Update: 2012-10-31 03:38 AM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

p002-2.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

 PTS-indx.htm | Top
 a1-indx.htm

Contents of this page 

Foreword : kS-form & kh-form of {hka.}
{a.hka.}
{a.hka. kS-form} = {ak~Sa.} अक्ष --> {ak~hka.}
   See my note on Pseudo-Kha
{ak~hka.} अक्ष
{ak~hka.ka.}
{ak~hka.za.} / Skt: {a.hka.za.} ?
{ak~hka.Na.}
{ak~hka.ta.}
{ak~hka.ya.}
{ak~hka} अक्षा

UKT note to TIL editor: This file and the next need a thorough review because of palatals & dentals.

UKT notes
Four-animal spinning dice
The palatal plosive-stops and the dental fricative-sibilants
The Pseudo-Kha क्ष : pronounced as English transcribed word <Ksa>
Sanskrit conjunct Jna ज्ञ : related to {Zaan} (Bur-Myan)

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Foreword to this file
Dichotomy of the kS-form क्ष & kh-form ख of {hka.}

-- UKT 121023

Tenuis consonant {ka.} /k/ (velar plosive-stop), and Sibilant (or hissing) fricative consonant (dental approximant) {Sa.} /s/ can give two kinds of conjunct.

The reader is reminded to be aware of the absence of tenuis consonants in Eng-Lat, and the absence of sibilant consonant {Sa.} ष in Bur-Myan. The glyph {sa.} च found in row #2 of Bur-Myan akshara matrix is the palatal plosive stop or palatal-C. It is by definition absent in English speech which I do not agree in the light of English word <success> /sək'ses/, where the first <c> is /k/ which I contend is /c/. Though the glyphs are the same in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, Romabama differentiates them as {sa.} च & {Sa.} ष .

CAUTION: The English affricates and their IPA transcriptions /ʧ/ & /ʤ/ which are supposed to represent the row#2 - the palatals - of Bur-Myan akshara-matrix give WRONG pronunciations. DO NOT USE them. Do not use IAST transliterations for this row. The reason is simple: Westerners (IE speakers) articulate from the dental to the palatal, whereas we (Tib-Bur speakers) articulate from the glottal to the palatal. I put the two sets of pronunciations to our use of different muscles to articulate them.

The two conjunct from {ka.} /k/ & {Sa.} /s/ are: {k~Sa.} & {S~ka.}.

Skt-Dev speakers take {k~Sa.} (the kS-form) to be equal to {hka.} in certain phonological environments. According to Bur-Myan akshara rule, the {ka.} in {k~Sa.} has lost its inherent vowel and cannot be pronounced. However, according to Skt-Dev, they could pronounce it. The second point to remember is that being a conjunct {k~Sa.} breaks down as soon as it is preceded by a consonant or even by {a.}. Thus:

{a.kSa.} (not pronounceable by Bur-Myan unless a schwa is added after /k/)
  --> {ak~Sa.} (pronounceable by Bur-Myan).
But {Sa.} by being absent is changed to {hka.}
  --> {ak~hka.}

Continue reading my note on The Pseudo-Kha क्ष : pronounced as English transcribed word <Ksa>.

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{a.hka.}

{ak~hka.} = अक्ष --> {a.hka.} in kS-form

{ak~hka.} akkha 
PTS:-- [Vedic akṣa; Av. aa; Gr. a)/cwn a(/maca chariot with one axle); Lat. axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to root of Lat. ago, Sk. aj] the axle of a wheel D ii. 96; S v. 6; A i. 112; J i. 109, 192; v. 155 (akkhassa phalakaŋ yathā; C.: suvaṇṇaphalakaŋ viya, i. e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ īsā + cakka), 277 (atibhārena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. -- akkhaŋ abbhajati to lubricate the axle S iv. 177; Miln 367.
-- chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S i. 57; Miln 67. -- bhagga with a broken axle J v. 433. -- bhajana the breaking of the axle DhA i. 375; PvA 277.

