Update: 2012-01-01 06:16 PM +0630


BEPS Sanskrit Dictionary


by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{a.sa.} अच  [Not to be written nor pronounced as {a.kya.}
  unless you are speaking Sanskrit.]
{a.sa} अचा
{a.si.} अचि
{a.s} अचे
Pali-Myan words from UHS and UPMT dictionaries
  compared to those in Skt-Dev.

For some entries, I have given my free translation of UHS-PMD in English. - UKT110626
I haven't found entries with {a.hsa.}, i.e. {a.} checked by killed-{hsa.}. My observation should be confirmed by persons more knowledgeable than me. -- UKT110704

UKT notes
Romabama spelling for palatal-plosive and alveolar-dental-sibilant: {sa.}/{Sa.} and {c}/{S}

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{a.sa.} अच

अचरं (acharaM)
Skt: अचरं (acharaM) - and not moving - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल acala - adj. immoveable - SpkSkt
Skt: अचल acala - a. immovable; m. mountain - Mac004
Pal: a-cala {a.sa.la.} - adj. (√cal) immovable. m. a mountain, pin - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [mfn. - unperturbed. m. mountain - UKT free transl. of UHS-PMD0013]

अचरा  acarā
= अ च र ा  
Skt: अचरा  acarā - adj. immoveable - SpkSkt

   note: Here we see {la.} of Pali becoming {ra.} of Sanskrit. It is noteworthy that both UPT and UHS do not list acara . A word about Macdonell: be careful of Mac orthography which uses italics for some aksharas such as {sa.}. I'm preparing my version of Mac which gives both Devanagari and simple ACSII. Mac spelling generally agree with those of UPMT and UHS. -- UKT110531, 110626
   note: Whenever we mention {la.} , we must not forget Lagyi/Lakri {La.} which probably was prominent in Vedic (aka Vedic Sanskrit). Was Bur-Myan {La.} (consonant) related to the Vedic ऌ (short vowel-letter) and ॡ (long vowel-letter) and their vowel signs, ॢ and ॣ ? - UKT110625

अचरस्य (acharasya)
Skt: अचरस्य (acharasya) - and nonmoving - OnlineSktDict

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अचल acala
Skt: अचल acala (achala) - (adj) still, stationary - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल  acala  adj.  immovable, stationary, steady, still [unmoving], unmoving,
  immobile, constant, mountain - SpkSkt
Skt: अचल a-cala - a. immovable; m. mountain. - Mac
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [mfn. - unperturbed. m. mountain - UKT free transl. of UHS]
Pal: a-cala  {a.sa.la.} - adj.  (√cal) immovable;  m.  mountain, pin - UPMT-PED005

Skt: अचल पद   acala pada
Skt: अचल पद   acala pada  nalgebra  constant, absolute term, n. math. constant term,
  absolute term - SpkSkt

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अचलं (achalaM)
Skt: अचलं (achalaM) - unmoving - OnlineSktDict

अचलः (achalaH)
Skt: अचलः (achalaH) - immovable - OnlineSktDict

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अचलप्रतिष्ठं (achalapratishhThaM)
Skt: अचलप्रतिष्ठं (achalapratishhThaM) - steadily situated - OnlineSktDict

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अचला acalā
Skt: अचला (achalaa) - unflinching - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल acala - a. immovable; m. mountain - Mac
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013

अचलेन acalana
Skt: अचलेन (achalena) - without its being deviated - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचलन acalana - n. immovableness; persistence in (ab.); f. , earth. - Mac

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अचक्षुस् (achakShus.h) = अ च क ् ष ु स ्
Skt: अचक्षुस् (achakShus.h) - one without an eye - OnlineSktDict
Skt: acakṣus - a-cakṣus us n. a bad eye, no eye
   # (mfn.), blind - MonWilliWash
Pal: {a.sak~hku.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [ mfn - without knowledge or education. - UKT free translation of UHS-PMD0013 ]

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{a.sa} अचा

अचापलं (achaapalaM)
Skt: अचापलं (achaapalaM) - determination - OnlineSktDict

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{a.si.} अचि

अचिन्त्य acintya = अ च ि न ् त ् य
Skt: अचिन्त्य (achintya) - inconceivable - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचिन्त्य acintya fp. inconceivable. - Mac
Pal: {a.sain-t-yya.} - - UHS-PMD0014

UKT: Though the epithet {a.sain-t-yya.} is often applied to Gautama Buddha, there is nothing inconceivable about him. Firstly, he was a historical figure, born of human parents. He went through a life-time of human life: disease, injury, physical suffering from heat and cold, hunger and thirst. He died a natural death and he was cremated. However, it was his wisdom that is beyond the understanding of the ordinary men and women. - UKT110626

अचिन्त्यं (achintyaM)
Skt: अचिन्त्यं (achintyaM) - beyond contemplation - OnlineSktDict

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अचिन्त्यः (achintyaH)
Skt: अचिन्त्यः (achintyaH) - inconceivable - OnlineSktDict

अचिर acira
Skt: अचिर acira a. brief, short, momentary:
   --, -m, ad. a short time ago; shortly; at short intervals, repeatedly:
   in., ab. without delay, soon: often with present=future. -- Mac
Skt: acira - a-cira mfn. not of long duration, brief
  # instantaneous, recent # (am, āt, eṇa), ind. not long, not for long
  # not long ago # soon, speedily # (ā), f. the mother of the Jaina saint Śānti - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-cira {a.si.ra.} - adj. short, brief - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.si.rn} - - UHS-PMD0014

अचिराद् (achiraad.h)
Skt: अचिराद् (achiraad.h) - without delay, in no time - OnlineSktDict

