Update: 2012-01-01 07:19 PM +0630


BEPS Sanskrit Dictionary


by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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Though UPMT-PED is in Pal-Lat, for comparison to UHS-PMD in Pal-Myan, I have transcribed entries in UPMT in Pal-Myan. - UKT110625
 Here are three easily forgotten Myanmar and Devanagari grapheme pairs and their conjuncts:
   {za.} ज ja    {z~za.} ज्ज jja
   {Za.} झ jha {z~Za.} ज्झ jjha
   {a.} ञ a  {z~a.} ज्ञ ja   =  ज ् ञ
Note: {z~a.} ज्ञ ja   =  ज ् ञ  is being considered to be included in Romabama - UKT110702
A similar but reversed conjunct is {~za1} ञ्ज ja = ञ ् ज

{a.a.} अञ
{i~sa.} अञ्च = अ ञ ् च
{i~za.} अञ्ज = अ ञ ् ज
{i~a.} अञ्ञ = अ ञ ् ञ

{i~zi.} अञ्जि
{i~zi} अञ्जी

The short vowels, such as //, can be checked by various consonants. And, amongst the rimes formed, those of the voiceless (tenuous and not aspirated) palatal and retroflex stops, {ic} {T}, and the unusual nasals {ng}, {i}, {N} are the most interesting in inter-language transcription, either because of their fricative or nasal sounds. Before we go into inter-transcription between Burmese and English, we will study the relationship between Pali and Sanskrit, because Pal-Myan is related to Bur-Myan (Tibeto-Burman), and Skt-Dev to Eng-Lat (Indo-European). Our study will serve as an introduction to BEPS Pali English Dictionary which I hope to write later - UKT110625.

UKT notes

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{a.a.} अञ = अ ञ

{i~sa.} अञ्च  - alternate spelling:
not entd in OnlineSktDict

अञ्च aca 
= अ ञ ् च
Skt: aca - aca 'curling' (of the hairs of the body, thrill of rapture),
  only at the end of romca, q.v. [Page 11, Column 1] - MonWilliWash
Pal: {i~sa.} - UKT transcription

Pal: acati {i~sa.ti.} - v. (√ac) to honour - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {i~sa.ti.} - - UHS-PMD0021
      UKT from UHS: to pay respect by bending down, to worship

Pal: ajati {i~za.ti.} - v. (√aj) to anoint, smear - UPMT-PED007

Pal: ajana {i~za.na.} - m. a tuktoo. f. a chameleon. n. a collyrium, night - UPMT-PED007

Pal: ajanikā {i~za.ni.ka} - f. a white-bellied mouse - UPMT-PED007


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अञ्चलः acala:
= अ ञ ् च ल ः 
Skt: अञ्चलः (aJNchalaH) - (m) aanchal in Hindi- OnlineSktDict
Pal: acala - m. the fringe of a garment - UPMT-PED007

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/ {i~za.} अञ्ज = अ ञ ् ज

अञ्जन ajana
= अ ञ ् ज न  
Skt: अञ्जन (aJNjana) - the name of the mother of Hanuman - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अञ्जना   ajana   f.   name of Hanumat's mother - SpkSkt

See my notes on Ajanā and Hanuman (stub).

अञ्जनेयासन ajaneyāsana = अ ञ ् ज न े य ा स न
Skt: अञ्जनेयासन (aJNjaneyaasana) - the splits - OnlineSktDict

अञ्जन   ajana  
= अ ञ ् ज न    
Skt: अञ्जन   ajana   n.   black pigment for eyelashes, collyrium;
  anointing, smearing with; antimony; ink, embellishing - SpkSkt 
Pal: {i~za.na.} - - UHS-PMD0021

UKT: UHS gives almost the same meanings as given by UPMT. See my note on
antimony mineral - Stibnite aka Antimony sulphide.