 

{ak~hka.} akkha
PTS:-- [Vedic akṣa, prob. to akṣi & Lat. oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Lat. ālea game at dice (fr.* asclea?)] a die D i. 6 (but expld at DA i. 86 as ball -- game: guḷakīḷa); S i. 149 = A v. 171 = Sn 659 (appamatto ayaŋ kali yo akkhesu dhanaparājayo); J i. 379 (kūṭ˚ a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler J v. 116 (C.: ajūtakara). Cp. also accha 3.
-- dassa (cp. Sk. akṣadarśaka) one who looks at (i. e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin iii. 47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma -- nagare). -- dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D ii. 348; iii. 183; M iii. 170; Sn 106 (+ itthidhutta & surādhutta). -- vāṭa fence round an arena for wrestling J iv. 81. (? read akka -- ).

 

{ak~hka.} akkha
PTS: -- [Vedic akṣa, prob. to akṣi & Lat. oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Lat. ālea game at dice (fr.* asclea?)] a die D i. 6 (but expld at DA i. 86 as ball 
UHS: {ak~hka.} -- UHS-PMD0005
MAC: अक्ष aksa - . m. die for playing . -- Mac002c1-b26 

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: m. axle of cart or chariot, dice, die for gambling, plant Terminalia belerica , a tical weight equivalent to 80 {yw:}. mfn. what has eyes.
   See my note on Four-animal-spinning dice .

{ak~hka.} akkha
PTS:-- ( -- ˚) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes PvA 39 (BB. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Prob. akkhaṇa is connected with akkha.

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{ak~hka.ka.} akkhaka

{ak~hka.ka.}  akkhaka
PTS: -- [akkha1 + ka] the collar -- bone Vin iv. 213 (adhak- khakaŋ); v. 216. 
UHS: {ak~hka.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0005

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{ak~hka.za.} / {a.hka.za.}

See my note on The palatal plosive-stops and the dental fricative-sibilants

MAC: अक्षज्ञ aksajna
= (अ) (क ् ष) (ज ् ञ) = अ क्ष ज्ञ
- a. skilled in dice. -- Mac002c1-b30

UKT: 121023
I was unable to get an equivalent in Pali for the Sanskrit word अक्षज्ञ aksajna for a long time until consulted PTS dictionary for the English word <skill>. The following is from PTS

jāna
Pal: -- (adj.) [to jāa, see janati] knowing or knowable, understandable J 111.24 (= jānamana). dujjāna difficult to understand D 1.170, 187; M 1.487; 11.43. su recognizable, intelligible Pv iv.i-" (=suviniieyya PvA 230). Cp. ajāna. -- PTS115c1

See my note on:
Skt-Dev conjunct Jna ज्ञ : {z~a.}

 

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{ak~hka.Na.} akkhaṇa

{ak~hka.Na.} akkhaṇa
PTS:-- [a + khaṇa, BSk. akṣaṇa AvŚ i. 291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D iii. 263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D iii.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khaṇa.
-- vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i.e. without losing time, expld as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkhaṇa = vijju). In var. combns.; mostly as durepātin a. A i. 284 (+ mahato kāyassa padāletā); ii. 170 sq. (id.), 202; iv. 423, 425; J ii. 91 (expld as either "avirādhita<11> -- vedhī" or "akkhaṇaŋ vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), iii. 322; iv. 494 (C. explns aviraddha -- vedhin vijju -- ālokena vijjhana<11> -- samattha p. 497). In other combn at J i. 58 (akkhaṇavedhin + vālavedhin); v. 129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., vālavedhin, saddavedhin & saravedhin).
In BSk. we find akṣuṇṇavedha (a Sanskritised Pāli form, cp. Mathurā kṣuṇa = Sk. kṣaṇa) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with dūrevedha), where MSS. however read ak- [p002c1end-002c2begin] ṣuṇa˚; also at Lal. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where trsln is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). -
Note. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etym. bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) or an etym. like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from ak khaṇa (see prec.) with the omission of the neg. an -- ; akkhaṇa in the meaning of "lightning" (J ii. 91 C.) is not supported by literary evidence.

