Update: 2012-11-02 02:12 AM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary

p003-2.htm : from a1.htm

• by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
€ California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

PTS-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page 



UKT notes
• Akyaw {a.kyau}
• Diamond Sutra - Mahayana {wa.ra.zain} «vajra»
• Naga
• Poisons and antidotes

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€ a-gaccha --> {a.gic~hsa.}
PTS: not entered
PMT:- m. (√gam) a tree.

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{a.ga.ti.} agati
PTS: -- see gati. -- ˚gamana  practising a wrong course of life, evil practice, wrong doing D iii. 228 (4: chanda˚, dosa˚ moha˚ bhaya˚); A ii. 18 sq., J iv. 402; v. 98, 510; PvA 161. -- PTS

© {a.ga.ti.} agati
PTS: -- see {ga.ti.} gati. -- PTS
PMT:- m. the sun; a tree; mountain, snake.
UHS: {a.ga.ti.} -- UHS-PMD0007 

UKT from UHS: f. non-going, being born in a non-desirable existence after death. UHS listed the "four paths" leading to such existences.

UKT ref PMT: There is a large difference between a "snake" and a "Naga". A snake is an animal (which knows only eating, sleeping and mating), whereas a Naga is equal to a human (who is intelligent enough to be the receivers Buddha's Dhamma), as per the claim by Mahayana Buddhists that the Diamond Sutra, most important Sutra of theirs was preached by the Lord Buddha himself in to the Nagas and not to the humans. UPMT's translation of "snake" is therefore erroneous. -- UKT121026
See my notes on Diamond Sutra and  Naga .


{a.ga.da.}  agada
PTS:- [Vedic agada; a + gada] medicine, drug, counter-poison J i. 80 (˚harīṭaka); Miln 121, 302, 319, 334; DA i. 67; DhA i. 215; PvA 198 (= osadhaŋ).


© {a.ga.da.}  agada 
PTS:- [Vedic agada; a + gada] medicine, drug, counter-poison J i. 80
UHS: {a.ga.da.} - UHS-PMD0007
MAC: अगद  «a-gada» - m. health; a. (-dá) healthy, well; wholesome; n. medicine, esp. antidote. -- Mac002c3

UKT from UHS-PMD0007: mfn. free from ailments. m. medicine

UKT: The words अगद «agada» and गद «gada» together refers to
€ गदागद gadāgada [Dev spelling by UKT - 120130]
See my note on Poisons and Antidotes

{a.ga.dïn~ka-ra.}  agadaṅ-kāra
PTS: not entd
PMT:- m. (√kar) a physician.
UHS: {a.ga.dïn~ka-ra.} -- UHS-PMD0007

UKT from UHS-PMD0007: m. physician


€ a-gama
PMT:- m. (√gam) a tree, mountain.

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{a.ga.ru.}  agaru
PTS:-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. aguru, a + garu] (a) not heavy, not troublesome, only in phrase: sace te agaru "if it does not inconvenience you, if you don't mind" (cp. BSk. yadi te aguru. Av. S i. 94, 229; ii. 90) Vin. i. 25; iv. 17, D i. 51; DhA i. 39. -- (b) disrespectful, irreverent (against = gen.) D i. 89; Sn p. 51.
PMT: not entd
UHS: {a.ga.ru.} - UHS-PMD0008

UKT from UHS-PMD0008: mfn. not heavy, disrespectful. m. aloe-wood. n. black aloe-wood {a.kyau} Acquilari agallocha 
See my note on Akyaw  {a.kyau}

{a.ga.lu.}  agalu
PTS:-- [cp. Sk. aguru, which is believed to appear in Hebr. ahālīm (aloe), also in Gr. a)lo/h & a)ga/lloxon] fragrant aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 537 (aggalu = VvA 237 agalugandha); VvA 158 (+ candana). Cp. also Av. Ś i. 24, and akalu.

UKT: Note the two abbreviations Hebr. = Hebrew and Gr. = Greek.

