Update: 2011-12-30 07:00 PM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary


by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp], reprint 1966 
Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) .

in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) by U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi-zu-a}, 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

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{U} {} {T~Hta.
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p159
p160 p161 p162 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
UKT notes
Dwara Sect Forms of long-vowel letter /u/ Hngettwin Sect Shwkyin Sect

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UKT: Myanmar Therawada monks of the Shwkyin and Dwara sects spelled their names with prefix instead of the more common . Which of the two graphemes are more correct?
   Personal note: my son as well as I was novitiated (temporarily, as a form of baptism) into Therawada Buddhism at the Ma-so-rain Monastery, Eighth-mile, Rangoon. So technically we belong to the Shwkyin sect. Yet I did not realized until I take up BEPS study that our elders spelled their names with . I have always spelled my name with the more common . Shame on me! A third Buddhist sect with which I was associated as a child is Hngettwin . I have yet to find out the prefix-form the monks use.
See my note on Forms of long-vowel letter /u/


ūkā {U-ka}
-- (f.) [Sk. yūkā, prob. dialectical] a louse J i.453; ii. 324; iii.393; v.298; Miln 11; Vism 445; DhsA 307, 319; DhA iii.342; VvA 86.
is also used as linear measure (cp. Sk. yūkālikṣaŋ) VbhA 343 (where 7 likkhā are said to equal 1 ūkā).


-- at J i.290 in phrase "jimaŋ ūtagītaŋ gāyanto" read "imaŋ jūtagītaŋ g."


-- (adj.) [Vedic ūna; cp. Av. ūna, Gr. eu)_nis, Lat. vāpus, Goth. wans, Ags. won = E. want] wanting, deficient, less M ii.73; J v.330; DhA i.77; DhA iv.210. Mostly adverbially with numerals = one less, but one, minus (one or two); usually with eka (as ekūna one less, e. g. ekūna -- aṭṭhasataŋ (799) J i.57; ekūna -- pacasate KhA 91, ekūna -- vīsati (19) Vism 287; ekenɔūnesu pacasu attabhāvasatesu (499) J i.167; also with eka in instr. as eken'ūnapacasatāni (deficient by one) Vin ii.285; KhA 91; sometimes without eka, e. g. ūnapacasatāni (499) Vin iii.284; ūnavīsati (19) Vin iv.130, 148. With "two" less: dvīhi ūnaŋ sahassaŋ (998) J i.255. -- anūna not deficient, complete PvA 285 (= paripuṇṇa).
-- udara (ūnudara, ūnūdara, ūnodara) an empty stomach, adj. of empty stomach; ˚udara J ii.293; vi.295; ˚ūdara
J vi.258; Miln 406; odara Sn 707; DhA i.170. -- bhāva depletion, deficiency SnA 463 (v. l. hānabhāva).


-- (adj.) [ūna + ka] deficient, wanting, lacking Vin iii.81, 254; iv.263; Sn 721; Miln 310, 311, (˚satta -- vassika one who is not yet 7 years old), 414; DhA i.79.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ūna] depletion, deficiency Vin ii. 239; J v.450.


at DhA ii.93 stands for upāya.


-- see upiya & opiya.


ūmika [f. ūmi] wave Miln 197 (˚vanka waterfall, cataract).


-- & ūmi (f.) [Sk. ūrmi, fr. Idg. *ṷel (see nibbāna i.2); cp. Gr. e)lu/w io wind, e(/lic wound; Lat. volvo to roll; Ags. wylm wave; Ohg. wallan; also Sk. ulva, varutra, valaya, valli, vṛṇoti. See details in Walde, Lat. Wtb. under volvo] a wave M i.460 (˚bhaya); S iv.157; v.123 [p159] (˚jāta); A iii.232 sq. (id.); Sn 920; J ii.216; iii.262; iv.141; Miln 260 (˚jāta). -- Note. A parallel form of ūmī is ummī.

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-- [Vedic ūru; cp. Lat. vārus bow -- legged, of Idg. *ṷā, to which also Ohg. wado = Ger. wade calf of leg] the thigh Sn 610; Vin ii.105 (in contrast with bāha); iii. 106; J i.277; ii.275, 443; iii.82; v.89, 155; Nd2 659 (so read for uru); Vv 6413; DA i.135 = Vin ii.190.
-- aṭṭhi(ka) the thigh bone M i.58; iii.92; J i.428 (ūraṭṭhika); KhA 49, 50 (ūraṭṭhi). -- (k)khambha stiffening or rigidity of the thigh, paralysis of the leg (as symptom of fright) M i.237; J v.23.


-- [Sk. ūṣa] salt -- ground; saline substance, always combd. with khāra S iii 131 (˚gandha); A i.209.


-- (adj.) [Sk. ūṣara, fr. ūṣa] saline S iv.315; A iv.237; DhsA 243. -- nt. ˚ŋ a spot with saline soil PvA 139 (gloss for ujjhangala).


-- see vy˚, sam˚.


-- (indecl.) [ger. of ūharati, ud + hṛ (or ava + hṛ, cp. ohacca & oharati) for uddharati 1 & 2] -- 1. lifting up, raising or rising J iii.206. -- 2. pulling out, taking away, removing D ii.254 (cp. DhA ii.181); S i.27 (v. l. for ohacca); Sn 1119 (= uddharitvā uppāṭayitvā Nd2 171).