{ak~hka.Na.}  akkhaṇa
PTS: -- [a + khaṇa, BSk. akṣaṇa AvŚ i. 291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D iii. 263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D iii. 287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khaṇa. -- PTS
UHS: {ak~hka.Na.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: mfn. what is not allowed. m. an article or object which you are not allowed to use.

 

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{ak~hka.ta.}

{ak~hka.ta.} akkhata
PTS:-- (adj.) [pp. of a + kṣan, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). -- acc. akkhataŋ (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccāgamuŋ Pāṭaliputtaŋ akkhataŋ) & Pv iv. 111 (nessāmi taŋ Pāṭaliputtaŋ akkhataŋ); see VvA 351 & PvA 272.

{ak~hka.ta.} akkhata
PTS: - (adj.) [pp. of a + kṣan, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). 
PMT: - n. fried grain ; a enuch 
UHS: {ak~hka.ta.} -- UHS-PMD0005
MAC: अक्षत a-ksata - pp. uninjured; unscathed: n. s. & m. pl. unhusked grain (esp. barley); f. , virgo intacta. -- Mac002c1&c2
SSK: अक्षत akṣata adj. unthrashed, whole, not crushed, uninjured, unbroken. m. Shiva. mn. boil or sore not produced by cutting, enuch, unhusked barley-corn 

UKT from UHS0005: mfn. unharmed [being chaste], n. popped grain. Note: Unless you take the whole grain (unhusked) you cannot pop it on fire. In Myanmar 'popped sticky rice' {pauk-pauk} is used as an offertory to the Buddha, the Nats, and tutelary deities in esoteric rites. -- UKT121008

UKT:
#1. The meaning of "eunuch" given by UPMT for Pali and SSK for Sanskrit seems to imply "chastity". Otherwise it is strange because an "eunuch" is a castrated male -- an imperfect male.
#2. Lengthening of vowel in {ak~hka.ta.} to {ak~hka-ta.} (see below) gives a dramatic change in meaning: from something related to "perfection" to "declaration in public".

 

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{ak~hka.ya.} akkhaya

{ak~hka.ya.} akkhaya
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + khaya, kṣi] not decaying, in akkhaya- paṭibhāna, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21. 
UHS: {ak~hka.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0006
MAC: अक्षय a-ksaya - a. imperishable; -tva, n. -ness, exemption from decay; -loka, m. heaven. -- Mac-002c2-b16

 

{ak~hka.ra.} akkhara
PTS:-- (adj.) [Vedic akṣara] constant, durable, lasting D iii. 86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D i. 88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is expld by sikkhā (DA i. 247 = SnA 477) <-> pl. nt. akkharāni sounds, tones, words. citt'akkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety & beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A i. 72 = iii. 107 = S ii. 267. Akkharāni are the sauce, flavour (vyajana) of poetry S i. 38. To know the context of the a˚ the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 352 (C. is ambiguous DhA iv. 70). Later: akkharaŋ a syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharāni an inscription J ii. 90; iv. 7 (likhitāni written), 489; vi.390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. 1.
-- cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -- pabheda in phrase sakkharappabheda phonology & etymology D i. 88 (akkharappabhedo ti sikkhā ca nirutti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) = A iii. 223 = Sn p. 105. -- piṇḍa "word -- ball", i. e. sequence of words or sounds DhA iv. 70 (= akkharānaŋ sannipāto Dh 352).

