Update: 2012-10-30 01:13 AM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

p001-1.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

PTS-indx.htm | Top
 a1-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Introduction to this file
   p001
{a.} अ
{n}
{n-a.}
{n-i}
{n~u.}

UKT notes
Kinsi-representation {king:si:}
Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan
Negative prefixes in Burmese and Pali
Tenuis retroflex plosive-stop
Soma plant or Hindu Deva
Voiced retroflex plosive-stop

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Introduction to this file

-- by UKT 111209, 121018

My interest in this file is to see how PTS differentiates the 'dot-above' aka {::ting} from the 'centipede-ridden' aka {king:si:}  (derived from {ing} /ɪŋ/).

Secondly, I would like to see how the English short <a> {a.} अ -- the 'inherent vowel' of the Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev akshara -- is checked by the 'killed' nasals found in conjuncts where the virama {a.t} is not explicitly shown. The following are to be counted as the first member of the conjunct:

{ing} /ɪŋ/,  {i} /ɪɲ/,  {N} /ʌɳ/,  {n} /ʌn/,  {m} /ʌm/

Note the vowel being changed from {a.} अ to reflect the pronunciation. The inherent vowel {a.} अ is very open, and when we [both Burmese and Indian] sing this vowel, our mouths are noticeably open and what we produce is either /a/ or //. It has been said that "a pencil must be able to pass through". However, it has been noticed in both India and Myanmar, that an Englishman would [or could] open his mouth just a little, and he would produce only /e/ or even /i/. [I am quoting an online Sanskrit teaching course -- unfortunately I have forgotten its source -- on Skt-Dev अ.]

The vowel change is shown in Romabama, because it is a transcription. If it had been a transliteration [as in IAST], <a> remains unchanged. Below, the * shows the error.

*{ang} /ŋ/,  *{a} /ɲ/,  *{aN} /ɳ/,  *{an} /n/,  *{am} /m/

This is important because, in place of five Burmese nasals, English has only two, /n/ and /m/ -- or three, if you were to include /ŋ/. The paucity of nasals in English [and possibly in Hindi] is perhaps the biggest obstacle in my transcription work - how to change Romabama from a transliteration to a transcription.

Thirdly, what about the 'killed' non-nasals of the {wag}-group? Bur-Myan only allows the 'killed' tenuis (voiceless) consonants, the c1-consonants, to check the short vowels:

{ak} /k/ , {ic} /ɪc/ , {T} /ʌʈ/ ,  {t} /ʌt/ , {p} /ʌp/ 
See my note on retroflex .

The problem of the third question is compounded because English does not have the [p] sounds: it has only [pʰ]. The [p] and [pʰ] are lumped together as allophones of /p/. Note: I avoid using the narrow-phonetic square-brackets [...] unless it is absolutely necessary as in this case. I usually write /p/ and /pʰ/. The [p] is realized only after <s> as in <spin>. Otherwise it is only the [pʰ] as in <pin>. On the other hand, the Bur-Myan speaker, unless trained, cannot pronounce the English <sp>: they usually put in a schwa after <s>. The Bur-Myan speaker would pronounce <spin> as /sə.pɪn/ - a disyllable. When the native-English speaker pronounces <pin>, the Burmese hears it as {hpin} 'anus'.

We have mentioned the {wag}-group above, which leads us to the question of the 'killed' non-nasals of the {a.wag}-group. Perhaps it would be useful to remind the reader that the {a.wag}-group of oral consonants is made up of: four semi-consonants sic semi-vowels {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} {wa.}, a lone dental-fricative thibilant {a.} in Bur-Myan and three dental-fricative sibilants श = {sha.}, ष= {sa.},  स = {a.} in Skt-Dev, and a lone deep-h {ha.} = ह .