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अचिराद्भव (achiraadbhava) = अ च ि र ा द ् भ व
Skt: अचिराद्भव (achiraadbhava) - in no time from the cycle of birth & death - OnlineSktDict

अचिरेण (achireNa)
Skt: अचिरेण (achireNa) - very soon - OnlineSktDict

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{a.s} अचे

अचेतसः (achetasaH)
Skt: अचेतसः (achetasaH) - without KRishhNa consciousness - OnlineSktDict

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Pal-Myan words and Skt-Dev
based on UPMT-PED and UHS-PMD

UKT: Treat this section as my worksheet on which I am comparing words. Please note that, when I am satisfied with the relationship (based on meaning) between a Pal-Myan word and its counterpart in Skt-Dev, I will move it into the appropriate section. -- UKT110926

In Bur-Myan, the short vowels, such as // and /ɪ/, are the only ones checked with various consonants. And, amongst the rimes formed, those of the voiceless (tenuous and not aspirated) palatal and retroflex stops, {ic} {T}, and the unusual nasals {ng}, {i}, {N} are the most interesting in inter-language transcription, because of their fricative or nasal sounds.

Note the difference in coda sounds of {ic} (plosive-stop /k/) and {iS} (dental-sibilant-fricative /s/). Remember that the English syllable is made up of CVC structure where the first C is the onset, V the peak or nuclear vowel, and second C the coda. In the following examples from English, we are talking about the coda sounds.:

<kick> ends with a stop as in {ic} . In IPA, <kick> /kɪk/
<sis> of <sister> ends with a hissing sound as in {iS} . In IPA, <sister> /'sɪs.t|əʳ/.

The Bur-Myan syllable is of the same structure as English, except that the coda consonant is shown as a "killed" or {a.t}-consonant . The apparent difference between CVC and CV, is due to the difference in writing systems. English is written in an alphabet, whereas Burmese is written in an abugida.

Before we go into inter-transcription between Burmese and English, we will study the relationship between Pali and Sanskrit, because Pal-Myan is related to Bur-Myan (Tibeto-Burman), and Skt-Dev to Eng-Lat (Indo-European). - UKT110625.

UKT note: Compare the English transliterations with Romabama transliterations. The question remains, which of the pronunciations (that indicated by English transliterations or that indicated by Pal-Myanmar represented by Romabama) would be more closer to that of the ancient Magadhi. My position is IF the ancient Magadhi had been a Tib-Bur language like Burmese, the Romabama vowel pronunciation would be more close to the vowel pronunciation of the Buddha. - UKT 100520

अचक्षुस् a-caksus
= अ च क ् ष ु स ् = अ च क्ष ु स ्
Skt: अचक्षुस् a-caksus - a. eyeless, blind. - Mac
Pal: {a.sak~hkoa~a.} - - UHS-PMD0013

अचण्ड a-canda
= अ च ण ् ड
Skt: अचण्ड a-canda = अ च ण ् ड - a. not impetuous, measured. - Mac
Skt: acaṇḍa - a-caṇḍa mfn. not of a hot temper, gentle, tractable
   # (ī), f. a tractable cow - MonWilliWash

Pal: a-caṇḍa {a.sNDa.} - f. a tame cow, gentle lady - UPMT-PED005

Pal: acira-ppabhā {a.si.rp~pa.Ba} - f. (√bhā] lightning - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.si.rp~pa.Ba} - - UHS-PMD0014

Pal: a-cetaa {a.s-ti~a.} - n. (√cit) forgetfulness - UPMT-PED005

Pal: a-celaka {a.s-la.ka.} - adj. unclothed. m. a naked ascetic - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.s-la.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0014

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UKT notes

Romabama spelling for palatal-plosive
and alveolar-dental-sibilant:
{sa.}/{Sa.} and {c}/{S}

by UKT written and rewritten: 091215, 110519, 110626

How come we ended up assigning {sa.} to two different sounds: the palatal-stop /c/ and alveolar-dental-fricative /s/ ? . As a stop-gap measure, I have to use a property of the Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar) where the coda and the onset of disyllabic words like {ic~sa} have the /c/ and /s/ sounds for the same grapheme {sa}. Since the coda is a killed consonant, I can legitimately write {c} (without the inherent vowel which is likened to English short <a> //), leaving the onset as {sa.} or {Sa.}. The result is {ic~sa}/{thic~Sa}. However, for Romabama for embracing Hindi and Sanskrit, I need to differentiate the two sounds. As a stop gap measure, I am assigning {sa.} to /c/ and {sa.}/{Sa.} to /s/. But then, this stop gap measure is to be adopted only when absolutely necessary.

We find a similar situation in English-Latin <success> /sək'ses/ for the grapheme <c>. The English grammarians solve this problem by stating that there is no palatal /c/ in English, and assign the coda <c> to /k/. The Sanskrit grammarians solve a similar situation by assigning r2c1 च to /ʧ/. This sound is the Bur-Myan medial {kya.} and is not exactly like {hkya.}. {hkya.} is the familiar /ʧ/ sound of the Eng-Lat <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (US) /ʧɝːʧ/.

Leaving aside the Bur-Myan, the typical Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, and Pal-Myan which probably was a Tib-Bur language, and concentrating on Indo-European (IE) languages, we find that there are two main groups of languages under the names Centum and Satem languages: my Burmanization: {k:n-tm} and satem {sa.tm}. We shall concentrate on two languages only: English (representing Centum) and Sanskrit (representing Satem).
   See my collections on Centum-Satem languages in a1ssa1-023top-2.htm (fricative sibilant) अष . - UKT note 091215 rewritten on 110519.

Go back RBM-spelling-sa1-note-b

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