Update: 2012-01-01 06:04 PM +0630


BEPS Sanskrit Dictionary


by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{n~ka.} अङ्क
{n~ku.} अङ्कु

{n~ga.} अङ्ग
{n~gi.} अङ्गि : break up the conjunct to pronounce /अङ् गि/ // /{n~gi.}/
{n~gu.} अङ्गु

UKT notes
Alangium salviifolium Angulimala The Six Vedangas
Unusual rimes as indicators of intra-language transcription

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{n~ka.} अङ्क

अङ्क aṅka 
= अ ङ ् क  
Skt: अङ्क (a.nka) - number - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅka - aṅk m. a hook RV. i, 162, 13, &c
  # part of a chariot (used in the dual) TS. TBr # a curve
  # the curve in the human, especially the female, figure above the hip
    (where infants sitting astride, are carried by mothers: hence often = 'breast' or 'lap')
  # the side or flank # the body # proximity, place # the bend in the arm
  # any hook or crooked instrument # a curved line
  # a numerical figure, cipher, a figure or mark branded on an animal, &c
  # any mark, line, stroke, ornament, stigma # a number
  # the numbers one and nine # a co-efficient # an act of a drama
  # a drama # a military show or sham-fight
  # a misdeed, a sin L. [Gk. ?, ?, [7, 1] ?, ?, and Lat. uncus] -- MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅka - m. (√ac) a mark, the flank or side, hip, place - UPMT-PEDict004
Pal: {n~ka.} -
  - UHS-PMDict0011.

{hka:htic-hkwing-hkyi} - v. carry a child astride one's hip. - MED2010-055


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{n~ku.} अङ्कु
not entd in OnlineSktDict

अङ्कुर  aṅkura
Skt: अङ्कुर  aṅkura -  m.n. sprout - SpkSkt
Skt: aṅkura - aṅkura m. a sprout, shoot, blade, a swelling, a tumour Suśr
  # a hair L # blood L # water L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅkura - m. ( √ac) a sprout, shoot -- UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ku.ra.} - - UHS-PMD-0011

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{n~ga.} अङ्ग

अङ्ग aṅga
Skt: अङ्ग (a.nga) - a limb, or body part - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅga 2 - ṅga n. (√am Uṇ.), a limb of the body
  # a limb, member # the body # a subordinate division or department,
    especially of a science, as the six Vedāṅgas
  # hence the number six # N. of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas
  # a limb or subdivision of Mantra or counsel (said to be five, viz.
   1. karmaṇām ārambhpāyaḥ, means of commencing operations
   2. puruṣa-dravya-sampad, providing men and materials
   3. deśa-kāla-vibhāga, distribution of place and time
   4. vipatti-pratīkāra, counter-action of disaster
   5. kārya-siddhi, successful accomplishment ; whence mantra is said to be pacṅga)
  # any subdivision, a supplement
  # (in Gr.) the base of a word, but in the strong cases only Pāṇ. 1-4, 13 seqq 
  # anything inferior or secondary, anything immaterial or unessential, aṅga-tā 
  # (in rhetoric) an illustration # (in the drama) the whole of the subordinate characters
  # an expedient # a mental organ, the mind L
  # m. sg. or (ās), m. pl., N. of Bengal proper or its inhabitants # (sg.), N. of a king of Aṅga
  # (mfn.), having members or divisions L # contiguous L -  MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅga - n. (√aṅg) a limb, member, body, division, quality, requisite - UPMT-PEDict004
Pal: {n~ga.} - - UHS-PMDict0011

See my note on Six Vedangas . {w-dn~ga.}
Pal: {w-dn~ga.} - - UHS-PMD0920. 