-- (indecl.) [ger. of ūhanati2 = ūhadati] soiling by defe- cation, defecating J ii.71 (= vaccaŋ katvā C.).


-- [Pass. of ūhanati1] to be soiled; to be disturbed aor. ūhai Vin i.48; M i.116; aor. also ūhani M i.243.


-- [pp. of ud + hṛ or dhṛ thus for uddhaṭa as well as uddhata] -- 1. lifted, risen, raised Vin iii.70; J v.403. <-> 2. taken out, pulled out, destroyed Th 1, 223 = Nd2 974; Th 1, 514; Dh 338 (= ucchinna DhA iv.48). -- 3. soiled with excrements Vin ii.222.


-- [pp. of ūhanati1] disturbed M i.116.


-- [for ūhanati2 (?) or formed secondarily fr. ūhacca or ohacca?] to defecate J ii.355; DhA ii.181 (so read with v. l. for T. ūhadayati).


-- (nt.) [fr. ūhanati?] reasoning, consideration, examin- ation Miln 32 ("comprehension" trsl.; as characteristic of manasikāra); Vism 142 = DhsA 114 ("prescinding" trsl.; as characteristic of vitakka).


-- [ud + han] to disturb, shake up, defile, soil M i.243; J ii.73. -- Pass. aor. ūhani: see ūhaati. -- pp. ūhata2 (q. v.). Cp. sam˚.


-- [either ud + han or ava + han, cp. ohanati] 1. to cut off, discharge, emit, defecate Vin i.78; iii.227. <-> 2. [prob. for ūharati, cp. ūhacca1] to lift up, to take away M i.117 (opp. odahati). Cp. ohana in bimb ohana. <-> ger. ūhacca2 (q. v.).


-- [for uddharati] only in forms of ger. ūhacca1 and pp. ūhata1 (q. v.).


-- [either ud or ava + has, cp. avahasati] to laugh at, deride, mock A iii.91; J v.452 (+ pahasati); Pug 67 (= avahasati Pug A 249).


ūhasana (nt.) [fr. ūhasati] laughing, mocking Miln 127.


-- (f.) [etym.?] life, only in cpd. āyūha lifetime PvA 136, 162 (˚pariyosāna). -- As N. of a river at Miln 70. <-> Cp. BSk. ūhā in ūhāpoha Av. S i.209, 235.

