Update: 2012-11-03 10:21 AM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary

p005-1.htm : from a1.htm

• by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
¤ California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

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UKT notes
Hindu worship

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We have seen that the equivalent of Pal-Myan {ag~ga.} is Skt-Myan {a.gra.}. It is not as rhotic as the repha {ar~ga.} nor highly-rhotic {aRga.}. We should expect that a similar case would be found for {ag~gi.}. But MAC gives only the following two:

MAC: अग्रिम «agr-i-ma» -- a. leading, first; following (of sequence in writing or speaking). -- MAC003c3-b07

MAC: अग्रिय «agr-i-ya» -- a. foremost, best; firstborn; n. what is best. -- MAC003c3-b08

It seems that {ag~gi.} is changed into nasal-dental {ag~ni.}

MAC: अग्नि = अ ग ् न ि «agni» -- m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- MAC003c1-b15

We note that in IPA-consonantal table /r/ and /n/ both belongs to the dental-alveolar POA


{ag~gi.} aggi
PTS:-- [Vedic agni = Lat. ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini (see below)] fire. -- 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin ii. 120 (fire in bathroom); M i. 487 (anāhāro nibbuto f. gone out for lack of fuel); S iv. 185, 399 (sa -- upādāno jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 (= asaniaggi DhA iii. 71); J i. 216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); ii. 102; iii. 55; iv. 139; VvA 20 (aggimhi tāpanaŋ + udake temanaŋ). -- The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A iv. 45: aggiŋ ujjāleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbāpeti (extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e. g. aggiŋ jāleti (kindle) J ii. 44; gaṇhāti (make or take) J i. 494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) J i. 294; nibbāpeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nibbāyati the f. goes out S ii. 85; M i. 487; J i. 212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is extinguished (cp. ˚nibbāna) J i. 61; Miln 304. agginā dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A i. 136, 199; PvA 20. udar˚ the fire supposed to regulate digestion PvA 33; cp. Dial. ii. 208, note 2; kapp˚uṭṭhān˚ the universal conflagration J iii. 185; dāv˚ a wood or jungle fire J i. 212; naḷ˚ the burning of a reed J vi.100; padīp˚ fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jātaka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagavā the Lord Agni, e. g. at J i. 285, 494; ii. 44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e. g. J i. 285; ii. 43. Aggiŋ paricarati (cp. ˚paricāriyā) to serve the sacred fire Vin i. 31 (jaṭilā [ p004c2end-p005c1begin] aggī paricaritukāmā); A v.263, 266; Th 2, 143 (= aggihuttaŋ paric˚ ThA 136); Dh 107; J i.494; DhA ii.232. aggiŋ juhati (cp. ˚homa, ˚hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the fire A ii.207; often combd. with aggihuttaŋ paricarati, e. g. S i. 166; Sn p. 79. aggiŋ namati & santappeti to worship the fire A v. 235. aggissa (gen.) paricāriko J vi. 207 (cp. below ˚paricārika); aggissa ādhānaŋ A iv. 41. -- 3. (ethical, always -- ˚) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rāg˚, dos˚, moh˚, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S iv. 19; A iv. 41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are āhuneyy˚, gahapat˚, dakkhiṇeyy˚, kaṭṭh˚. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, & the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D iii. 217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are found others: ind˚ the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh˚ the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkh˚ of the misery of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippaṭisār˚ burning remorse PvA 60; sok˚ burning grief ib. 41.
Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 & 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combn. with sama "like", viz. aggini -- samaŋ jalitaŋ 668 (= samantato jali taŋ aggiŋ Sn A 480); aggini -- samāsu 670 (= aggisamāsu Sn A 481). The form agginī in phrase niccagginī can either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as nom. of aggini (in adj. function with ī metri causa; otherwise as adj. agginiŋ), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert.
-- agāra (agyâgāra) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin i. 24; iv. 109; D i. 101, 102 (as v. l. BB for agāra); M i. 501; A v. 234, 250. -- khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, fire -- brand S ii. 85; A iv.  128; Th 2, 351 (˚samākāmā); J iv. 139; vi. 330; Ps i. 125; Dpvs vi. 37; Miln 304. -- gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -- ja fire-born J v. 404 (C; text aggijāta). -- ṭṭha fire-place J v. 155.
-- ṭṭhāna
fire-place Vin ii. 120 (jantāghare, in bathroom). -- daḍḍha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv i. 74.
-- dāha
(mahā˚) a holocaust A i. 178. -- nikāsin like fire J iii. 320 (suriya). -- nibbāna the extinction of fire J i. 212. -- pajjota fire -- light A ii. 140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda˚, suriya˚, a˚, pańńā˚). -- paricaraṇa ( -- ṭṭhāna) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to DhA i. 199. -- paricariyā fire -- worship DhA ii. 232; Sn A 291 (pāri˚) 456. -- paricārika one who worship the fire a v.263 (brāhmaṇa).
-- sālā
a heated hall or refectory Vin i. 25, 49 = ii. 210; i. 139; ii. 154. -- sikhā the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile ˚űpama, like a flaming fire Sn 703; Dh 308 = It 43, 90 (ayoguḷa). -- hutta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin i. 33, 36 = J i. 83; Vin i. 246 = Sn 568 (˚mukha -- yańńa); S i. 166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J iv. 211; vi. 525; ThA 136 (= aggi); DhA iv. 151 (˚ŋ brāhmaṇo namati). -- huttaka (nt.) fire-offering J vi. 522 (= aggi -- jūhana C.). -- hotta = ˚hutta SnA 456 (v. l. BB ˚hutta).
-- homa
fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D i. 9 (= aggi -- jūhana DA i. 93).