{a} /?/ , {ar} , {al} , {aw} ,  
{a}  
{ah} 

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[p001]

{a.} अ

[p001c1begin]

The entries are given in order: Pal-Myan - Romabama - original PTS, e.g.
   {n-a.} aŋsa
indicates an item taken from the group immediately above.
  imports from PMT (U Pe Mg Tin) and other sources
CAUTION: There are 5 sites which use English transliterations: PTS, PMT, MNW, MAC, &, SSK, and I am running out of brackets.
   1. PTS (PaliTextSoc), no brackets or if needed ... 
   2. PMT (U Pe Mg Tin), brackets: ...".
   3. UHS (U Hoke Sein), brackets: Bur-Myan {...} Romabama
   4. MNW (MonierWilliams), brackets: ..."
   5. MAC (Macdonell), brackets: Skt-Dev ..." - simple ASCII/older transcript
   6. SSK (Spoken Sanskrit), brackets: Skt-Dev ... IAST

See my note on Negative prefixes in Burmese and Pali

{a.} a 
PTS: -- the prep. ā shortened before double cons., as akko- sati (ā + kruś), akkhāti (ā + khyā), abbahati (ā + bṛh). -- Best to be classed here is the a -- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of ā -- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for ā -- nantaka = nantaka) Vv.807; amajjapa (for ā -- majjapa = majjapa) J vi. 328; amāpaya (for āmāpaya = māpaya) J vi. 518; apassato (= passantassa) J vi. 552.

 

{a.} a
PTS: -- (an -- before vowels) [Vedic a -- , an -- ; Idg. *n̊, gradation form to *ne (see na2); Gr. a), a)n -- ; Lat. *en -- , in -- ; Goth., Ohg. & Ags. un -- ; Oir. an -- , in -- ] neg. part. prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether part., ger., grd. or inf.; (3) finite verbal forms. In compn. with words having originally two initial cons. the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appaṭicchavin). In meaning it equals na -- , nir -- and vi -- . Often we find it opp. to sa -- . Verbal negatives which occur in specific verb. function will be enumd. separately, while examples of neg. form. of (1) & (2) are given under their positive form unless the neg. involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. -- Concerning the combining & contrasting (orig. neg.) -- a -- () in redupl. formations like bhav -- bhava see ā 4
PMT: a - negative prefix before non-vowels -- UPMT
UHS: Not entd in UHS : Why?
MNW: a (before a vowel an, exc. a-ṛṇin), a prefix corresponding to Gk. ?, ?, Lat. in, Goth. [1, 1] and Germ. un, Eng. in or un, and having a negative or privative or contrary sense (an-eka not one) -- MonWilli
MAC: अ -- . a - pn. root used in the inflexion of idam and in some particles :  
   अ / अन् -- . a-, an-  - before vowels, neg.px. = un-. -- Mac001c1-top

 

{a.} a
PTS: -- [Vedic a -- ; Idg. *e (loc. of pron. stem, cp. ayaŋ; orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. Sk sma); Gr. e) -- ; also in Gr. e)kei_, Lat. equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in pret., aor. & cond. tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. Identical with this a -- is the a -- which functions as base of some pron. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.).

 

{a.} a  
PTS: -- 4 the sound a (a -- kāra) J vi. 328, 552; VvA 279, 307, 311.

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{n}

{n-a} aŋsa

If the PTS aŋ [note the Eng or engma character ŋ ] had meant a {nga.t}, we would get {n~a.} with approx. IPA /ɪŋ.θa/. UHS spells it with {::ting}: {n-a} with approx. IPA /ʌn.θa/.

However, it appears that by aŋ, PTS had meant a {::ting}. Then our problem is to find how PTS has represented {nga.t} {king:si:}.

Eng or engma ŋ is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal (as in English singing) in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
-- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eng-letter 121013

What PTS has done is NOT correct -- at least for Bur-Myan speakers -- because {n} is pronounced with no definite POA (Place Of Articulation). It is simply a nasalized {a.}. UPMT uses ṁ probably to reflect the Bur-Myan orthography of {::ting} 'dot above'. IAST uses still another, ṃ 'dot below'. No wonder I was completely stumped when I started learning Pali from non-Burmese sources. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT121013 

In a later section on {a.nga.}, we find PTS anka. Since its equivalent is  {n~ka.}, PTS is representing {nga.t} {king:si:} with an. Then how does it represent  {na.t}? See {n~ta.}. PTS has spelled this word as anta. This had put me into a tail-spin and I had landed with a crash! Looking back at aŋ with IPA  /ŋ/, I had to give up my study of Pali. The problem is PaliTextSoc has used the /ŋ/, the sound of the velar nasal to represent the {::ting}! The nasal {n} is not velar: it has no definite POA (Place of Articulation)! Its pronunciation is /ʌn/ and not /ɪn/. It has no equivalent in the European languages, and of course the Westerners could not comprehend it. I wait for input from my peers.  -- UKT111213, 121018

