Update: 2012-10-30 03:35 AM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

p001-2.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

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PTS-indx.htm | Top
 a1-indx.htm

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{a.ka.} अक 
{a.ka}
{a.ki.} : In Sanskrit, a highly rhotic vowel, {a.kRi.}, is found after {a.ku.}.
{a.ku.}
{ak} : moved to next page

It is very difficult to search for a word in a Bur-Myan dictionary. I find the same difficulty in Pal-Myan dictionaries. When I complained to my friend U Tun Tint of MLC, he put it down to my "ignorance". I then noticed that when I asked him to search for a word, he seems to be relying on his "memory" rather than on his "understanding": Bur-Myan speakers usually rely on mnemonic rhymes to aid their memory rather than apply analysis to come to an understanding. See my note on Understanding the TOC (Table of Content). The reason why I have moved out {ak} to next page is part of my effort.

Derivatives of {ak} realized in Pal-Myan as {ak~ka.}, {ak~kha.} [Skt: {ak~Sa.}], {ag}, & {ing} seem to form a separate series due to the effects of the differences in pronunciations of IE (Indo-European) and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). The first effect, and probably the most important, is the change in pronunciation of the peak or nuclear vowel of the syllable checked by the killed consonant: {ak}, {ag}, {ing}. This effect is exacerbated in the nasal where the checking of the vowel is not complete resulting in realization of three pitch-registers: {ing.}, {ing}, {ing:} .

UKT notes
Glazed pottery in Vedic period
Understanding the layout of TOC of Myanmar dictionaries

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{a.ka.}

aka
PMT: aka - m. one who walks crookedly, an evil action.
MAC: अक aka - m. the suffix -aka (gr.) -- Macdonell
SSK:  अक aka - n. sin, pain, trouble, unhappiness

 

{a.ka.sa.}
PMT: akaca - m. a banner. -- UPMT
UHS antonym: {ka.sa.} - UHS-PMD0276
SSK: अकच akaca - adj. hairless, bald 

UKT from UHS-PMD0276 : m. head hair

 

{a.ka.ta.} akaṭa
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kaṭa] not made, not artificial, natural; ˚yūsa natural juice Vin i,206. 
UHS: {a.ka.ta.} -- UHS-PMD0001

 

{a.ka.ti~u} akata-ū 
PMT: - adj. (√ā) knowing nibbāna (lit. the unmade). -- UPMT
UHS: {a.ka.ti~u} . -- UHS-PMD0001

UKT from UHS-PMD0001 : mfn. knowing nibbāna. m. Arahant

 

akampiyatta {a.km~pi.yt~ta.}
PTS: -- (nt.) [abstr. fr. akampiya, grd. of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.

 

{a.ka.lu.} akalu
PTS: -- (cp. agalu) an ointment J iv. 440 (akalu candana ca, v. l. BB aggaluŋ; C. expls as kālkalu ca rattacandana ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); vi. 144 (˚candana -- vilitta; v. l. BB aggalu˚); Miln 338 (˚tagara -- tālīsaka -- lohita -- candana).

 

{a.ka.lu.} akalu
PTS: -- (cp. agalu) an ointment J iv. 440
UHS: {a.ka.lu.} -- UHS-PMD0003

UKT from UHS-PMD0003: n. ointment

 

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{a.ka}

{a.ka-sa.} akāca
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kāca] pure, flawless, clear D ii. 244; Sn 476; J v. 203.
UHS: {a.ka-sa.}  -- UHS-PMD003

UKT from UHS-PMD003 : mfn. unglazed, clear
See my note on glazed pottery in Vedic period

 

akācin
PTS:-- (adj.) = akāca Vv 601. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) proposes reading akkācin (= Sk. arka -- arcin shining as the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is no v. l. to warrant a misreading.

 

{a.ka-i.ya.} akāsiya
PTS: - (adj. -- n.) [a + kāsika?] "not from the Kāsī -- country" (?); official name of certain tax-gatherers in the king's service J vi. 212 (akāsiya -- sankhātā rāja -- purisā C.).

 

{a.ka-i.ya.} akāsiya
PTS: - (adj. -- n.) [a + kāsika?] "not from the Kāsī -- country" (?); official name of
   certain tax-gatherers in the king's service J vi. 212
UHS: {a.ka-i.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0003

UKT from UHS-PMD0003: m. a tax-collector in king's service

 

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{a.ki.}

Pali is not as rhotic as Sanskrit. We find in Sanskrit, a very rhotic vowel {a.kRi.}. Phonologically {a.ki.} should be followed by rhotic {a.kRi.}. However, in Sanskrit dictionaries such as A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A. A. Macdonell (see my edition: http://www.tuninst.net/SED-MC/MC-indx.htm 121012), you will see this vowel only after {a.ku.} . The following are two entries from Macdonell, p001c3 (p001c3-b23 & -b24):

p001c3-b23

अकृच्छ्रलङ्घ्य akrcchralanghya 
=  (अ क ृ च ् छ ् र) (ल ङ ् घ ् य)
-- fp. to be traversed without hardship.

p001c3-b24

अकृच्छ्रिन् akrcchrin
= अ क ृ च ् छ ् र ि न ्
-- a. having no trouble with.