© {a.ga.lu.}  agalu
PTS:-- [cp. Sk. aguru, ... ] fragrant aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 537
PMT: «agalu»- mn. aloe wood.
UHS: {a.ga.lu.} -- UHS-PMD0008

UKT from UHS-PMD0008: n. {a.kyau}


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{a.ga-Da.}  a-gādha
PTS: not entd
PMT:- n. a hole, chasm; adj. deep, bottomless.
UHS: {a.ga-Da.} -- UHS-PMD0008

UKT from UHS-PMD0008: mfn. very deep. m. chasm or steep cliff. n. water so deep that you cannot see the bottom


PTS:-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. agāra, probably with the a -- of communion; Gr. a)gei(rw to collect, a)gora/ market. Cp. in meaning & etym. gaha1]. -- 1. house or hut, usually implying the comforts of living at home as opp. to anagāra homelessness or the state of a homeless wanderer (mendicant). See anagāriyā . -- Thus freq. in two phrases contrasting the state of a householder (or layman, cp. gihin), with that of a religious wanderer (pabbajita), viz. (a.) kesamassuŋ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaŋ pabbajati "to shave off hair & beard, put on the yellow robes, and wander forth out of the home into the homeless state" D i. 60 etc.; cp. Nd2 172ii. See also S i. 185 (agārasmā anagāriyaŋ nikkhanta); M ii. 55 (agāraŋ ajjhāvasatā); Sn 274, 805 (˚ŋ āvasati), and with pabbajita D i. 89, 115, 202, 230; Pv ii. 1317. -- (b.) of a "rājā cakkavattin" compared with a "sambuddha": sace agāraŋ āvasati vijeyya paṭhaviŋ imaŋ adaṇḍena asatthena . . . sace ca so pabbajati agārā anagāriyaŋ vivaṭacchado sambuddho arahā bhavissati "he will become the greatest king when he stays at home, but the greatest saint when he takes up the homeless life", the prophesy made for the infant Gotama D ii. 16; Sn 1002, 1003. -- Further passages for agāra e. g. Vin i. 15; D i. 102 (BB. has v. l. agyâgāra, but DA i. 270 expl. as dānâgāra); A i. 156, 281; ii. 52 sq.; Dh 14, 140; J i. 51, 56; iii. 392; Dpvs. i. 36. -- 2. anagāra (adj.) houseless, homeless; a mendicant (opp. gahaṭṭha) Sn 628 = Dh 404; Sn 639, 640 (+ paribbaje); Pv ii. 25 (= anāvāsa PvA 80). -- (nt.) the homeless state (= anagāriyā) Sn 376. See also agga2. -- 3. ˚āgāra: Owing to freq. occurrence of agāra at the end of cpds. of which the first word ends in a, we have a dozen quite familiar words ending apparently in āgāra. This form has been considered therefore as a proper doublet of agāra. This however is wrong. The long ā is simply a contraction of the short a at the end of the first part of the cpd. with the short a at the beginning of agāra. Of the cpds. the most common are: -- āgantuk˚ reception hall for strangers or guests S iv. 219; v. 21. -- itth˚ lady's bower S i. 58, 89. -- kūṭ˚ a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S ii. 103. 263; iii. 156; iv. 186; v. 43; A i. 230; iii. 10, 364; iv. 231; v. 21. -- koṭṭh˚ storehouse, granary D i. 134 (cp. DA i. 295); S i. 89. -- tiṇ˚ a house covered with grass S iv. 185; A i. 101. -- bhus˚ threshing shed, barn A i. 241. -- santh˚ a council hall D i. 91; ii. 147; S iv. 182; v. 453; A ii. 207; iv. 179 sq. -- suńń˚ an uninhabited shed; solitude S v. 89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; A i. 241 (v. l. for bhusâgāra); iii. 353; iv. 139, 392, 437; v. 88, 109, 323 sq.


© {a.ga-ra.}  agāra
PTS:-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. agāra, ... ]. -- 1. house or hut, usually implying the comforts of living at home
PMT:- n. a house.
UHS: {a.ga-ra.} -- UHS-PMD0008

UKT from UHS-PMD0008: n. house, the state (implying comforts) of a person living in a house


{a.ga-ra.ka.}  agāraka
PTS:-- (nt.) [fr. agāra] a small house, a cottage M i. 450; J vi. 81.
UHS: {a.ga-ra.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0008


PTS:-- (adj.) 1. having a house, in eka˚, dva˚ etc. D i. 166 = A i. 295 = ii. 206. -- 2. a householder, layman Vin i. 17. f. agārikā a housewife Vin i. 272. See also āgārika.