{ak~hka.ra.} akkhara
PTS: -- (adj.) [Vedic akṣara] constant, durable, lasting D iii. 86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D i. 88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar,
UHS: {ak~hka.ra.} -- UHS-PMD0006
MAC: अक्षर aksara  - a. imperishable; n. word, syllable, the sacred syllable (om);  sound, letter; document, epistle; the supreme deity; -kyutaka, n. supplying an omitted syllable (a game); -khhandas, n. syllabic metre; -ml, f. wreath of letters (written by fate on the forehead),  i-k, f. id.; -vargita, pp. illiterate; -vinysa, m. writing; -siksh, f. alphabet. -- Mac002c2-b19

UKT note on the Skt word "the sacred syllable (om)":
   It is my contention that both Pali and Sanskrit being languages, or means of communication between human beings, are religion-neutral. However, you'll see the religionists -- this time Hindu -- translating with a coloring of their religion. -- UKT121016

 

{ak~hka.ri.ka}  akkharikā
PTS:-- (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D i. 7; Vin ii. 10; iii. 180. So expld at DA i. 86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.
UHS: {ak~hka.ri.ka} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: f. game of hidden syllables

 

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{ak~hka}

{ak~hka-ta.} akkhāta
PTS: -- (adj.) [pp. of akkhāti] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A i. 34 (dur˚); ii. 195; iv. 285, 322; v. 265, 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718.
UHS: {ak~hka-ta.} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: mfn. what has been declared in public

{ak~hka-ta} akkhātar 
PTS: -- one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story-teller S i. 11, 191; iii. 66; Sn 167.
UHS: {ak~hka-ta} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: m. one capable of public speaking -- a lecturer

{ak~hka-ti.} akkhāti
PTS:-- [ā + khyā, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sk. ākhyāti, Lat. inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi & cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172; imper. akkhāhi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhāsi Sn 251, 504, 1131 (= ācikkhi etc. Nd2 465); fut. akkhissati Pv iv. 163; cond. akkhissaŋ Sn 997; J vi. 523. -- Pass. akkhāyati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggaŋ a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BSk. agram ākhyāyate M Vastu iii. 390); ger. akkheyya to be pronounced S i. 11; It 53. -- pp. akkhāta (q. v.). -- Intensive or Frequentative is ācikkhati.

{ak~hka-ti.} akkhāti
PTS: -- [ā + khyā, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sk. ākhyāti, Lat. inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi & cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172;
UHS: {ak~hka-ti.} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: has been said or declared

{ak~hka-na.} akkhāna
PTS:-- (nt.) [Sk. ākhyāna] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D i. 6 (= DA i. 84: Bhārata -- Rāmāyanādi); iii. 183; M i. 503; iii. 167; Sdhp. 237. -- preaching, teaching Nd1 91 (dhamm˚). The 5th Veda J v. 450. (vedam akkhānapacamaŋ; C: itihāsapacamaŋ vedacatukkaŋ). -- The spelling ākhyāna also occurs (q. v.).

{ak~hka-na.} akkhāna
PTS: -- (nt.) [Sk. ākhyāna] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D i. 6 (= DA i. 84: Bhārata -- Rāmāyanādi); iii. 183; M i. 503; iii. 167; Sdhp. 237. 
UHS: akkhāna {ak~hka-na.} -- UHS-PMD0006
SSK: आख्यान ākhyāna n. declaration [UKT: notice long vowel आ - need to check]

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: n. announcement something like a policy statement, a stated episode something like an historical account.
   Note the Skt-Dev spelling given by SSK showing the break up the conjunct {k~kha.} or {k~ksa.} with the result is {a-hkya.}. From this the word {a-hkya-ta.} 'to state' or 'declare' may be derived. See UHS-PMD0157 & MAC037c1: I still have to learn Pali and Sanskrit grammars! I wait for comments. -- UKT121031

[p002c2end]

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UKT notes

Four-animal spin die 

-- UKT

A die on a spindle or axis which is spun. Because it has only sides it is known as the Four-animal spinning. The gamer spins the top and places a large ceramic bowl over it. Eventually the spinning top inside it stops spinning and falls hitting the inside of the bowl. The better listen to the sound of spinning and stopping, and places his bet on any animal. When the bowl is opened and the animal on which he has betted is showing as the upper face he wins and the gamer has to pay a multiple of the bet the better has placed. Theoretically, there is one chance in four that he would win, otherwise he loses his bet.