{a.kaic~sa.} akicca
PTS: not entd in PTS
UHS: {a.kaic~sa.} -- UHS-PMD0003

UKT from UHS-PMD0003: mfn. what ought not be done. n. not to be committed

{a.kaic~sa.ka-ra.} akiccakāra
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kicca + kāra] 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A ii. 67;
   Dh 292; Miln 66; DA i,296. -- 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151. -- PTS
UHS: {a.kaic~sa.ka-ra.} -- UHS-PMD0004

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: mfn. one who committed something which should not have been done

{a.ki.ri.ya.} akiriya
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish J iii. 530 (˚rūpa = akattabba -- rūpa C.); Miln 250.
UHS: {a.ki.ri.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0004

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: mfn. what is not done. n. what should not be done

{a.ki.ri.ya. wa-da.} akiriya-vāda
PTS: akiriya-vāda - The doctrine (vāda) that there are no consequences to moral acts.
   -- Oxford Dict of Buddhism
UHS: {a.ki.ri.ya. wa-da.} -- UHS-PMD0004

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: the doctrine of not doing either good {ku.ol} or bad {a.ku.ol}.

(Pāli). The doctrine (vāda) that there are no consequences to moral acts. This doctrine was taught by many of the Buddha's contempories, including the Six Sectarian Teachers (with the exception of the Jain leader Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta). The teaching of akiriya-vāda is contrary to the belief in karma, and was condemned by the Buddha for this reason. His own teachings belong in the category of kiriya-vāda doctrines. -- Oxford Dict of Buddhism
Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/akiriya-v-da#ixzz2A3Xssgja
-- http://www.answers.com/topic/akiriya-v-da 121023

{a.ki.la-u.} akilāsu
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kilāsu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S i,47; v. 162; J i,109; Miln 382. 
UHS: {a.ki.la-u.} -- UHS-PMD0004

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: untiring

akissava
PTS:-- at S i,149 is probably faulty reading for akicana.

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{a.ku.}

akutobhaya
PTS:-- (adj.) see ku˚.

 

{a.koap~pa.} akuppa
PTS: -- (adj.) [a + kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSk. akopya M Vastu iii. 200] not to be shaken,
   immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin i,11 (akuppā me ceto -- vimutti) = S ii. 239; Vin ii. 69; iv. 214;
   D iii. 273; M i,205, 298; S ii. 171; A iii.119, 198; Miln 361.
UHS: {a.koap~pa.} -- UHS-PMD0004

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: mfn. not destroyed, unable to be destroyed, what could not be destroyed by {ki.l-a}. n. free from anger

akuppatā
PTS: -- (f.) [abstr. fr. last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; Ep. of Nibbāna Th 1, 364.

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{ak} pronounced as IPA /k/

Derivatives of realized in Pali as {ak~ka.} & {ak~ku.} moved to next folder.
-- UKT 121013

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UKT notes

Glazed pottery in Vedic period

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery_in_the_Indian_subcontinent 121022

Pottery in the Indian subcontinent has an ancient history and is one of the most tangible and iconic elements of regional art. Evidence of pottery has been found in the early settlements of Mehrgarh from the Indus Valley Civilisation. [UKT ]

Mehrgarh (Brahui: Mehrgaŕh, Urdu: مہرگڑھ), one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology, lies on the "Kachi plain" of now Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia." [1]
   Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization. 
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh 121022

Today, it is a cultural art that is still practiced extensively in India and Pakistan.

Today, pottery thrives as an art form in India, and it is slowly gaining awareness as a functional items as well. Various platforms, including potters' markets and online pottery boutiques have contributed to this trend.

Vedic pottery

Wilhelm Rau (1900) has examined the references to pottery in Vedic texts like the Black Yajur Veda and the Taittiriya Samhita. According to his study, Vedic pottery is for example hand-made and unpainted. According to Kuzmina (1983), Vedic pottery that matches Willhelm's Rau description cannot be found in Asia Minor and Central Asia, though the pottery of Andronovo is similar in some respects. [1]

India has a great and ancient tradition of pottery making. The origin of pottery in India can be traced back to the neolithic age, with coarse handmade pottery - bowls, jars, vessels - in various colors such as red, orange, brown, black and cream. The real beginning of Indian pottery is with the Indus Valley Civilization. There is proof of pottery being constructed in two ways, handmade and wheel-made. [2] Harrappan and Mohanjodaro cultures heralded the age of wheel-made pottery, characterized by well-burnt black painted red wares.

During first millennium BC, painted grey ware was found in parts of North India and the Gangetic plain. Decorated pottery becomes significant in the Sunga, Kushan and Gupta periods. [3]

Go back glazed-pottery-note-b

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Understanding the layout of TOC of Myanmar dictionaries

-- UKT: 121012 

It is very difficult to search for a word in a Bur-Myan dictionary. I find the same difficulty in Pal-Myan dictionaries. When I complained to my friend U Tun Tint of MLC, he put it down to my "ignorance". I then noticed that when I asked him to search for a word, he seems to be relying on his "memory" rather than on his "understanding". Bur-Myan speakers usually rely on mnemonic rhymes to aid their memory rather than apply analysis to come to an understanding.

The TOC is generally based on the vowel-series which we have to learn in kindergarten. I found the same with Skt-Dev: अ आ इ ई उ ऊ , and the same with other Indic dictionaries.

Comparing what I have found to the IPA vowel-quadrilateral, I have come up with:

corner vowels:  {a.}, {a}  ||  {i.}, {i}  ||  {u.}, {u}  ||  {au.}, {au}
mid-vowels:  {.}, {}  ||  {.}, {}  ||  {o.}, {o}
nasal vowels:  {n.}, {n}

The reader will notice that I have ignored the emphatic pitch-register, and have considered only the modal-registers - the short and the long. I have also ignored the vowel letters.

Go back Understand-TOC-note-b

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End of TIL file