{n-a.} aŋsa
PTS: -- [Vedic aŋsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Lat. umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. aŋse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J i. 9. (b.) a part (lit. side) (cp. ˚āsa in koṭṭhāsa and expln of aŋsa as koṭṭhāsa at DA i. 312, also v. l. mettāsa for mettaŋsa at It 22). -- atīt'aŋse in former times, formerly D ii. 224; Th 2, 314. mettaŋsa sharing friendship (with) A iv. 151 = It 22 = J iv.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahiŋsā). -- Disjunctive ekena aŋsena . . . ekena aŋsena on the one hand (side) . . . on the other, partly . . . partly A i. 61. From this: ekaŋsa (adj.) on the one hand (only), i.e. incomplete (opp. ubhayaŋsa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. dvidhā): see ekaŋsa. -- paccaŋsena according to each one's share A iii. 38. puṭaŋsena with a knapsack for provisions D i. 117; A ii 183; cp. DA i. 288, with v. l. puṭosena at both passages.
-- kūṭa "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin iii. 127; DhA iii. 214; iv. 136; VvA 121. -- vaṭṭaka a shoulder strap (mostly combd with kāyabandhana; vv. ll. ˚vaddhaka, ˚bandhaka) Vin i. 204 (T. ˚bandhaka); ii. 114 (ddh); iv. 170 (ddh); Vv 3340 (T. ˚bandhana, C. v. l. ˚vaṭṭaka); DhA iii. 452. -- PTS

 

{n-a.} aŋsa
PTS: - [Vedic aŋsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Lat. umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609.
PMT: aṁsa - mn. (√am) the shoulder. - m. (√as) a part, portion, share; a period of time.
UHS: {n-a} -- UHS-PMD0001
MAC: अंश aṃsa --> {n-sha.}/ {n-hya.}
  - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. -- Mac001c1
SSK: अंश aṃśa -- portion, part, bull's hump, shoulder,
  denominator [math], stake, party, day, earnest money, share,
  deg of latitude or longitude, fraction, share of booty,
  denominator of a fraction, inheritance, lot, partition

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: 1. m. part, portion, dividend, {n~a} 'a period of time'. 2. m. shoulder

{n-a.} aŋsakūṭa
PTS: -- "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin iii. 127; DhA iii. 214; iv. 136; VvA 121.
PMT: aṁsa-kūṭa - m. the shoulder-blade, the hump of an ox.
UHS: {n-a.ku-Ta.} -- UHS-PMD0001
MAC: अंसकूट aṃsa-kuta = अ ं स क ू ट
  -- m. top of the shoulder; -- Mac001c1-b13

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: n. edge of shoulder. {n-a.keiT}-robe. the robe which the monk put on the ridge of his shoulder to be wrapped around on the body.

{n~a.} aŋsa  
PTS: -- [see next] point, corner, edge; freg. in combn with numerals, e. g. catur˚ four -- cornered, chaḷ˚, aṭṭh˚, soḷas˚ etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In connection with a Vimāna: āyat˚ with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 (= kubbara -- phale patiṭṭhitā heṭṭhima -- aŋsā VvA 265).

 

{n-a} aṁsa
PMT: aṁsa - mn. (√am) the shoulder. 
UHS: {n-a} . - UHS-PMD0001

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: m. shoulder

{n-a} aṁsa
PMT: aṁsa - m. (√as) a part, portion, share; a period of time. Aṁsena, inst. in part, -- UPMT

 

aṁsaṁsa
PMT:- m. (√as) a portion of a part.

 

aṁsala
PMT:- adj. strong, durable.

 

aṁsa-hara , hārī
PMT:- mfn. (√har) a share-holder.

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{n~i.}

{n~i.} aŋsi  
PTS: -- (f.) [cp. Vedic aśri, aśra, aśani; Gr. a)/kros pointed, a)/kris, also o)cu/s sharp: Lat. ācer sharp. Further connections in Walde Lat. Wtb. under ācer] a corner, edge (= aŋsa2) Vv 782 (= aŋsa -- bhāga VvA 303).
UHS: {n~i.} - UHS-PMD0001

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: f. projection, edge

[p001c1end]

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[p001c2begin]

{n~u.}

{n~u.}  aŋsu
PTS: - [cp. Sk. aŋśu (Halāyudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin iii. 224. -- mālin, sun Sāsv 1.