Go back four-ani-spin-note-b

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The palatal plosive-stops and the dental fricative-sibilants

The Palatal plosive-stops: {sa.} च, {hsa.} छ, {za.} ज, {Za.} झ, {a.} ञ
The Dental fricative-sibilants: {Sa.} ष , {sha.} श
The Dental fricative-thibilant: {a.} स  -- realized in English word <thin>

-- UKT 121015

The two areas of palatal plosive-stops [with {sa.} च, {hsa.} छ, {za.} ज, {Za.} झ, {a.} ञ], and dental fricative-sibilants [with {Sa.} ष , {sha.} श ] are the areas of controversy in pronunciations by Bur-Myan speakers (Tib-Bur) and Skt-Dev or Hindi-Dev (IE) speakers. This controversy is also found between Burmese and English speakers, and needs to be solved for inter-language transcription between Burmese and English.

As an aid to solving this problem I am looking into various dictionaries (which give only the surface meanings of the words) of BEPS. I cannot rely on English transliteration-transcriptions, nor on IPA transcription which rely on the non-natives -- the Europeans -- with their cultural biases.

Even though a dictionary would give you only the surface meanings, by comparing the various dictionaries, I hope to get at the deeper meanings because of my background on the cultures of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, my background in the study of Buddhism and Christianity, background in the history of the English language, ancient civilizations, etc.

Go back palatal-dental-note-b

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The Pseudo-Kha क्ष [IAST: ks] = {k~Sa.}

UKT 121014

On the surface the file {a.hka.} should just sit comfortably within {a.ka.} and {a.ga.}. In actual practice, when I try to incorporate Skt-Myan, I found that there is a 'pseudo-{hka.} in Skt-Dev which arises out of the Sanskrit speakers being unable to pronounce {hka.} in various phonetic environments. Skt-Dev has two aksharas for one {hka.} of Pal-Myan:

Regular r1c2 {hka.} :  ख   [IAST: kh] = {hka.}
Pseudo-{hka.} - a conjunct: क ् ष --> क्ष [IAST: ks] = {k~Sa.}

By sheer luck, I have chosen to transcribe in Romabama {hka.} [notice h-before-k ], which is different from IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit transliteration) ख kha [notice h-after-k ] & क्ष ksa.

Note carefully that ष sa is one of the dental fricative-sibilants,  ष ṣ /s/ & श ś /ʃ/. The Sanskrit speakers, unable to pronounce /θ/ , pronounce the dental fricative-thibilant स /s/ as a sibilant. Also note that I am using an intermediate pronunciation, or, a phonemic pronunciation, that is common for all the 4 languages spoken in Myanmar-country. I have to ignore how the foreign phonetician "hear" it and the way they transcribe as IPA phonetic pronunciation.

Note also that regular Bur-Myan {sa.} is palatal plosive-stop. For Romabama I have to use the same glyph to write both {sa.} for च , and {Sa.} for ष when they occur in the onset of the syllable. However, when they occur in the coda the glyphs are different: {c} for च्  &  {S} for ष् .

Notice how Romabama has to come up with 3 glyphs for Skt-Dev & IPA dental fricatives:

श ś /ʃ/ (hissing sound): {sha.}

-- derived from {sa.lon:ha.hto:} with the glyph {s~ha.}
which is not allowed in regular Bur-Myan. It is necessary for transcription
of Eng-Lat words like <ship> /ʃɪp/ - DJPD16-485.
-- official MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) rendition of this sound
is {ra.kauk-ha.hto:} {rha.} /ɹʰa/ . It is phonetically unacceptable
especially because this sound is almost non-rhotic with the British English
pronunciation or reversed "r" /ɹ/.

ष ṣ /s/ (hissing sound in coda) : {Sa.} / {S} for ष्  (note the virama in the coda)

-- not present in regular Bur-Myan (and probably not present in Pal-Myan).
   A separate (dedicated) glyph would upset the daily transcription of Pal-Myan words
   and Eng-Lat words.