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eka {-ka.}
-- (adj. -- num.) [Vedic eka, i. e. e -- ka to Idg. *oi as in Av. aēva, Gr. oi)_os one, alone; and also with diff. suffix in Lat. ū -- nus, cp. Gr. oi)no/s (one on the dice), Goth. etc. ains = E. one] one. Eka follows the pron. declension, i. e. nom. pl. is eke (e. g. Sn 43, 294, 780 etc.) -- 1. "one" as number, either with or without contrast to two or more; often also "single" opp. to nānā various, many (q. v.). Very frequent by itself as well as with other numerals, ekangula one thumb Mhvs 29, 11; DhA iii. 127; ekapasse in one quarter DhA ii.52; ekamaccha a single fish J i.222. In enumeration: eka dve paca dasa DhA i.24. With other numerals: eka -- tiŋsa (31) D ii.2; ˚saṭṭhi (61) Vin i.20; ˚navuti (91) DhA i.97; ˚sata (101) DhA ii.14. Cp. use of "one less" in ekūna (see under cpds. & ūna). -- 2. (as predicative and adj.) one, by oneself, one only, alone, solitary A iii.67 (ek -- uddesa); J i.59 (ekadivasena on the one day only, i. e. on the same day); Dh 395; Sn 35, 1136 (see Nd2 172a), ekaŋ ekaŋ one by one S i 104 (devo ekaŋ ekaŋ phusāyati rains drop by drop), cp. ekameka. -- 3. a certain one, some one, some; adj. in function of an indefinite article = a, one (definite or indefinite): ekasmiŋ samaye once upon a time J i.306; ekena upāyena by some means J iii.393; ekaŋ kulaŋ gantuŋ to a certain clan (corresp. with asuka) DhA i.45; ekadivasaŋ one day J i.58; iii.26; PvA 67. Cp. Sn 1069 (see Nd2 172b). -- All these three categories are found represented in freq. cpds., of which the foll. are but a small selection.
-- akkhi see ˚pokkhara. -- agga calm, tranquil (of persons just converted), collected [cp. Buddh. Sk. ekāgra Jtm 3170] S iv.125; A i.70, 266; ii.14, 29; iii.175 (˚citta), 391; Sn 341; J i.88; Nett 28, cp. Miln 139. -- aggatā concentration; capacity to individualise; contemplation, tranquillity of mind (see on term Cpd. 16, 1785, 237, 240) S v.21, 197, 269 (cittassa); A i.36; iv.40; Dhs 11 (cittassa); Vism 84. -- anga a part, divisioh, something
belonging to J iii.308; Ud 69. -- angaṇa one (clear) space J ii.357. -- āgārika a thief, robber D i.52, 166; A i.154, 295; ii.206; iii.129; Nd1 416; Nd2 304 iii.a. DA i.159 (= ekam eva gharaŋ parivāretvā vilumpanaŋ DA i.159). -- āyana leading to one goal, direct way or "leading to the goal as the one & only way (magga) M i.63; S v.167, 185. -- ārakkha having one protector or guardian D iii.269; A v.29 sq. -- ālopika = ekāgārika D i.166; A i.295; ii.206. -- āsana sitting or living alone M i.437; Sn 718; Dh 305; J v.397; Miln 342; Vism 60 (expld. with reference to eating, viz. ekāsane bhojanaŋ ekāsanaŋ, perhaps comparing āsana with asana2. The foll. ˚āsanika is ibid. expld. as "taŋ sīlam assā ti ekāsaniko"). -- āsanika one who keeps to himself Miln 20, 216; Vism 69. -- ha one day M i.88; usually in cpd. ekhadvhaŋ one or two days J i.255; DhA i.391. -- hika of or for one day D i.166. -- uttarika( -- nikāya) is another title for Anguttarika -- nikāya Miln 392. -- ūna one less, minus one, usually as 1st part of a numeral cpd., like ˚vīsati (20 -- 1 = 19) DhA i.4; ˚paāsa (49) J iii.220; ˚saṭṭhi (59) DhA iii.412; ˚pacasatā (499) DhA ii.204. See ūna. -- eka one by one, each, severally, one to each D ii.18 (˚loma); iii.144 (id.), 157; J i.222; DhA i.101 (ekekassa no ekekaŋ māsaŋ one month for each of us); ii.114; VvA 256; PvA 42, 43. -- ghana compact, solid, hard Dh 81. -- cara wandering or living alone, solitary S i.16; Sn 166, 451; Dh 37. -- cariyā walking alone, solitude Dh 61; Sn 820. -- cārin = ˚cara Miln 105. -- cittakkhaṇika of the duration of one thought Vism 138. -- cintin "thinking one thing (only)", simple Miln 92. -- thūpa (all) in one heap, mixed up, together J v.17 (= sūkarapotakā viya C.). -- doṇikā( -- nāvā) a trough -- shaped canoe with an outrigger J vi.305. -- paṭalika having a single sole (of sandals, upāhanā) Vism 125. -- paṭṭa single cloth (cp. dupaṭṭa) Vism 109. -- padika( -- magga) a small (lit. for one foot) foot -- path J i.315; v.491. -- pala one carat worth [p160] (see pala) Vism 339. -- passayika is to be read ekɔapassayika (see under apa˚). -- pahārena all at once Vism 418; DhsA 333. -- piṭaka knowing one Piṭaka Vism 62. -- puttika having only one son KhA 237. -- purisika (itthi) (a woman) true to one man J i.290. -- pokkhara a sort of drum J vi.21, 580 (C. explns. by ek -- akkhi -- bherī). -- bījin having only one (more) seed, i. e. destined to be reborn only once S v.205; A i.233; iv.380; Nett 189. -- bhattika having one meal a day A i.212; iii.216; J i.91. -- bhattakinī a woman true to one husband J iii.63. -- rajja sole sovereignty Dh 178; PvA 74. -- rājā universal king J i.47 (of the Sun). -- vāciya a single remark or objection J ii.353. -- vāraŋ once J i.292; ˚vārena id. DhA i.10. -- sadisa fully alike or resembling, identical J i.291. -- sama equal J vi.261. -- sāṭa & sāṭaka having a single vestment, a "one -- rober" S i.78 (˚ka); Ud 65.

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ekaŋsa {-kn-a.}
-- (adj.) [eka + aŋsa1] belonging to one shoulder, on or with one shoulder; only in phṛase ekaŋsaŋ uttarāsangaŋ karoti to arrange the upper robe over one shoulder (the left) Vin i.46; ii.188 & passim.


ekaŋsa {-kn-a.}
-- [eka + aŋsa1 or better aŋsa2] "one part or point", i. e. one -- pointedness, definiteness; affirmation, certainty, absoluteness D i.153; A ii.46; Sn 427, 1027; J iii.224 (ekaŋsatthe nipāto for "nūna"); SnA 414 (˚vacana for "taggha"). -- Opp. an˚ Miln 225. -- instr. ekaŋsena as adv. for certain, absolutely, definitely, inevitably D i.122, 161, 162; M i.393; S iv.326; A v.190; J i.150; iii. 224; PvA 11.


-- (adj.) [fr. ekaŋsa2] certain D i.189, 191; an˚ uncertain, indefinite D i.191.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ekaŋsika] as neg. an˚ indefini- teness Miln 93.


-- (adj.) [eka + ka] single, alone, solitary Vin ii.212; J i.255; ii.234; iv.2. -- f. ekikā Vin iv.229; J i.307; iii.139.


-- (adj.) [der. fr. eka with suffix *tya, implying likeness or comparison, lit. "one -- like", cp. E. one -- like = one -- ly = only] one, certain, definite D i.162, A i.8; often in pl. ekacce some, a few D i.118; A v.194; Th 2, 216; J ii. 129; iii.126. See also app˚ under api.


-- (adj.) [fr. ekacca] single, not doubled (of cloth, opp. to diguṇa) J v.216 (˚vasana = eka -- paṭṭa -- nivattha).