 

{n~u.} aŋsu
PTS: - [cp. Sk. aŋśu (Halāyudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin iii. 224.
PMT: aṁsu - mn. a thread, ray, sunbeam, filament. 
UHS: {n~u.} - UHS-PMD0001
MAC: अंशु amsu --> {n-shu.} - m. Soma plant, - juice; ray;
   stalk. -- Mac001c1-b08
SSK: अंशु aṃśu - ray, thread, cloth, small particle, end of a thread,
   sunray, minute particle, ray of light, filament, array, point, kind of Soma libation, sunbeam, end

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: m. thread, ray of light
Note: Soma is not mentioned. It is spelled as {au:ma.} and its meaning is given in UHS-PMD1073 as the Moon or Moon Nat {la.nt-a:}
See my note on Soma plant.

{n-u.ka.} aṁsuka
PMT:- n. a leaf, cloth,
UHS:- {n-u.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0001

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: n. cloth

aṁsu-jāla
PMT:- n. a net-work of rays.

 

aṁsu-dhara
PMT:- m. the sun.

 

aṁsu-pati
PMT:- m. the sun.

aṁsumaphalā
PMT:- f. the plantain.
SSK: अंशुमत्फला  aṃśumatphalā - f. plantain 

UKT: Do not use the word <plantain>. Use <banana>. Though both had meant {nghak-pyau:i:}, in modern usage they are different. Banana, together with coconut, is an important item in offertory to the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha where it is usual to put in 3 bunches. In offertory to the Nats and tutelary spirits it is usual to put in 2 bunches.

aṁsu-mālā
PMT: - f. a garland of rays.

 

{n-u.ma-li} aṁsu-mālī
PMT:- m. the sun.
UHS: {n-u.ma-li} -- UHS-PMD0001

UKT from UHS-PMD0001: m. Sun

aṁsula
PMT:- adj. radiant.

 

aṁsu-vāṇa
PMT:- the sun.

 

aṁsu-hattha
PMT:- m. the sun.

 

aṁhati, tī,
PMT:- f. a present, disease, abandonment.

 

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UKT notes

Kinsi-representation {king:si:}

by UKT: 111226

The Kinsi or {king:si:} is a unique way of representing a killed consonant - in this case {nga.}-thut - in Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. The killed consonantal-grapheme is place on a level above the main level of writing. This kind of representation can also be found with other killed consonant, e.g. {na.}-thut. We find an example in UHS-PMD0220:

{U.pa.gn~twa}
-- UHS-PMD0220

UKT from UHS: approaches and then -
Note on Bur-Myan fossilized akshara {rw} :
   {rw} derived from {ru} pronounced as // /{rw.}/
I have translated this word as <then> to signify that what preceded is a subordinate clause to be followed by the main clause.

Go back kinsi-note-b

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Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan

by UKT : 111213

When the English short <a> {a.} -- the inherent vowel in the Bur-Myan akshara -- is checked by the nasal consonants -- there are five nasal consonants -- the peak-vowel also changes. This fact is not recognized by most phoneticians resulting in confusing transcriptions of Bur-Myan words to Eng-Latin. Below, I have also given the approximate IPA transcriptions. :

{ing} /ɪŋ/ ,  {i} /ɪɲ/ ,  {N} /ʌɳ/ ,  {n} /ʌn/ ,  /ʌm/ {m} 
Note: I expect many Bur-Myan phoneticians to dispute my IPA representations.
To them, I have only this to say: "this is how I pronounce".

In Bur-Myan, the peak-vowel changes in the above way. However this change is not shown in the English transliterations of Pali by PTS. In addition to these five, there is one nasal {n} - the {a.} with a {::ting} 'dot-above',  that has been mistaken for {king:si:} (derived from {ing} /ɪŋ/). I emphasize that {n} has the approximate IPA /ʌn/ . Because of these deficiencies, Pal-Lat should not be used as a model for transliteration of Burmese into English. To remedy these defects I have to change the peak vowel in Romabama to suit the phonology of Bur-Myan.

Secondly, it is important to remember that killed consonants are not allowed in Pal-Myan. Their places are taken up by {paaHT-hsing.} 'Pali conjuncts', and, {::ting}, and {king:si:}.

{paaHT-hsing.} - n. subscripted letters in Pali -- MED2006-272

I contend that the PTS representation aŋ of {::ting} is untenable to Pal-Myan. If the PTS aŋ had meant a {nga.t}, we would get {n~a.}. UHS spells it with {::ting}: {n-a}. However, it appears that by aŋ, PTS had meant a {::ting}.