अञ्जनचूर्ण   ajanacūrṇa
Skt: अञ्जनचूर्ण   ajanacūrṇa - n.   antimony powder - SpkSkt

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अञ्जलि ajali 
= अ ञ ् ज ल ि
Skt: अञ्जलि (aJNjali) - (m) folded hands - OnlineSktDict
Pal: ajali  {n~za.li.}  m. the hollow of the joined hands, a respectful salutation
  performed by raising the joined hands to the forehead. - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {n~za.li.} - UHS-PMD0021
     UKT from UHS: m. cupped hands raised to the forehead in salutation

अञ्जस  ajasa
Skt: अञ्जस  ajasa - adj.  straight, straightforward, honest - SpkSkt
Pal: ajasa {i~za.a.} - n. a road - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {i~za.a.} - - UHS-PMD0021

अञ्जसा  ajasā = अ ञ ् ज स ा  
Skt: अञ्जसा  ajasā  ind. right, truly, justly, straight on, quickly - SpkSkt 

अञ्जसी ajasī
Skt: अञ्जसी ajasī - adj. straightforward, straight, honest - SpkSkt

अञ्जसीन ajasīna
Skt: अञ्जसीन ajasīna - adj. going straight on, straightforward - SpkSkt

अञ्जस्पा ajaspā
Skt: अञ्जस्पा ajaspā - adj. drinking instantly - SpkSkt

आञ्जस्य  ājasya
Skt: आञ्जस्य  ājasya - adj. immediate, direct. n. immediately, unhesitatingly - SpkSkt

अञ्जसयन  ajasayana
Skt: अञ्जसयन  ajasayana - adj. going straight on, having a straight course - SpkSkt

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{i~a.} अञ्ञ = अ ञ ् ञ

aa {i~a.}
Pal: aa {i~a.} - adj. other, another, a second - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {i~a.}

Pal: aā - f. (√ā) knowledge, fruition of arahantship - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {i~a} -   - UHS-0023

Pal: a-āṇa {i~a-Na.} - n. (√ā) ignorance - UPMT-PED007

Pal: aādisa {i~a-di.a.} - adj. different - UPMT-PED007

Pal: aoa {i~au~a} - adj. mutual - UPMT-PED007
*Pal: {i~au~n} - - UHS-PMD0023

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{i~zi.} अञ्जि

अञ्जि aji = अ ञ ् जि
Skt: अञ्जि aji - adj. unctuous, smooth, sleek,
   applying an ointment or pigment, ointment, brilliancy.
   m. sender, commander - SpkSkt

unctuous  adj. 1. Characterized by affected, exaggerated, or insincere earnestness: the unctuous, complacent court composer who is consumed with envy and self-loathing Rhoda Koenig. 2. Having the quality or characteristics of oil or ointment; slippery. 3. Containing or composed of oil or fat. 4. Abundant in organic materials; soft and rich: unctuous soil. [Middle English from Old French unctueus from Medieval Latin ūnctuōsus from Latin ūnctum ointment, from neuter past participle of unguere to anoint] - AHTD


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{i~zi} अञ्जी

अञ्जी ajī = अ ञ ् ज ी
Skt: अञ्जी ajī - f. blessing - SpkSkt

Pal: ajīra {i~zi-ra.} - n. the fig tree or fruit - UPMT-PED007

Pal: ajiṭṭha {i~zait~hta.} - n. the sun - UPMT-PED007

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UKT notes


From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anjana 091113

Ajanā was the mother of Hanuman, one of the heroes of the Indian epic, the Ramayana. According to one version of the story, Ajanā was an apsara named Pujikastalā, who came to earth and married Kesari, a monkey chief. Vayu, God of the wind, who carried the divine power of Lord Shiva to Anjana's womb, since Hanuman is incarnation of Lord Shiva and also Vayu [1] Anjana is a very popular name as well.

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Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanuman 100508
UKT: See my fuller note in ha-216top-2.htm

Hanuman (हनुमान्, Hanumān also Anjaneya, Maruti) is a Hindu deity, who is an ardent devotee of Rama, a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana. A general among the vanaras, an ape-like race of forest-dwellers, Hanuman is an incarnation of the divine, whose fate it is to aid the hero Rama in the struggle against the demon king Ravana. His exploits are much celebrated in a variety of religious and cultural traditions,[1] particularly in Hinduism, so much so that he is often the subject of worship according to some bhakti traditions.[2]

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Antimony mineral

From: http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photoant.html 120101

Antimony: A native element, antimony metal is extracted from stibnite and other minerals. Antimony is used as a hardening alloy for lead, especially storage batteries and cable sheaths, also used in bearing metal, type metal, solder, collapsible tubes and foil, sheet and pipes, and semiconductor technology.

