contact with Shiva, and also the accomplished ascetic Jahnu. The river then spreads the divine potency of these hallowed personalities into the world, when she flows into the terrestrial realm.

Ganga's fall from heaven is replicated daily in the millions of Hindu temples where the water of the Ganga river is poured over the sacred Shiva Linga. Here it is important to note that the linga of Shiva is often thought of as incandescent pillar of fire. By cooling the linga with her soothing waters, Ganga is in a sense saving the world from Shiva's fiery linga, whose extreme heat could destroy all life on earth. Bearing her on his head, Shiva becomes the facilitator for Ganga's smooth fall to the earth. But if Shiva saves the world from the power and force of Ganga's torrent, it is also Ganga, who in a similar manner, saves us from Shiva's scorching powers of destruction.

Another legend associates Ganga with all the three deities of the Indian triumvirate, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. It begins with the celestial sage Narada, who is distinguishable by his veena, a sitar like musical instrument which constantly hangs from his shoulders.

A loud singer, he loved to sing sacred psalms during his sojourns across the heavens. One day, he came upon a group of extraordinary beings in a forest, writhing with uncontrollable agony. Both concerned and curious, the sage approached them and made enquiries regarding the cause of their suffering. Their replies completely floored him. Apparently, these creatures in distress were the personifications of the various ragas (musical modes). Narada, through his inept rendition, was tormenting their souls and spirits, and hence their agony. Narada's sympathetic heart was stirred enough to make him promise that he would not sing or play music until he had mastered its finer points. Of more pressing concern however, was the present state of the ragas, which required immediate succor.

There was only one way out. There needed to be organized, without any further loss of time, a concert by a prefect musician, whose soulful and skilful rendition would seep through the ragas, curing them in the process. Such a perfect musician could only be Lord Shiva. Shiva of course had no reservations about giving an impromptu concert, but for his perfect music, he needed a perfect listener too, who could appreciate and grasp the subtle nuances of his delightful renderings. Thus he requested Brahma and Vishnu to be his audience. They readily agreed. Who wouldn't?

As soon as Shiva struck his first note, the ragas began to heal. It had a visual affect on his divine listeners too. Identifying totally with the soft and melting notes of Shiva's symphony, Vishnu actually started melting himself. Noticing this, Brahma scooped whatever liquid dripped from Vishnu and deposited it in his water pot (kamandalu). Later, he fashioned a beautiful and charming girl out of this liquid. This maiden, because of the auspicious circumstances of her birth, was especially refined herself, and also purified everything that came into contact with her. She was Ganga.

Ganga as a Mother

A particularly inspired motif is the visualization of Ganga as a mother, which is made explicit in the epithet 'Ma Ganga' (Ma meaning mother), and which undoubtedly is the most popular and endearing term used to address her. As a mother, Ganga is tangible, approachable, and all accepting. To put it in the immortal words of David Kinsley, "She is the distilled essence of compassion in liquid form." No one is denied her blessing.

Ganga's maternal aspect is seen especially in her nourishing qualities. As a mother, she nourishes the land through which she flows, making it fertile. Historically, the land along the banks of the Ganga has been intensely cultivated. It is particularly fertile because of the sediment periodically deposited by the floodwaters of the river. A parallel is often drawn here with the menstrual flow in women, which renders a woman fertile, and capable of generation.

An evocative example of Ganga's mothering capacity is provided in the myth describing the birth of Shiva's second son, Karttikeya. The story goes that a powerful demon once wreaked havoc on the world and the oppressed victims came to the conclusion that only a son born to the powerful Shiva could redeem them. Hence, they prayed to Shiva. He agreed, and first released his seed to Agni (god of fire). But even Agni found Shiva's seed too hot to handle, and cast it into the river Ganga, where it developed into a foetus. Thus Karttikeya is also called Gangaputra, the son of Ganga.

And finally, there is the stark truth staring us. No child is too dirty to be embraced or cleansed by its mother. Mother Ganga indiscriminately purifies her devotees, whether they be virtuous or sinful. She is non judgmental, and all her children are equal in her eyes.