{n-a.} aŋsa
Pal: - [Vedic aŋsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Lat. umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. -- PTS
Pal: aṁsa - mn. (√am) the shoulder. - m. (√as) a part, portion, share; a period of time.
-- UPMT-PED001
Pal: {n-a} -- UHS-PMD0001
   UKT from UHS: 1. m. part, portion, dividend, {n~a} 'a period of time'. 2. m. shoulder
Skt: अंश aṃsa --> {n-sha.}/ {n-hya.}
Skt: - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. -- Mac001c1

UKT side-note: When you look into Sanskrit dictionaries, you will find many words being related to "god" or Deva {d-wa.}, "goddess" or Devi {d-wi}, Demons or Asura {a.u.ra}, "Maha-deva" such as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva and their wives and co-wives", and, Rishi {ra..} and their wives. I contend that both Pali and Sanskrit were simply human languages and were "religiously neutral", and were used for everyday communication between human beings. My advice is to be careful about your translations. For instance, don't translate the word "god" as {Bu.ra:} but only as Nat {nt}, some entity that is being worshipped out of reverence but more commonly out of fear.

Now our problem is to find how PTS represents a {nga.t} {king:si:}.

For this we will  concentrate on the word anka. You will find this word in a later file involving {a.nga.}. The Pal-Myan equivalent is {n~ka.}, and PTS is representing {nga.t} {king:si:} with an.

{n~ka.} anka 
Pal: -- = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; -- PTS
Pal:  {n~ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011
Skt: अङ्क  - m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play) -- Mac003c3-b32
   Note: अङ्क  is the modern rendition with an explicit viram. In the original Macdonell it is shown as a vertical conjunct.

This leads us to the question of representation of {na.t}. See {n~ta.}. PTS has spelled this word as anta, placing it in the same class as {king:si:}. That brings us back to aŋ. The problem is IPA has used /ŋ/ to represent the velar nasal and I hold that {::ting} is not velar: it has no definite POA (Place of Articulation)! Its pronunciation is /ʌn/ and not /ɪn/. I am waiting for input from my peers.

Thirdly, how to resolve the Two-three tone problem between Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan, present in the nasals. This problem is also present between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat. Perhaps we may get some help from Skt-Dev.

{ing.}, {ing}, {ing:}
{n.}, {n}, {n:}

To resolve this third issue we would have to get into Bur-Myan way of spelling and pronunciation, which I will not be able to do in the immediate future. -- UKT111205, 111213.

Go back nasal-Bur-note-b

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Negative prefixes in Burmese and Pali

UKT: 121024

Both {a.} and {n} अं are used as prefixes for negative in Pal-Myan. The prefix {a.} अ is used for words that begins with non-vowels, and {n} अं with vowels. Though there is no pronunciation problem in Pal-Lat and Skt-Dev, you must be careful in Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan. Since Romabama take care of vowel changes, Romabama transcriptions are best suited for Pali as spoken in Myanmar aka the Country of Myanmar. Avoid using common transcriptions you would find inside and outside Myanmar.

It should be noted that though negatives in Pal-Myan use {a.}, their equivalents in Bur-Myan are are different, e.g.

Pal: {ku.ol} = Bur: {kaung:mhu.}
- n. . good deed, meritorious deed. . a timber tree -- MED2006-017
Pal: {a.ku.ol} = Bur: {ma.kaung:mhu.}
- n. bad, evil or sinful deed -- MED2006-330

{ma.} is used as the negative prefix in Bur-Myan.

Go back Negative-prefixes-note-b

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Tenuis retroflex plosive-stop

-- UKT: 121021

Tenuis plosive-stops are unknown in English, which plays havoc with English transcriptions of Bur-Myan.  They are well recognized in Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev, because of which I can represent them with Devanagari glyphs. They are {ka.} क , {sa.} च , {Ta.} ट , {ta.} त , & {pa.} प. They are all voiceless and are realized in regular English only when they are preceded by the hissing {Sa.}. IPA classifies them together with {hka.} ख , {hsa.} छ , {HTa.} ठ , {hta.} थ , {hpa.} फ as allophones.