-- (adj.) = ekacca S i.199; J iv.259; acc. as adv. ˚ŋ once, single Vin i.289 (cp. Vin Texts ii.212).


ekajjhaŋ (adv.) [fr. eka, cp. literary Sk. aikadhyaŋ, but BSk. ekadhyaŋ M Vastu i.304] in the same place, in conjunction, together Miln 144 (karoti), KhA 167; SnA 38.


-- (adv.) [abl. formation fr. eka, cp. Sk. ekataḥ] -- 1. on the one side (opp. on the other) J iii.51; iv.141. <-> 2. together J ii.415; iii.57 (vasanto), 52 (sannipatanti), 391; iv.390; DhA i.18. ekato karoti to put together, to collect VvA 3. ekato hutvā "coming to one", agreeing DhA i.102, cp. ekato ahesuŋ J i.201.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. eka] -- 1. unity D i.31. -- 2. lone- liness, solitude, separation Sn 718; Th 1, 49; Miln 162; J vi.64; VvA 202 (= ekībhāva).


-- (f.) [fr. ekatta] unity, combination, unification, concentration Nett 4, 72 sq, 107 sq.


-- (adv.) [eka -- d -- atthu, cp. aadatthu] once, defi- nitely, specially J iii.105 (= ekaŋsena C.).


-- (adv.) [fr. eka] once, at the same time, at one time, once upon a time S i.162; Sn 198; DhA ii.41; Miln 213.


-- (adj.) [Sk. ekānta] one -- sided, on one end, with one top, topmost (˚ -- ) usually in function of an adv. as ˚ -- , meaning "absolutely, extremely, extraordinary, quite" etc. <-> 1. (lit.) at one end, only in ˚lomin a woollen coverlet with a fringe at one end D i.7 (= ekato dasaŋ uṇṇāmayɔ attharaṇaŋ keci ekato uggata -- pupphan ti vadanti DA i.87); Vin i.192; ii.163, 169; A i.181. -- 2. (fig.) extremely, very much, in freq. combns; e. g. ˚kāḷaka A iii.406; iv. 11; ˚gata S v.225; A iii.326; ˚dukkha M i.74; S ii.173; iii.70 (+ sukha); A v.289; ˚dussīlya DhA iii.153; ˚nibbida A iii.83; iv.143; ˚paripuṇṇa S ii.219; v.204; ˚manāpa S iv.238; ˚sukha A ii.231; iii.409; ˚sukhin DA i.119 etc.


-- (adj.) [eka + antarika] with one in between, alternate J iv.195, ˚bhāvena (instr. adv.) in alternation, alternately Vism 374; ekantarikāya (adv.) with intervals Vism 244.


-- (adv.) [eka + anta, acc. in adv. function, cp. BSk. ekamante M Vastu i.35] on one side, apart, aside Vin i.47, 94 = ii.272; D i.106; Sn p. 13 (expld. at SnA 140 as follows: bhāvana -- puŋsaka -- niddeso, ekɔokāsaŋ ekapassan ti vuttaŋ hoti, bhummatthe vā upayogavacanaŋ); Sn 580, 1009, 1017; J i.291; ii.102, 111; SnA 314, 456. <-> Also in loc. ekamante on one side DhA i.40.


-- (adj.) [eka -- m -- eka, cp. BSk. ekameka M Vastu iii.358] one by one, each A v.173; Vv 782.


-- (adj.) [eka + vidha] of one kind, single, simple Vism 514; adv. ekavidhā singly, simply Vism 528.


-- (adv.) [Sk. ekaśaḥ] singly, one by one J iii.224 (an˚).


-- (adj.) alone, solitary Th 1, 541; Miln 398.


-- (num.) [Sk. ekādaśa] eleven Vin i.19. -- num. ord. ekādasama the eleventh Sn 111, 113.


-- (adj) = ekākiya; instr. ekānikena as adv. "by oneself" Miln 402.


-- see ekaka.


-- [eka + bhāva, with ī for a in compn. with bhū] being alone, loneliness, solitude D iii 245; M ii.250; A iii.289; v.89, 164; Vism 34; SnA 92, 93; DhA ii.103; VvA 202; DA i.253, 309.


-- (adj.) [most likely eka + odi for odhi, see avadhi2 & cp. avadahati, avadahana, lit. of one attention, limited to one point. Thus also suggested by Morris J.P.T.S. 1885, 32 sq. The word was Sanskritised into ekoti, e. g. at M Vastu iii.212, 213; Lal. Vist. 147, 439] concentrated, attentive, fixed A iii.354; Nd1 478. Usually in compn. with kṛ & bhū (which points however to a form ekoda˚ with the regular change of a to i in connection with these roots!), as ekodi -- karoti to concentrate M i.116; S iv. 263; ˚bhavati to become settled S iv.196; v.144; ˚bhūta concentrated Sn 975; ˚bhāva concentration, fixing one's mind on one point D i.37; iii.78, 131; A i.254; iii.24; Vism 156 (expld. as eko udeti); Dhs 161 (cp. Dhs trsln. 46); DhsA 169; Nett 89.