© {a.ga-ri.ka.}  agārika
PTS:-- (adj.) 1. having a house. 2. a householder, layman Vin i. 17.
UHS: {a.ga-ri.ka.}  -- UHS-PMD0008

UKT from UHS-PMD0008: mfn. a person in possession of a house. m. a person living in a house

PTS:-- (adj.) [fr. agāra] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Sn 376, Th i ,1009; J iii. 234. -- f. agārinī a housewife Vv 527 (= gehassāmmī VvA 225); Pv iii. 43 (id. PvA 194).


agāriya = agārika,
PTS:-- a layman M i. 504 (˚bhūta). -- Usually in neg. anagāriyā (f.) the homeless state (= anagāraŋ) as opp. to agāra (q. v.) in formula agārasmā anagāriyaŋ pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin i. 15; M i. 16; ii. 55, 75; A i. 49; D iii. 30 sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv ii. 1316; DA i. 112.


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UKT notes

Akyaw {a.kyau}

UKT 121101

Bur-Myan (indigenous medicine term) is {a.kyaw}. [MLC MED2006-538]. Listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance - by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65:

#entry 63-1678  {a.kyaw} {țic-mhwé:}  Eagle wood, Aloe wood 
  Aquillaria agallocha
  fam. Thymelaeaceae

The specimen weighing just a few grams my mother had (when I was a child) is heavy and black. Whenever I became a little feverish, my mother would rub it with a little water on a {kyauk-prin} 'flat grind-stone used for making {ța.nût-hka:} - a make-up for Myanmar women'. Because {a.kyaw} is valued almost on par with gold, only a little paste was prepared, taken with the tip of her right-hand finger and rubbed on my tongue. The remainder went to just under my nose to give me the scent with medicinal property. The rest (now being applied with more drops of water on the grind-stone went to my forehead. The taste was bitter, but the smell was pleasant and cool. My mother lost her precious specimen which she inherited from her aunt during World War II. What is now used in Myanmar as {a.kyaw} is a substitute valued as little as one percent of the genuine. -- UKT 121101 -- based on my knowledge of Bur-Myan traditional medicine.

Go back Akyaw-note-b

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Diamond Sutra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_Sutra 121031

The Diamond Sūtra is a Mahāyāna sūtra from the Prajńāpāramitā, or "Perfection of Wisdom" genre, and emphasizes the practice of non-abiding and non-attachment.

A copy of the Chinese version of Diamond Sūtra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century and dated back to May 11, 868, [1] is, in the words of the British Library, "the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book." [2] .

Note: The Guttenberg Printing Press was invented around 1440 AD. -- some 500 years after the Chinese printing. Of course, the Chinese were the first who invented writing paper, and they guarded the secrets of making it. It took the Westerners many centuries by to "steal" the trade-secret. The eastern method was not completely received by the Westerners until 1920s when Dard Hunter came to north-east border of Burma-China to "steal" another trade secret -- the secret of deflocculating agent to defloculate the long-fibres used by the Mein-kine or Goän Shans. --  UKT121031
See http://www.dardhunter.com/papermaking.htm 121031

The full Sanskrit title of this text is the Vajracchedikā Prajńāpāramitā Sūtra .

The word "Diamond" does not mean the diamond jewel -- a "Girl's Best Friend". It means {wa.ra.zain} 'thunderbolt' «Vajra» because of its penetrating power. To the Bur-Myan it is the weapon of the Buddhist Sakka, to the Vedic Hindus the weapon of their Deva-god Indra, and to the later Hindus it is a part of the «Aṅkuśa» carried  by their Mahadeva-god Siva . UKT 121031

Go back Diamond-Sutra-note-b

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-- UKT 121031

This piece is written for the Halloween of 1012. I want the readers of my writings to have open minds and be with joy in their hearts. I myself is not a staid old man living in an ivory tower. I am still just a child of 8 (forget the zero after the 8), with a catapult in hand throwing pebbles at the ivory towers to wakeup the scholars.

From: Folk Elements of Burmese Buddhism by Maung Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981.
http://www.tuninst.net/Myanmar/Folk-elements/ch07-naga/ch07-cult-naga.htm#fn109-01b 121031

Cult of Naga
Chap 07 Appendix 2

The Cult of the Naga [big snake-like creature] was the one pre-Buddhist cult which did not recover from Anawrahta's suppression. At the present day the Naga is not worshipped at all, and there remain only two faint traces fn109-01 of the original cult. As part of the initiation ceremony, the Burmese boy is 'shown' to the Naga at the western gate of a northern or Upper Burmese village. ¶UKT

[For distant travelling], people avoid, as much as possible, going in a direction which is not 'according to the Naga's head'. In the first, second and twelfth months of the Burmese year, the Naga's head is turned towards the west, with the tail pointing east. In the sixth, seventh and eighth months this process is reversed. In the third, fourth and fifth months the head faces the north and the tail the south. This process is reversed in the ninth, tenth and eleventh months.