© {ag~gi.} «aggi»
PTS:-- [Vedic agni ... ] fire. -- 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration,
UHS: {ag~gi.} -- UHS-PMD0010
MAC: अग्नि = अ ग ् न ि «agni» -- m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- MAC003c1-b15

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: m. fire

© {ag~gaiT~HTa-na.}
PTS: «aggiṭṭhāna» fire-place
UHS: {ag~gaiT~HTa-na.} -- UHS-PMD0010

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: n. place where fire is kept.
Note: PTS meaning can mean a small contraption like a hearth, whereas UPS states that it is place (a room -- may be) where fire is kept.

© {ag~gi.da-ha.}
PTS:  «aggidāha» (mahā˚) a holocaust
UHS: {ag~gi.da-ha.} -- UHS-PMD0010

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: m. burning down [the meaning reminds me of a residential quarter burning down]

© {ag~gi.ţa-la} «aggisālā»
PTS: «aggisālā» a heated hall or refectory
UHS: {ag~gi.ţa-la} -- UHS-PMD0010

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: f. a small hut in which there is a hearth [or sacrificial fire-altar]
Note: Those who know both Burmese and English will immediately realized the problem of translation. The English word <hall> brings to mind a sense of grandeur, whereas the Burmese word invokes a picture of a small hut or shed where a small charcoal-brazier is kept burning continuously for daily sacrifices [burnt-offerings].

© {ag~gi.hau:ma.}
PTS: «aggihoma» fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni)
UHS: {ag~gi.hau:ma.} -- UHS-PMD0010

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: m. burnt offerings. n. treatise on burnt offerings.
See my note on Hindu worship


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{ag~gi.ka.}  aggika
Pal: - (adj.) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin i. 71 (jaṭilaka); D ii. 339 sq. (jaṭila); S i. 166 (brāhmaṇa).
UHS: {ag~gi.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0010

UKT from UHS-PMD0010: one who serves fire, worships fire implying Deva-god Agni of the Brahmin-Poona {poaN~Na:}


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UKT notes

Hindu worship

From: HINDU WORSHIP, RITUALS AND PRACTICES, by Jeffrey Hays, 2009, 2011
http://factsanddetails.com/world.php?itemid=1350&catid=55&subcatid=354# 121103

It can be argued that what defines a Hindu is not the god that he or she worships but the rituals and lifestyle that he or she follows. There is often a great deal of overlapping and little distinction between religious and secular life, with prayers, initiations, ceremonies, festivals and rituals taking up a large chunk of a Hindu’s daily routine and life.

Children are brought up to follow the customs and ethics of their parents but are encouraged to decide for themselves which gods and goddesses are right for them. Individuals often practice group rituals for their family and private rituals for themselves.

Hindu religious customs, beliefs and the gods people worship can often vary greatly from place to place and even from caste to caste in one locality. Even so Hindus generally observe broadly similar rules regarding food, marriages and burial.

Hindus are theoretically obliged to perform the "Five Great Sacrifices" three times a day but few of them other than devout, old-fashion Brahmins actually do. They consist of 1) the worship of Brahma by reciting the Vedic verses; 2) the worship of gods with burnt offering; 3) the worship of living spirits by offering food to animals and insects, and scattering grain in four direction, the center, in the air and on household utensil; 4) the offering of hospitality to members of one castes; and 5) the giving of offering to one’s ancestors. Good Hindus are also expected to give their ancestors a rice ball on the first new moon day of every month and periodically give offerings to the household spirit that lives in the northeast corner of the house. ["World Religions" edited by Geoffrey Parrinder, Facts on File Publications, New York] Similar obligations are required in a Hindu’s lifetime. There are some forty sacramental rites ( samskaras ) which an orthodox high-class Hindu is expected to perform or have performed on his behalf at various stages of his life. Many of these rarely take place. Most of them are very ancient in origin and feature sacraments and rites thought be similar to those performed in ancient Greece and Rome.

UKT: More in the article

UKT Note: To whom was the fire-offering made? If you remember that Agni - the Fire-Deva - is just a messenger, there must be someone or something to whom offerings are made. In Gayatri Mantra, perhaps the oldest Vedic chant, there was no mention of Indra, Agni, Soma -- the original Vedic devas to whom most hymns were sung. There was no mention of Brahma, Vishnu, Siva -- the later additions. There was only mention of स्वः «svaḥ». Who or what was «svaḥ»? Could it be the Sun? I wait for input from my peers. The equivalent of Gayatri mantra is Bur-Myan Buddhist Peacock Sutta which I a young child had to recite once in the morning and then a second time in evening at a village school in Kyaik-htaw village in 1943. -- UKT121103

Gayatri Mantra

ॐ भूर्भुवः॒ स्वः ।
Oṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ

तत्स॑वितुर्वरे॑ण्यं ।
tát savitúr váreṇ(i)yaṃ

भ॒र्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि। ।
bhárgo devásya dhīmahi

धियो॒ यो नः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त्॥ ।
dhíyo yó naḥ pracodáyāt

Go back Hindu-worship-note-b

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