-- (f.) [to ij, q. v. and see ānejja. There is also a Sk. root ej to stir, move] motion, turbulence, distraction, seduction, craving S iv.64; Sn 791; It 91; Nd1 91, 353; Dhs 1059 (cp. Dhs trslu. 277); VvA 232. -- aneja (adj.) unmoved, undisturbed, calm, passionless S i.27, 141, 159; iii.83; iv.64; A ii.15; Nd1 353; VvA 107.

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{T~Hta.} <--

UKT: To arrive at the pronunciation of {T~Hta.} <-- , keep in mind the orthography of:

Bur-Myan: {hkt~ta.} - n. a short time, a moment. adj. temporary -- MED2006-064

The diacritics in Romabama are not the same as other transcriptions. Romabama diacritics are chosen in such a way that even if they are lost, the pronunciation will not be affected. Romabama started out as a transliteration. I have changed it to a transcription based on Bur-Myan phonology of the Irrawaddy valley (which may be called the Rangoon-Mandalay accent). -- UKT111230


-- [pp. of ā + iṣ] see pariy˚; do. ˚eṭṭhi.


-- (f.) [fr. eṭṭha, ā + iṣ, cp. Sk. eṣṭi] desire, wish, in combn. with gaveṭṭhi pariyeṭṭhi etc. Vbh 353 = Vism 23, 29 etc.


-- (f.) [etym.? dial.] a kind of antelope, only two foll. cpds.: ˚jangha "limbed like the antelope" (one of the physical characteristics of the Superman) D ii.17; iii.143, 156; M ii.136; S i.16; Sn 165; ˚miga the eṇi deer J v.416; SnA 207, 217.

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-- D iii.157; J vi.537 sq., & Eṇeyyaka A i.48; ii. 122; J v.155 Nd2 604 = eṇi.


-- (pron. adj.) [Vedic etad, of pron. base *e; see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under equidem] demonstr. pron. "this", with on the whole the same meaning and function as tad, only more definite and emphatic. Declined like tad. Cases: nt. sg. etad (poetical -- archaic form) A ii.17; Sn 274, 430, 822, 1087; J i.61, 279; & etaŋ (the usual form) Sn 51, 207, 1036, 1115; J ii.159; pl. etāni Sn 52; J ii.159. -- m. sg. esa Sn 81, 416, 1052; J i.279; ii. 159; Miln 18; DhA i.18; & eso Sn 61, 312, 393; J vi. 336; pl. ete Sn 188, 760; J i.223. -- f. sg. esā Sn 80, 451; J i.307; pl. etā Sn 297, 897; J ii.129. -- Oblique cases: gen. dat. etassa J ii.159; f. etissā J iii.280; instr. etena Sn 655; J i.222; pl. loc. etesu Sn 248, 339, 1055; f. etāsu Sn 607. Other cases regular & frequent.


-- (adv.) [Sk. etarhi, cp. tarahi & carahi] now, at present D i.29, 151, 179, 200; ii.3; J i.215 (opp. tadā); iii.82; vi.364 (instead of paccuppanna).


-- (adj.) [etad + disa, of dṛś, cp. Sk. etādṛśa] such, such like, of this kind D ii.157; Sn 588, 681, 836; Pv i. 94; iv.186 (= edisa yathā -- vutta -- rūpa PvA 243); PvA ii.71.


-- [P. eti represents Sk. eti as well as ā -- eti, i. e. to go and to come (here); with Sk. eti cp. Av. aeiti, Gr. ei)_si, Lat. eo, it; Goth. iddja went, Obulg. iti, Oir. etha] to go, go to, reach; often (= ā + eti) to come back, return Sn 364, 376, 666 (come); J vi.365 (return); ppr. ento J iii.433 (acc. suriyaŋ atthaŋ entaŋ the setting sun); imper. 2nd sg. ehi only in meaning "come" (see separately), 3rd etu D i.60; 2nd pl. etha D i.211; Sn 997; J ii.129; DhA i.95 (in admission formula "etha bhikkhavo" come ye [and be] bhikkhus! See ehi bhikkhu). -- fut. essati J vi.190, 365, & ehiti J ii.153; 2nd sg. ehisi Dh 236, 369. -- pp. ita (q. v.).


etta {t~ta.}
-- (adv.) [= Sk. atra, see also ettha] there, here Pv i.56 (sic; cp. KhA 254 note).

UKT: See Bur-Myan {hkt~ta.} for pronunciation. Note the diacritic over cap <I>.


-- (adj.) [etta + ka, contrasting -- comparative function, cp. tattaka] so much, this much, according to context referring either to deficiency or abundance, thus developing 2 meanings, viz. (1) just as much (& no more), only so little, all this, just this, such a small number, a little; pl. so few, just so many D i.117 (opp. aparimāṇa), 124; A iv.114; Nd2 304iii. (ettakena na tussati is not satisfied with this much); Vv 7912 (cp. VvA 307); Miln 10, 18 (alaŋ ettakena enough of this much); DhA i.90 (enough, this much), 93, 399 (pl. ettakā); ii.54 (only one), 174 sq.; VvA 233 (a little), 323. -- ettakaŋ kālaŋ a short time (but see also under 2) J i.34; DhA ii.20. -- (2) ever so much (and not less), so much, pl. so many, ever so many, so & so many, such a lot A iii.337; J i.207 (pl. ettakā), 375 (nt. ettakaŋ); iii.80 (id.), 94 (˚ŋ dhanaŋ such great wealth); Miln 37 (pl.); DhA i.392, 396 (pl. f. ettikā), 397, 398; ii.14, 89 (pl.), 241 (pl. so many); VvA 65 (dhanaŋ). -- ettakaŋ kālaŋ for some time, such a long time (see also above, under 1) DhA ii.62, 81; iii.318; VvA 330.