Caution: There are serious differences between Bur-Myan & Skt-Dev in row #2 of the akshara-matrix. e.g.

non-hissing plosive-stop {sa.} च  , {c} च्
hissing fricative-sibilant   {Sa.} ष , {S} ष्

I challenge the notions that there is "no palatal in English" and the "double consonants":

English word <success> /sək'ses/ -- DJPD16-515
   The first <c> - the coda - is palatal in spite of its being given as /k/, and the second <c> - the onset - is /s/ (the hissing fricative sibilant). We find such "double consonants" in conjuncts such as
   Bur-Myan {ic~sa} 'truth'.

Presenting the tenuis with the regular-voiceless with Devanagari glyphs must be done with caution because the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) follows the "hearing capabilities" of the English phoneticians who could not distinguish the tenuis-voiceless from the regular-voiceless. And people usually forget that IAST is a transliteration -- NOT transcription. Because of which I follow only the Romabama transcription -- emphasis: transcription -- which has taken into consideration the Bur-Myan sound system.

Please DO NOT use IAST, and if you had to do, emphasize that it shows the way the syllable is written (orthography) and NOT the pronunciation. 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_retroflex_plosive 111214

The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʈ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiceless alveolar plosive which has the symbol t. If lowercase letter t in the font used already has a rightward-pointing hook, then ʈ is distinguished from t by extending the rightward-pointing hook below the baseline as a descender. Compare t and ʈ.

Features of the voiceless retroflex plosive:

Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive [UKT: I use the term "plosive-stop"], which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Its POA (place of articulation) is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated sub-apical - with the tip of the tongue curled up. But more generally it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).

UKT: IPA notion of "post-" & "pre-" in describing the POA are exactly the opposite of our way of looking at things. Western phoneticians (IPA) describe the vocal apparatus in the direction "outside-to-inside", i.e. from lips, teeth, to velum. We describe it as: velum, teeth, lips. Therefore IPA description of "post-aveolar" means: dental-alveolar-postalveolar. In our thinking "postalveolar" or "after-alveolar" would be "dental". This directional difference had stumped my wife, Daw Thanthan, and me when we first ventured into online phonetics soon after coming to Canada. We were already too old to go back to school. -- UKT121021

Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.

UKT: In both Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev, there are two voiceless oral consonants. To differentiate the two I use the terms 'tenuis' and 'voiceless'. In addition to these we have the 'voiced' consonant. Please note I avoid using the term 'aspirate' because to me  we do not have aspiration as is known in the West. Remember the play by George Bernard Shaw "Pygmalion" or its adaptation the Broadway musical "My Fair Lady", where "Henry Higgins" becomes " 'enry 'iggins' ?

Phonation: tenuis, voiceless, voiced, deep-h   ||  mute conjunct
Bur-Myan:  {Ta.}  {HTa.}  {a.}   {a.}   ||   {T~HTa.}
Skt-Dev:     ट  ṭa  ठ ṭha   ड ḍa  ढ ḍha  ||   ट्ठ ṭṭha =  ट ् ठ

Note: I am still unsure what to call c4. It is voiced and has no aspiration. It is articulated deep in the throat. I had toyed with the name vd-pharyngeal but it can be mistaken to be a POA: it is phonation -- not to be confused with POA. Being unsure, I have given it simply as "deep-h".

It is relatively easy to show a student the POA because it can be looked into through an open mouth. But phonations take place inside your voice-box, behind the Adam's apple. They have to be observed while the person is speaking. Therefore there was no way for the ancient and the modern phoneticians to describe them until advances were made in the surgical field in treating cancer patients. It can now be "observed" using NMR techniques.

I have given an example of what happens when {Ta.}  and {HTa.} form a horizontal conjunct. The result is {T~HTa.}. The Skt-Dev ट्ठ ṭṭha  is derived by following the Bur-Myan method of conjunct formation using an {a.t} aka viram (or virama) on the first member {Ta.} .

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central lateral dichotomy does not apply.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Soma plant or Hindu Deva

-- UKT 120827 , 121022

Refer to:

अंशु amsu {n-shu.}
Skt: m. Soma plant, - juice; ray; stalk. -- Mac001c1
Pal: {n-u.}
- - UHS-PMD0001
   UKT from UHS: m. thread, ray of light .
Note: Soma is not mentioned. It is spelled as {au:ma.} and its meaning is given in UHS-PMD1073 as the Moon or Moon Nat {la.nt-a:}

According to Macdonell, the word means the Soma plant. Soma is a RigVedic deity (dva and asura are equally revered : asura are not demonized as in later (non-Vedic) Hindu texts.