If one goes into the Naga's mouth, disaster will result, and if one goes against the direction of the Naga's scales, ill-luck will follow; for example, during the months in which [{p110}] the Naga's head is turned towards the east, one must absolutely avoid journeys from due east to due west, and avoid as much as possible journeys from due west to due east. The origin of the belief can no longer be traced and it is not possible to know, or even guess, which particular Naga is being referred to: in fact, if is not even known whether this Naga is in the sky or at the bottom of the ocean, or in the bowels of the earth.

As has been stated above, the worship of the Naga was prevalent in the kingdom of Tagaung. The Burmese Naga is similar in many ways to the Indian Naga and the Chinese Dragon, but it is difficult to say whether the worship of the Naga was originally a native cult or borrowed from the neighbouring regions of Manipur [in the west] and Yunnan [in the east]. Moreover, the worship of the Naga could have developed from the worship of the snake and, as has been noted above, in the Shan state and at Popa there are traces of a snake-cult. However, in these regions it is not so much the snakes, but their Nat masters who are worshipped. Thus, the Burmese snake-charmer goes to the Popa region, makes his offerings to the Popa Nats, promises to bring back the snakes within three years, and then proceeds to trap some cobras. The Burmese consider the Naga to be half animal and half spirit and do not identify it with the snake, with the result that, unlike the Southern Indians, they set upon and kill snakes, including cobras, whenever they find them.

UKT: When we note that the Burmese Naga does not have legs, and that the Chinese dragon has them (and toes on the legs), we can see that they are entirely different. The Burmese Naga is a semi-aquatic or aquatic creature and always lives under the sea or a deep lake. If the naga is living inland, it lives in a very deep hole very near a body of water. In many ways, the Burmese Naga and Indian Nag are similar.
   The Mahabharata hero, Arjuna, must have stood on the mountains of Manipur and Assam or further north and must have looked to the east. There he saw a land covered with mist, and when the mist let up, there was a beautiful land -- something like an ocean of water which sometimes opens up revealing the land underneath. He had taken as his wife a Naga princess, Ulūpī, and even had a son by her. She had invited him to come back to her land -- the land under the sea -- but he had refused. Now my conjecture: where could that land be -- the Northern Burma (the country of Tagaung) some parts of which (Mogoke) were covered with natural crystals of rubies and other precious stones even to the time British occupation.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iravan 121031,
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulupi 121031

The Burmese Naga is dangerous when angered, and its mere frown turns the human being into ashes. Even when not angry its breath can blind a human being as it is so hot. It can assume human form and, on the whole, it is a benevolent being. The Burmese believe that Nagas live at the bottom of deep rivers, seas and oceans and in the bowels of the earth. Although they can fly in the air they do not do so too often because they will become exposed to attacks from their eternal enemies, the galon (garuda) birds. [UKT ¶ ]

Just as the great [{p111}] Asoka of India had Naga retainers, an early king of Pagan was, according to the Chronicles, attended by an army of Naga youths. Naga workmen helped in the building of a palace at Tagaung and, when the palace was completed, the king of the Nagas himself assisted in the coronation ceremonies of the king. A Naga king assisted in the foundation of the city of Prome and gave his daughter as a second queen to the king, Duttabaung, together with a wondrous ocean going boat covered with Naga's scales. However, towards the end of his reign there was a quarrel between the Nagas and the king, and as he was travelling in the boat near the seaport of Bassein, the Nagas appeared from below a whirlpool and took back their boat, with the result that the king was drowned. The whirlpool still exists at the present day and it is called the 'whirlpool of 'Naga-yit' {na.ga:ric}, which means 'where the Nagas twist and turn'. [UKT ¶ ]

One of the early kings of Pagan, the hero Pyusawhti, was the ward of a Naga king and queen who lived in a hole in a garden on the side of a hill, and who were worshipped with offerings of food and flowers by the people of the nearby villages. The king of Pagan, Nyaung-U Sawrahan [aka Taungthugyi Min], whom Anawrahta's father dethroned, built Buddhist temples, but he also set up the image of a Naga in a garden for worship. fn111-01