-- (adv.) [with double suffix for *atra -- taḥ] from here, therefore S i.185.


-- (adv.) [fr. etta = ettaka, cp. kittāvatā: kittaka] so far, to that extent, even by this much D i.205, 207; S ii.17; Sn 478; Vv 556 (cp. VvA 248); Pv iv.167; Miln 14; DA i.80; SnA 4; PvA 243.


etto {t~tau:}
-- (adv.) [in analogy to ito fr. *et˚, as ito fr. *it˚] orig. abl. of etad; from this, from it, thence, hence, out of here Sn 448, 875; J i.223 (opp. ito), v.498; Pv i.11; ii.104; DhA ii.80 (ito vā etto vā here & there); PvA 103.
-- UHS-PMD0258


-- (adv.) [= Sk. atra, cp. etta] here, in this place; also temporal "now", & modal "in this case, in this matter" D ii.12; S v.375; Dh 174; Sn 61, 171, 424, 441, 502, 1037, & freq. passim.

UKT: Remember PTS tha is Bur-Myan {hta.} [plosive-stop], and sa is Bur-Myan {a.} [fricative-thibilant] which is transcribed as {tha.} in the country of Myanmar. Romabama has opted to use the Old-English 'thorn' character <> to represent {a.}.

-- (adj.) [Sk. īdṛśa] such like, such Vv 373; PvA 69, 243.


-- = edisa Sn 313.


edha {-Da.}
-- [Sk. edhaḥ, cp. idhma, inddhe; Gr. ai)_qos, a)i/qw, Lat. aedes, Ohg. eit, Ags. ād funeral pile, etc. See idhuma & iṭṭhaka] fuel, fire etc. Only in adj. neg. an˚ without fuel J iv.26.


-- [edh, cp. iddhati] to prosper, succeed in, increase S i.217 (sukhaŋ); Sn 298; Dh 193; J i.223; iii.151. <-> sukh˚edhita at Vin iii.13 is better read as sukhe ṭhita, as at J vi.219.


-- (pron.) [fr. pron. base *ē̆, cp. e -- ka; to this cp. in form & meaning Lat. ūnus, Gr. oi)no/s, Ohg. ein, Oir. ōin] only used in acc. enaŋ (taŋ enaŋ) "him, this one, the same" Sn 583, 981, 1114; Dh 118, 313; J iii.395; Nd2 304iii.b. See also naŋ.


-- (adj.) [fr. ereti] driving away, moving J iv.20 (˚vāta); ˚vattika a certain kind of torture M i.87 = A i.47 = ii.122 = Nd2 604 = Miln 197.


-- (nt.) [fr. ereti] Typha -- grass J iv.88. As eragu(?) a kind of grass used for making coverlets Vin i.196 (eraka Bdhgh. on D i.166).


-- [dial.?] the castor oil plant Nd2 680ii.; J ii.440. Cp. elaṇḍa.


-- N. of Indra's elephant Sn 379; Vv 4413; VvA 15.


-- [pp. of ereti] moved, shaken, driven J iv.424; Vv 394, 424; Th 1, 104, Pv ii.123; Vism 172 (+ samerita), 342 (vāt˚ moved by the wind). Cp. īrita.


-- [=īreti (q. v.) Caus. of īr, Sk. īrayati] to move, set into motion, raise (one's voice) M i.21; Sn 350 (eraya imper.); Th 1, 209 (eraye); J iv.478. -- pp. erita (q.v.).


-- (nt.) [?] salt(?) or water(?) in elambiya (= el˚ambu -- ja) born in (salt) water Sn 845 (= ela -- saaka ambumhi jāta); Nd1 202 (elaŋ vuccati udakaŋ).


-- = eraṇḍa (?) M i.124.


-- [?] N. of a creeping vine J vi.536.


-- (eḷāluka) (nt.) [etym.?] a kind of cucumber(?) Vv 3329; J i.205; v.37; DhA i.278.


eḷa {-La.}
-- (nt.) [Sk. enas] in eḷamūga deaf & dumb A ii.252; iii.436; iv.226; Miln 20, 251 (cp. Miln trsl. ii.71). A rather strange use and expln. of eḷamūga (with ref. to a snake "spitting") we find at J iii.347, where it is expld. as "eḷa -- paggharantena mukhena eḷamūgaŋ" i. e. called eḷamūga because of the saliva (foam?) dripping from its mouth, v. l. elamukha. -- Cp. neḷa & aneḷa.


-- [?] a threshold (see Morris, J.P.T.S. 1887, 146) Vin ii.149 (˚pādaka -- pītha, why not "having feet resembling those of a ram"? Cp. Vin Texts iii.165 "a chair raised on a pedestal"); D i.166; A i.295; ii.206. The word & its meaning seems uncertain.