Stibnite: The sample in the photo contains 71.8 percent antimony and 28.2 percent sulfur. It is the most important ore for antimony. Stibnite is used for metal antifriction alloys, metal type, shot, batteries, and in the manufacture of fireworks. Antimony salts are used in the rubber and textile industries, in medicine, and glassmaking.


Antimony is a silvery-gray, brittle semi-metal with atomic number 51. It rarely occurs in nature as a native element, but is found in a number of different minerals, the most important of which is stibnite (SbS3). Antimony is often called a semi-metal, because in pure form it is not shiny and malleable like true metals.

Antimony is not an element which most people see daily in a recognizable form. However, it is present in many products in everyday use. Antimonys moderate price allows it to be used in a wide variety of applications.

Antimony minerals, particularly stibnite, have been known and used since ancient times. Because it is so soft, stibnite was used in ancient times as black eye makeup. The Roman historian, Pliny, wrote about its use as a medicine. Artists used finely-ground stibnite in the Middle Ages as a black pigment. Ancient scientists were interested in antimony because of their belief that it may be useful in the process of changing common metals into gold. This field was known as alchemy.

The ancients may have occasionally produced pure antimony from its ore stibnite, and medieval alchemists have left recipes for preparation of the pure metal. However, it was not actually recognized as a separate element until the mid-1400s, when chemistry as a science began to take shape. The French chemist, Nicolas Lemery, is known to have performed some of the earliest studies on antimony.

The name antimony is derived from the Greek words anti and monos , which together mean "not alone", because it rarely occurs naturally in pure form. Its chemical symbol, Sb, is derived from the Latin word stibium , which was the name of the most common antimony mineral, stibnite .

Antimony rarely occurs in its native metallic form in nature. It easily combines with other elements, usually including sulfur, to form over 100 different minerals. Of these minerals, only stibnite (SbS3) is mined commercially as a source for metallic antimony. Antimony is found in trace (that is, very minor) amounts in silver, copper and lead ores, and it is usually economically possible, as well as environmentally desirable, to extract the antimony from these ores when they are smelted.

Most of the antimony mined each year comes from China, which supplies over three-quarters of the world total. The remainder is from Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan, Bolivia, and a few other countries. Some antimony is produced as a by-product of smelting ores of other metals, mainly gold, copper and silver, in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia.

No mines are currently producing antimony ore in the U.S., but important amounts are yielded as a by-product of copper and silver mining. Numerous stibnite deposits occur in Idaho, Montana and Nevada, but most are worked out. Recycling of old lead-acid batteries (such as automobile batteries) contributes to U.S. antimony production.

The most important use of antimony in the United States is in chemicals used to impregnate plastics, textiles, rubber, and other materials as a flame retardant that is, a form of fireproofing. This is required by federal law for certain childrens' clothing. Over half the annual U.S. antimony consumption is for the manufacture of flame retardants.

A portion of U.S. consumption is in antimony alloys. Antimony is mixed (that is, alloyed) with other metals, such as lead, to make the lead harder and stronger for use in lead-acid batteries. On the other hand, some alloys such as Babbitt Metal (an alloy of antimony, tin, copper, and sometimes lead) are useful as machine bearings because they are soft and slippery. Antimony is also alloyed with tin to make pewter items such as plates, pitchers and cups, used mostly for decoration. One use of antimony, which is declining, is to make type metal for printing newspapers and magazines. Antimony is one of very few substances (bismuth and water are two others) which expands when it cools and freezes. Antimony-bearing type metal thus fills every corner of a mold used to prepare sharp type for printing. With the advent of computer printing, this use has greatly decreased.

Antimony is also used for pigments in plastics, paints, rubber, and for a wide variety of minor uses, including medicines, fireworks, and others. Antimony oxide is a brilliant yellow color, accounting for much of the pigment use.

A tiny amount of highly purified antimony metal is used in the computer industry to make semiconductors. To be useful in this application, antimony has to be 99.999% pure!

Antimony could be replaced by chromium, tin, zinc, and titanium compounds in the paint industry. Cadmium, sulfur, copper, and calcium can be used to harden lead. A number of organic compounds can be used as fire retardants. Recycling, mining, and smelter production will meet the demand for antimony and antimony compounds for many decades to come.

UKT: End of the article.

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