अङ्गं (a.ngaM)
Skt: अङ्गं (a.ngaM) - limb (s) - OnlineSktDict

अङ्गक aṅgaka
= अ ङ ् ग क
Skt: अङ्गक aṅgaka n. limb, body, member,
   small part [body], relating to the country aGga - SpkSkt
Skt: aṅgaka - aṅgaka n. a limb, member, body
  # (ikā), f. a bodice, a jacket L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅgakā - f. a shirt, bodice, short - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {n~ga.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0011

अङ्गज्वर  aṅgajvara
= अ ङ ् ग ज ् व र  
Skt: अङ्गज्वर  aṅgajvara - adj. causing fever - SpkSkt

Pal: aṅganā - f. a woman -- UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ga.na} - - UHS-PMD0012

अङ्गपच्चङ्ग aṅgapaccaṅga
Pal: अङ्गपच्चङ्ग aṅgapaccaṅga -  major and minor limbs - TamilCube-Pal

UKT: The above seems to be a compound of two words:
   Skt: अङ्ग (a.nga) - a limb, or body part - OnlineSktDict
   Pal: पच्चङ्ग paccaṅga - major and minor limbs - TamilCube-Pal
Note: Pali and Sanskrit seem are so close that once I write it down in Devanagari, I am unable to differentiate the two. Pal-Dev and Skt-Dev suffer from the same setback found in Bur-Myan: unnecessary compound words. What they need are "white-spaces" to break up such "compounds" - UKT110704


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अङ्गानि (a.ngaani)
Skt: अङ्गानि (a.ngaani) - limbs - OnlineSktDict

aṅgara ?
Bur: {n~ga} 2 - n. 1. same as {n~ga groh}. 2. Tuesday - MED2010-622

अञ्जसा ajasā = अ ञ ् ज स ा
Skt: अञ्जसा ajasā - indecl. instantly, soon, suddenly - SpkSkt

अङ्गानूसरी aṅgānūsarī
Pal: अङ्गानूसरी aṅgānūsarī - Pervading the limbs .
   This is the name of one of the vayus or airs contained in the human body - TamilCube-Pal

---following from TamilCube-Pal  http://www.dictionary.tamilcube.com/pali-dictionary.aspx

Pal: विनाम vināma - bending the body or limbs - TamilCube-Pal
Pal: विनामन vināmana - bending the body or limbs - TamilCube-Pal
Pal: छेज्ज chejja - fit to cut off ; liable to break . punishment by cutting off one's limbs - TamilCube-Pal
Pal: निग्रोधपरिमण्डल nigrodhaparimaṇḍala - having proportionate limbs like the circumference of a banyan tree - TamilCube-Pal
Pal: पञ्चमहापरिच्चाग ; pacamahāpariccāga ; fivefold great liberalities , viz: of the most value things , sons , wives , kingdoms , and limbs - TamilCube-Pal


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{n~gi.} अङ्गि : break up the conjunct to pronounce /अङ् गि/ // /{n~gi.}/
not entd in OnlineSktDict

UKT: I always have a feeling that writings in Bur-Myan script without white spaces to show the words (and syllables) make the Burmese speech difficult not only for the foreigners but the natives as well. Here we see the same problem in writings in Skt-Dev. The way in which the word अङ्गि is written does not show how to pronounce it. Insert a white space and it shows the word is a disyllabic word: /अङ् गि/ // /{n~gi.}/. My friend U Tun Tint of MLC agrees that white spaces are needed in Bur-Myan script to make reading easier. -- UKT110523

अङ्गी aṅgī
Pal: अङ्गी aṅgī - Having limbs ; having parts or divisions - TamilCube-Pal

अङ्गीकरण angīkarana
Skt: aṅgīkaraṇa ○ karaṇa  n. act of taking the side of, assenting, agreeing, promising - MonWilliWash
Skt: अङ्गीकरण angīkarana - n. concession; acquiescence. - Mac004
Pal: aṅgīkaraṇa - n. a promise, mutual consent, contract - UPMT-PED005
- not entd in UHS-PMD

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{n~gu.} अङ्गु

अङ्गुल (a.ngula) .
Skt: अङ्गुल (a.ngula) - a finger - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅgula - aṅgula m. (√ag or aṅg), a finger
  # the thumb # a finger's breadth, a measure equal to eight barley-corns,
     twelve aṅgulas making a vitasti or span, and twenty-four a hasta or cubit
  # (in astron.) a digit, or twelfth part # N. of the sage Cāṇakya L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅgula - mn. a finger, finger's breadth, inch - UPMT-PED005

अङ्गुली anguli
Skt: अङ्गुली anguli [ a&ndot;gul ] f. finger; toe; -mudr, f. finger-mark. -- Mac004
Skt: अङ्गुलि   aṅguli  f.   finger - SpkSkt
Skt: aṅguli - aṅgli is, (or aṅgulī), f. a finger
  # a toe # the thumb # the great toe
  # the finger-like tip of an elephant's trunk # the measure aṅgula - MonWilliWash
Pal: - not entd. in UPMT
Pal: {n~gu.li.} - - UHS-PMD0013

See my note on Angulimala .