-- [Sk. eḍaka] a ram, a wild goat Sn 309; Vism 500 (in simile); J i.166; Pug A 233 (= urabbha). -- f. eḷakā S ii.228, eḷakī Th 2, 438, eḷikī J iii.481.


-- see aneḷa.


-- (f.) [dial.?] the plant Cassia Tora (cp. Sk. eḍagaja the ringworm -- shrub, Cassia Alata, after Halāyudha), J iii. 222 (= kambojī C.).


-- in kāmāmis˚ at PvA 107 is to be read kāmā- mise lagga˚.

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-- (adv.) [Vedic eva] emphatic part "so, even, just"; very freq. in all contexts & combns. -- 1. eva J i.61 (ajjɔeva this veryday), 278 (tathɔeva likewise); ii.113 (ahaŋ e. just I), 154 (ekam e. just one), 160 (attano e. his very own). -- 2. eva often appears with prothetic (sandhi -- )y as yeva, most frequently after i and e, but also after the other vowels and ŋ, cp. J i.293, 307; ii.110, 128, 129, 159; iv.3; vi.363. -- 3. After ŋ eva also takes the form of eva, mostly with assimilation of ŋ to , viz. ta eva J i.223; tasmi eva J i.139; aha eva Miln 40. -- 4. After long vowels eva is often shortened to va (q. v.).
-- rūpa (1) such, like that Sn 279, 280; It 108; J ii. 352, etc. -- (2) of such form, beauty or virtue J i.294; iii.128, etc.


evaŋ {-wn}
-- (adv.) [Vedic evaŋ] so, thus, in this way, either re- ferring to what precedes or what follows, e. g. (1) thus (as mentioned, expld. at Vism 528 as "niddiṭṭha -- nayanidassana") D i.193 (evaŋ sante this being being so), 195 (id.); Vin ii.194 (evaŋ bhante, yes); J i.222; Pv ii.1312 evaŋ etaŋ, just so). -- (2) thus (as follows) M i. 483 (evaŋ me sutaŋ "thus have I heard"). -- Often combd. with similar emphatic part., as evam eva kho "in just the same way" (in final conclusions) D i.104, 199, 228, 237, 239; in older form evaŋ byā kho (= evam iva kho) Vin ii.26; iv.134 = DA i.27; evam evaŋ "just so" D i.51; Sn 1115; evaŋ kho D i.113; evam pi Sn 1134; evaŋ su D i.104; etc. etc.
-- diṭṭhin holding such a view M i.484. -- nāma having that name M i.429.


-- see etad.


-- (adj.) = esin Sn 286.


-- [ā + iṣ1 with confusion of iṣ1 and iṣ2, icchati, see also ajjhesati, anvesati, pariyesati] to seek, search, strive for Sn 592 (esāno ppr. med.), 919; Dh 131.


-- (f.) [fr. esati] desire, longing, wish D iii.216, 270; M i.79; S v.54, 139; A i.93; ii.41; v.31; VvA 83; PvA 98, 163, 265. See also anesanā, isi & pariy˚.


-- (f.) [fr. iṣ] a surgeon's probe M ii.256.


-- ( -- ˚) a by -- form of usabha (q. v.), in cpd. rathesabha.


-- (nt.) & esikā (f.) [a by -- form of isīkā] a pillar, post A iv.106, 109. Freq. in cpd. ˚ṭṭhāyin as stable as a pillar D i.14; S iii.202, 211, 217; DA i.105.


-- desire, see abbūḷha.


-- (adj.) [Sk. eṣin, of iṣ] seeking, wishing, desiring S ii.11 (sambhav˚); J i.87 (phal˚); iv.26 (dukkham˚); Pv ii.928 (gharam); PvA 132.


ehi {-hi.}
-- [imper. of eti] come, come here Sn 165; J ii 159; vi. 367; DhA i.49. In the later language part. of exhortation = Gr. a)/ge, Lat. age, "come on" DhA ii.91; PvA 201 (+ tāva = a)/ge dh/). ehipassika (adj.) [ehi + passa + ika] of the Dhamma, that which invites every man to come to see for himself, open to all, expld. at Vism 216 as "ehi, passa imaŋ dhamman ti evaŋ pavattaŋ ehi -- passavidhaŋ arahatī ti", D ii.217; iii.5, 227; S i.9; iv.41, 272; v.343; A i.158; ii.198. ehibhadantika one who accepts an invitation D i.166; M i.342; ii.161; A i.295; ii.206. ehi bhikkhu "come bhikkhu!" the oldest formula of admission to the order Vin i.12; iii.24; DhA i.87; J i.82; f. ehi bhikkhunī Vin iv.214 pl. etha bhikkhavo DhA i.95. ehibhikkhu -- pabbajjā initiation into Bhikkhuship SnA 456. ehibhikkhubhāva -- state of being invited to join the Sangha, admission to the Order J i.82, 86; DhA ii.32; SnA 456. ehisāgata -- (& svāgata -- )vādin a man of courtesy (lit. one who habitually says: "come you are welcome") D i.116; Vin ii.11; iii.181.