UKT: More in the original article.

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Ganges River

UKT: The names of the river in various languages reduced to Romabama shows the possible source of error in transliteration.

SpkSkt: गङ्ग  gaṅga  m.  river Ganges.
SpkSkt:  गङ्गा  gaṅgā  f.  Ganges --> {ging-ga}:
    note the killed-{nga.} aka {nga.t} which gives the /ɪn/ rime
SpkSkt:  गङ्गाचिल्ली  gaṅgācillī  f.  black headed gull
Wiki Hindi: गंगा --> {gn-ga} :
    note the {::ting} which gives the /ʌn/ rime
Wiki Bengali: গঙ্গা (= গ ঙ ্ গ া) --> {ging-ga}

Note the first syllable in the word gaṅga can have two very distinct rime-sounds. [Remember the syllable has the canonical form CVC aka Consonant-Vowel-Consonant which can be written as C(VC) where (VC) is the rime.]. These are: /ɪn/ rime-sound produced by {nga.t}, and /ʌn/ rime-sound produced by {::ting}. Bangala-Bengali গঙ্গা (= গ ঙ ্ গ া) rendered into Bur-Myan gives {ging-ga} aka {gn~ga}.

This indicates that the Skt-Dev, Ban-Ben (Bangala-Bengali), and Bur-Myan pronunciations are very similar. It is only in the Hin-Dev (Hindi-Devanagari) that the pronunciation is different. My question is: was Skt-Dev a dialect of Magadhi just like Pal-Dev and that it had belonged to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language group?

My hypothesis: Skt-Dev and its forerunner the Vedic-Sanskrit were Tib-Bur, and that Skt-Dev became an IE (Indo-European) only because of the inability of the IE speakers who had filtered into India through the north-western border from Iran. This further indicates that the Vedic chants, which are very similar to the {pa.raik}-chants in Myanmar were indigenous to the linguistic corridor extending from from Afghanistan to northern Myanmar, being the chants of the Tib-Bur speakers.

I am waiting for comments from my peers. - UKT 110823 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganges 100502

The Ganges [Skt: गङ्गा gaṅgā - SpkSkt] (Hindi: गंगा Ganga, Bengali: গঙ্গা Gnga) is one of the major rivers of the Indian subcontinent, flowing east through the Gangetic Plain of northern India into Bangladesh. The 2,510 km (1,560 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Uttarakhand state of India, and drains into the Sunderbans delta in the Bay of Bengal. It has long been considered a holy river by Hindus and worshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism. It has also been important historically: many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Patliputra, Kannauj, Kara, Allahabad, Murshidabad, and Calcutta) have been located on its banks. The Ganges Basin drains 1,000,000-square-kilometre (390,000 sq mi) and supports one of the world's highest density of humans. The average depth of the river is 52 feet (16 m), and the maximum depth, 100 feet (30 m). The river has been declared as India's National River.[1] The many symbolic meanings of the river on the Indian subcontinent were spoken to in 1946 by Jawaharlal Nehru in his Discovery of India,

The Ganges, above all is the river of India, which has held India's heart captive and drawn uncounted millions to her banks since the dawn of history. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old times to new, is the story of India's civilization and culture, of the rise and fall of empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures of man

 

Click to see larger pictures. Notice the square sail of the river-boat which is quite different from the triangular sail of the maritime people of southern Myanmar.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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stotra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stotra 100610

In Hinduism, a Stotra is a hymn of praise.[1] These hymns praise aspects of the divine, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. Relating to word "stuti", coming from the same verb, stu (to praise), and basically both mean "praise".

Stotras are a type of popular devotional literature and are not bound by the strict rules as some other Hindu scriptures, such as the Vedas. They are accessible by the everyday householder.

One type of stotra is based on chanting a litany of names for a deity. A category of stotra of that type is the Sahasranama, which is a litany of a thousand names for a particular deity. Sahasranama means "1000 names"; Sahasra means 1000 and nama means names. For example, Vishnu Sahasranama means 1000 names of Vishnu[2]. According to Hinduism, the names of God are valuable tools for devotion.

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