Soma is third in importance by counting it in RigVeda hymns which totaled 1028 in number. See the Hymns of RigVeda by Ralph T. H. Griffith, Ist ed. 1889. A pdf copy is in TIL ~~Skt-Lib.

By counts, the important ones are:
   #01. Indra - 289 , #02. Agni - 218,
   #03. Soma - 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala), #04. Vishvadevas - 70,
   #05. the Asvins - 56, #06. Varuna - 46,
   #07. the Maruts - 38, #08. Mitra - 28,
   #09. Ushas - 21,  #10. Vayu (Wind) - 12,
   #11. Savitr [of Gayatri Mantra] - 11, #12. the Rbhus - 11,
   #13. Pushan - 10.
Then the counts on deities drops down to under 10. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120827.

The word 'Indra' simply means the king of the dvas -- not necessarily the 'thunder god' of Hinduism who is a hard drinking vengeful dva who would destroy his real enemies and potential ones by all means including making his dancers seduce them even if they were rishis. The most notorious episode was sending one of his top dancers, Menaka to seduce the rishi Vishwamitra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menaka 120830 .

In another Hindu lore, Ahalya  अहल्या , the wife of the Gautama Maharishi, was seduced by Indra. The Maharishi cursed her, but was later liberated from the curse by Rama (the avatar of god Vishnu). -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahalya 121022

In Bur-Myan Buddhist lore, the king of the dva is Sakka who is taken to be a {Bo:tau} - the equivalent of a Mahatma 'Great Soul'. Sakka-paa Sutra (Sakka's Questions) translated from Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, shows his love for wisdom. -- http://www.hermeticsource.info/sakka-pantildeha-sutra.html 121022

On the right is an {ing:} used for personal safety to invoke the powers of the Sakka himself. Of course, Sakka, a devout follower of the Buddha, is a non-drinker who carries a staff in his right hand instead of thunderbolts.

The three Mahadevas of later Hinduism, the Hindu Trinity, the Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are not mentioned.

The etymology of the word is interesting. "Both Soma [(Skt-Dev: सोम ] and the [ancient Iranian language] Avestan Haoma are derived from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-. ... The word is derived from an Indo-Iranian root *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) "to press", i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant. [4] The root is Proto-Indo-European [PIE] (*sew(h)-) [5] ". -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soma 120830

The above read together with: UHS-PMD1073 {au:ma.} 'Moon or Moon-dva' shows that the drink brings 'coolness' to the mind and body -- not excitement or hallucinations, or even sedation and sleep. -- UKT120830

By pressing the parts (flowers, fruits, or stalks) of Soma plant a health drink is produced. Modern scholars mostly from the West think it is an intoxicating drink of either alcohol or ephedrine. Whether the Buddhist monks should be allowed to drink Soma or not was one of causes of schisms in the Third Buddhist Synod. [I still need to check on the facts.]

Facts such as the above are the basis of my theory that Vedic may not have been exclusively Hinduism the religion of the Brahmin-Poonas - the IE (Indo-European) speakers. It might have been the Mother-goddess religion of the prehistoric peoples -- the pre-Buddhist religion of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers which would include the Bur-Myan speakers as well. And that the original Vedic language [pre-Vedic] was a Tib-Bur language. See a collection of papers on Mother-goddess figures in Myanmar in http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1420&lo=t&sl=0 121022

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Voiced retroflex plosive-stop

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_retroflex_plosive 111227

The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. [UKT ]

The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter d  with a rightward-pointing tail protruding from the lower right of the letter. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiced alveolar plosive which has the symbol d. Compare d and ɖ. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured, also known as breathy voice [ɖ].

Features of the voiced retroflex plosive:

Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

UKT: The above term "nasal stops" is a self-contradictory term. Nasals are not stops because the airflow is redirected through the nose. Because nasals are not stops, the Two-three tone problem found between English and Burmese applies. Remember, the IPA descriptions holds true only for the Western phoneticians and are lacking in lucidity in describing the Indic languages which includes Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan.

Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated sub-apical - with the tip of the tongue curled up. [UKT ]

UKT: Because the tip of the tongue is curled back, it is the underside of the tip that is touching the hard palate. Bur-Myan does not really have retroflex in ordinary speech, but those who speak Pal-Myan, particularly the older Buddhist-monks, can easily articulate the retroflex sounds. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT111227

But more generally it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).

Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence:

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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