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UKT notes

Dwara Sect of Therawada Buddhism in Myanmar

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwara_Nikaya 111230

Maha Dwara Nikaya (also spelt Maha Dwaya Nikaya or Maha Dvara Nikaya and known as Anaukchaung Dwaya is the name of a small monastic order of monks in Myanmar (Burma), numbering a three to four thousand monks, primarily in Lower Myanmar.[1] This order is very conservative with respect to Vinaya regulations. Its founding was inspired by nikaya reforms in Sri Lanka during the 19th century.[1] It is one of 9 legally sanctioned monastic orders (nikaya) in the country, under the 1990 Law Concerning Sangha Organizations.[2]

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Forms of long-vowel letter /u/

-- by UKT 111229

In both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, the syllable /u/ is represented by the graphemes and . I cannot fully agree with both forms, and for argument I will call the as "Loantin-U" and as "Chaungkin-U". To argue with more accuracy I will use not only the 'English-Latin transliteration' but also the Devanagari and Myanmar aksharas. In addition, I will call on Bengali (which uses split vowels similar Myanmar) and Gujarati (which is used to write the Jaina texts: Jainism being very similar to Buddhism - using similar terms with the same meaning.).

                                            vowel-letters       vowel-signs +
                                                                         consonant /n/
Close-back vowel:              short  long         short   long
   Latin     :                             u         ū
   Devanagari:                      उ         ऊ               नु        नू
   Bengali:                             উ         ঊ               নু        নূ
   Gujarati:                             ઉ         ઊ               નુ        નૂ
   Myanmar:                                 /                   
The Bur-Myan consonant /n/ is 'truncated {na.} and is colored red.

Notice that in all pairs of scripts, the graphemes shares a 'basic' design. This design is extended in the long vowel by addition of what might be called a diacritic as in u & ū [the diacritic is the short bar over the letter].

We must remember that Pal-Myan has only two tones or registers (more accurately 'Pitch-registers') - the short vowel, u, and the long vowel ū. Bur-Myan on the other hand, being a Tibeto-Burman language has three tones or registers - the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. The three registers of Bur-Myan /nu/ :

creak     modal      emphatic
The Bur-Myan consonantal-grapheme, {na.} /na/, has two forms, and both of which reminds you of a coiled snake or Nag - the dragon.

I have no trouble with the grapheme form of short (or creak} vowel letter, . But there are issues with the diacritics for long (or modal) letter. First: with the Loantin-U. The diacritic used, the {lon-kri:ting} is the diacritic for a front-vowel when what we are dealing with is a back-vowel. Second: with the Chaungkin-U. The grapheme is equivalent to - one vertical line with a small right-hook. Therefore the grapheme equivalent for needs only a single vertical line which would look like - NOT .

Note: I am writing this note in Canada and my Bur-Myan peers are in Myanmar. I need to consult with them and rewrite my note again. -- UKT111229

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Hngettwin Sect of Therawada Buddhism in Myanmar

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hngettwin_Nikaya 111230

Hngettwin Nikaya (officially Catubhummika Mahasatipatthana Hngettwin) is the name of a monastic order of monks in Burma, numbering approximately 1,000 monks, primarily in Mandalay.[1] Founded in the mid-19th century by the abbot of the Hngettwin Monastery, it is one of 9 legally sanctioned monastic orders (nikaya) in the country, under the 1990 Law Concerning Sangha Organizations.[2] Hngettwin Nikaya is a very orthodox order, with a minimalist and austere approach to Buddhist rituals found in Burma, not recognizing any rituals inconsistent with Buddhist doctrine, including Nat spirit worship. For instance, members of this order do not worship or venerate the image of Buddha, but his spirit [UKT: teaching. Wikipedia's 'spirit' has other connotations.] .[1]

Personal note: My mother's Mon relatives in Kungyangon, particularly U Shwe Loak - Daw Thein of Taungbakkam quater, belonged to this sect. In fact Daw Thein's cousin, Daw Gyi, was one the principal donors of the Hngettwin monastery in Kungyangon. She was known as Kyaung-a-ma Ma Gyi. On my last visit (2009) to Kungyangon, I asked the presiding monk at the monastery who admitted that he, being a late comer, has no recollections of the principal donors of the monastery during its peak in the early 1900s. This monastery boasts of one of the tallest wooden buildings that I have seen and a cast iron spiral staircase which according the monk was cast in a village nearby.

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Shwkyin Sect of Therawada Buddhism in Myanmar

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shwegyin_Nikaya 111230

Shwegyin Nikaya (Shwkyin) is the name of the second largest monastic order of monks in Burma. Approximately 5% of Burmese monks (50,000) belong to this order.[1] It is one of 9 legally sanctioned monastic orders (nikaya) in the country, under the 1990 Law Concerning Sangha Organizations.[2] Shwegyin Nikaya is a more orthodox order than Thudhamma Nikaya, with respect to adherence to the Vinaya,[3] and its leadership is more centralized and hierarchical.[4] Shwegyin Nikaya was founded in the mid-19th century by a chief abbot monk in the village of Shwegyin. It formally separated from the Thudhamma Nikaya during the reign of King Mindon Min and attempts to reconcile the two sects by the last king of Burma, Thibaw Min, were unsuccessful.[1] Monks of the Shwegyin Nikaya did not participate in the nationalist and anti-colonial movement in British Burma of the early 1900s.

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