Naga in the sky

The Naga in the sky is actually the Milky Way as seen in the night sky. See insert -- the head of the Naga is on the right side of the insert while the tail is on the left. The Pole Star is in the centre. From: Map of Union of Myanmar and the World (in Burmese), by Dr. Daw Thin Kyi, et.al., {tha.ma-meit~ta.}, 1956, p.5. See a full account of the Breath of Naga in Nakshatra in the Sky (in Burmese), by U Tézaniya et.al, B.E.T. Press, Yangon, 1967 

Naga in Buddhism

The cult of the Naga did not reappear after the death of Anawrahta, because long before A.D. 1056 Buddhist literature had modified the pre-Buddhist conception of the Naga, and the Nagas were shown to be adherents of Buddhism and devout worshippers of the Buddha. [UKT ¶ ]

The Naga tradition in Buddhism began with an episode in the life of the Buddha. After attaining Buddhahood, the Buddha spent seven weeks in continuous meditation in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree, and the sixth of the seven weeks was spent on the shore of the [{p112}] Mucalinda Lake, a few yards away from the Tree; there blew a great storm, and the Naga king [named Mucalinda: "king" or {ming:} is just an honorific suffix], who lived in a tree nearby, sheltered the Buddha by winding his coils seven times round the meditating Buddha's body and holding his hood over the Buddha's head. fn112-01 [UKT ¶ ]

The depiction of the meditating Buddha protected by the coils of the Naga king later became a popular motif in Buddhist art and sculpture. The Buddha subdued one fierce Naga near a hermitage, and later the Great Naga who lived on Mount Mayyu. A Naga king was present when the relics of the Buddha were being distributed after the cremation of the body. [UKT ¶ ]

In the Buddhist literature of Ceylon, the Naga appeared often. The Buddha made a special visit to the north of Ceylon to bring peace between the Nagas who were fighting among themselves. When the Branch of the Bodhi Tree was being brought to Ceylon by sea, the Nagas wanted it for themselves, but still afforded protection to the ship bringing the Branch. When 'the Great Temple' was being built in Ceylon to enshrine some relies of the Buddha, the Nagas contributed the relics in their possession. In the face of such established Buddhist tradition the Burmese Naga could no longer be worshipped separately from the Buddha.

Kyansittha attempted to bring the cult under his control by announcing that when he was hiding from the wrath of Anawrahta, he was sheltered by a Naga lad. He later named the particular place where this incident took place. [UKT ¶ ]

Modern scholars [UKT: the Killjoys] have tried to give a rational explanation to this episode in Kyansittha's life by explaining that it was not a Naga but a cobra that Kyansittha was referring to, or that it was a young attendant from a nearby temple devoted to Naga worship that gave Kyansittha protection. However, such explanations are unnecessary when we remember Kyansittha's contention that he was a reincarnation of Vishnu and that he was a fellow-worshipper, in a previous existence, with the Lord of the Great Mountain. Just as he allowed the builders [{p113} of his palace to devote one whole day to ceremonies connected with the worship of the Lord of the Great Mountain and one whole day to those connected with Vishnu, so he permitted them to devote a whole day to ceremonies involving the worship of the Nagas. But although many of his courtiers themselves took part in the ceremonies held by the builders to propitiate the Nagas who had been disturbed when the foundations of the palace were laid, there was no popular revival of the Naga cult.

When Kyansittha later found that the people had accepted the new Buddhist conception of the Naga, he built a beautiful pagoda at the place where he was supposed to have been protected by the Naga lad, and named it the 'Naga-yone' meaning 'robed by the Naga', referring to the 'robing' of the Buddha by the Naga Mucalinda's coils. Later on, the name 'Naga-yone' became a term to describe an image of the Buddha with the coils of the Naga round his body, or a pagoda with large Naga figures around it. In fact, up to the present day the Naga is the most popular motif in Burmese art, both religious and secular.

Naga in Myanmar, China and England

UKT: Even as a young child of pre-teen years, I remember, I have noticed the curious shape of the Myanmar {na.} which can easily remind one of a {na.ga:} or नाग «nāga» in Sanskrit. The picture of {na.ga:} is taken from MLC MEDict p.220. Shown below are the Asoka (Brahmi) nasals, where you will see that the Brahmi «na» has nothing in common with Myanmar {na.}.