Skt-Dev स s /s/ (hissing sound in onset & coda): Bur-Myan {a.} (non-hissing)

-- note the use of uni-graph (thorn character of Old English) instead of the common
   di-graph th (theta character of Modern English). Romabama has to adopt
  the (thorn character of Old English) to be non-conflicting with Skt-Dev थ
  which in IAST is th.
  --  Skt-Dev, r4c2, थ is Bur-Myan {hta.}.

Note that Pal-Myan: {ak~kha.} is equivalent to Skt-Myan: {ak~Sa.}, where {Sa.} ष /s/ is the dental-fricative sibilant, not the usual Pal-Myan {sa.} च /c/ which is the palatal plosive-stop. Though Skt-Dev has two separate glyphs, I deem it better to use the same glyph for both the dental-fricative sibilant and palatal plosive-stop. Since, Pseudo-{hka.} क्ष [IAST: ks] = {k~Sa.}, {a.hka.} in kS-form is, अक्ष .

In Skt-Myan, {a.hka.} is in two forms: the kS-form = {ak~Sa.} --> {ak~hka.}, and the regular kh-form.  The kS-form [or ks-form] is in pseudo-{hka}, and the kh-form is in regular r1c2 {hka.}. UHS presents the pseudo-{hka} entries on p0005 first. Only after them, he presents the regular-{hka.} on p0007. This had been one of my problems with the TOC of Myanmar dictionaries.

PTS presents on p002, akko- entries first, to be followed by akkha- entries.

अक्ष aksa
= अ क ् ष --> {ak~Sa.} - . m. die for playing . -- Mac002c1-b26

Go back Pseudo-Kha-note-b

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Sanskrit-Devanagari conjunct Jna ज्ञ : {z~a.}

-- UKT 121008, 121023

In the Sanskrit word अक्षज्ञ aksajna are two conjuncts, क्ष {k~Sa.} & ज्ञ {z~a.}, that are of interest to us.

Though क्ष {k~Sa.} can be related to Bur-Myan {hka.}, ज्ञ {z~a.} cannot be related to anything in Bur-Myan akshara and words. ज्ञ {z~a.} in अक्षज्ञ aksajna is 'skill' which may be interpreted as "intrinsic knowledge" -- an inborn 'skill', or cultivated by intense mental training such as through yogic practices. From this it can be related to Jhāna (Pal-Dev झान) = {Zaan} (Bur-Myan -- MLC MED2006-155). This reasoning is the basis for placing {Za.} & ज्ञ {z~a.} in the cell r2c4 together in Base akshara matrix of Romabama for BEPS.

I was unable to get an equivalent in Pali for the Sanskrit word अक्षज्ञ aksajna for a long time until consulted PTS dictionary for the English word <skill>. The following four are from PTS downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf  pdf page 317/804 .

jāna
Pal: -- (adj.) [to jāa, see janati] knowing or knowable, understandable J 111.24 (= jānamana). dujjāna difficult to understand D 1.170, 187; M 1.487; 11.43. su recognizable, intelligible Pv iv.i-" (=suviniieyya PvA 230). Cp. ajāna. -- PTS115c1

{za-na.na.} jānana
Pal: -- (nt.) [fr. jā] knowledge, cognizance, recognition ; intelligence, learning, skill J 1.145 (attanar) -kalato patthaya from the time of self-recognition), 200 (-manta knowledge of a spell, a spell known by tumhakar)) 11.221; SnA 330; DhA 11.73 (sabhava= flatta); DA 1.86 (akkhara) ; Vism 391 ("atthaya in order to know), 436 (=pajanana). Cp. ājānana. -- ajānana not knowing (-) J v. 199; vi.177; not known J 1-32 (sippa). -- PTS115c1

{za-na.na.ka.} jānanaka
Pal: -- (adj.) [Sk. *jānaka, cp. jānana & Sk. jānaka (c. gen.) expert Av Ś n.119, 120, as n. ib. 1.216] knowing DhsA 394. -- PTS115c1

{za-na.na.ta.} jānanata
Pal: -- (f.) [abstr. fr. jānana] the fact of knowing, knowledge KhA 144. -- PTS115c1

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