It should be noted that the Myanmar {na.} has nothing to do with Brahmi {na.}. On the other hand, it is quite similar to the Tibetan {na.} ན (U0F53) and ྣ (UOFA3.

Remember our childhood story of St. George and the Dragon? Do you know that this legend is not only from England, but from Russia, etc., imported from the East? St. George was lucky: what he was killing had legs and wings - just a flying lizard, not a real Naga. Our Naga is a protector, and not a terror! See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_George_and_the_Dragon 121031
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Jack 121031

Go to Naga-note-b

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Poisons and Antidotes

-- UKT: 120130, 120914

With this little note of mine, I remember my long lost childhood friend Barbara Soe of East Rangoon who reportedly committed suicide (in 1955 or a couple of years before) by drinking concentrated Sulphuric Acid which she stole from one of the chemistry labs I was working in. What a horrible way to die!
   I graduated about four years ahead of my childhood friends, because I had to leave school due to Karen insurgency and attended Saya Solomon's tutorial classes in 1949 from where I matriculated to the Rangoon University in 1950. The last time I saw Barbara was in 1947: we were in the Third Standard at Silva Dale English Primary School then. We never met again.

As a young budding chemist in the early 1950's I became interested in Forensic Chemistry, and then in Forensic Medicine. Why? You walk into a chemistry lab, and there are chemicals around you that can kill you, maim you, or just simply make you sick. Solids, liquids, and gases all alike are potential hazards. With a deep knowledge of chemistry, you can harm another person and can get away with it. What a macabre thought!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forensic_chemistry 120914

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry to law enforcement or the failure of products or processes. Many different analytical methods may be used to reveal what chemical changes occurred during an incident, and so help reconstruct the sequence of events. "Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes .

UKT continues: The words अगद «agada» and गद «gada» together refers to
€ गदागद gadāgada [Dev spelling by UKT - 120130]
- gadâgada m. du. 'Gada and Agada', the two Aśvins (physicians of heaven) L. (cf. gadântaka.)
[Page 344, Column 3]
-- MonWilli

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agada 120914

Agada is one of the eight branches into which ayurveda medicine is traditionally divided. Literally, gada means a disease and agada means any agent which makes the body free from disease; however the term agada is used specifically for the branch dealing with toxicology, the description of the different types of poisons, and their antidotes. [1]

Agada Tantra is defined as a section of toxicology that deals with food poisoning, snakebites, dog bites, insect bites, etc. [2] [UKT ¶]

UKT: In the following paragraph, you see several names among which are three, which I presume to be of humans who have been deitiefied :
- Kashyapa कश्यप «kaśyapa»
- Vriddhakashyapa - presumably an extension of Kashyapa
- Atreya Punarvasu - ? - not found in Wikipedia 120914

Kashyapa was a rhisi [an ancient thinker or philosopher] who had been deitiefied in Hinduism. He is mentioned in Buddhism:
"In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [9] section the Buddha pays respect to Kashyap by declaring that the Veda in its true form was declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto, Yamataggi, Angiraso, Bhâradvâjo, Vâsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu" [10] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [11] Kashyap is an Origin of Orissa." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyap 120914

The following video mentions another person, the Buddhist saint who presided the First Buddhist Council. See the video (Japanese ?) with subtitles in English: Buddhist Stories- Kashyapa Thero
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCoHxGECcL8 120914

The school of toxicology was founded and run by Kashyapa कश्यप «kaśyapa» , also known as Vriddhakashyapa, another contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu. He lived in Taksashila in what is now modern-day Pakistan. His text was called the Kashyapa Samhita. This, however, is a different book than the Kashyap Samhita of pediatrics. This text is not available now but the references of this text are found mentioned in different commentaries. Some other texts written by Alambayana, Ushana, Saunaka, and Latyayana were known to exist. However except for references to them, the original texts are no longer available. [3] [4]

The traditional practice of toxicology is still practiced by different families of vishavaidyas (poison doctors) who specialize in toxicology. However, their knowledge is limited compared to the knowledge possessed by the earlier ayurvedic physicians. In ancient times, it was the job of Vishavaidyas to protect members of the royal families from being poisoned, as well to poison enemies of the kings. [5]

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