अङ्गुलीमुद्रा   aṅgulīmudrā
Skt: अङ्गुलीमुद्रा   aṅgulīmudrā   f.   fingerprint -- SpkSkt
* Pal: {n~gu.li.moad~da} - - UHS-PMD0013

अङ्गुलीयक    aṅgulīyaka
Skt: अङ्गुलीयक    aṅgulīyaka  n.  finger ring - SpkSkt
Skt: अङ्गुरीयक anguriyaka [ a&ndot;guryaka ] n. finger-ring. -- Mac-004
Skt: aṅgulīyaka - aṅgulīyaka n. a finger-ring
  # also aṅgulīka L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅgulīyaka - mn. a finger-ring - UPMT-PED005 
Pal: {n~gu.li-ya.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0013

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अङ्गुष्ठ (a.ngushhTha)
Skt: अङ्गुष्ठ (a.ngushhTha) - the big toe - OnlineSktDict

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अङ्गुष्ठः (a.ngushhThaH)
Skt: अङ्गुष्ठः (a.ngushhThaH) - (m) thumb - OnlineSktDict

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The following are from Mac-004 with transliteration and simple ASCII transcription.

अङ्गिन्् angin - a. having members; having all members; -resources; m. living being. Mac-004

अङ्गिर ṅg-ira, ˚स्् - m. messenger between gods and me&ndot;
   (Agni being the chief of them);
   N. of a Rishi; a star in the Great Bear:
   pl. N. of the Atharva-veda and of a family of seers. - Mac004

अङ्गुरि anguri - f. finger; toe. - Mac004

अङगुल anagula - m. n. breadth of the thumb (as a measure=1/24 hasta);
    -ka, a. measuring (so many) finger-breadths (--ree;).

अङ्गुलित्र angulitra - n. (bowman's) finger guard; -trna, n. id.

अङ्गुलिपर्वन्् anguliparvan - n. finger-joint;
negana, n. water for washing the fingers;
n. finger-tip; -mudr, f. seal-ring;
tana, n. cracking the fingers.

अङ्गुलीय anguliya - n. finger-ring; -ka, n. id.; -mudrak, f. seal-ring.

अङ्गुल्यग्र angulyagra - n. finger-tip: -nakha, m. tip of finger-nail.

अङ्गुष्ठ angustha - m. thumb; breadth of the thumb (as a measure); great toe.

अङ्गुष्ठपर्वन्् angusthaparvan - n. thumb joint;
a. of the size of a thumb; -mla, n. root of the thumb.

अङ्गुष्ठ्य anguthya - a. pertaining to the thumb.

अङ्घ्रि anghri - m. foot; root; -pa, m. tree.

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Pal: aṅka-pālikā - f. nurse -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅka-vijjā - f. (√vid) arithmetic -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅkī - f. a long cask -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅkuṭa  - m. a key -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅkura - m. ( √ac) a sprout, shoot -- UPMT-PED004
Pal: अङ्कुर aṅkura - a shoot ; sprout ; bud - TamilCubeEPD
Pal: {n~ku.ra.} - - UHS-PMD-0011

Pal: aṅkuraka
Pal: aṅkuraka - m. a bird's nest -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅkusa - mn. ( √ac) a hook to guide an elephant with -- UPMT-PED004
Pal: अङ्कुस aṅkusa - a pole with a hook used for plucking fruits or to guide an elephant - TamilCubeEPD
Pal: {n~ku.a.} - - UHS-PMD0011

Pal: aṅkusa-ggaha - m. ( √gah) an elephant-driver, mahout -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅkola - m. name of a plant -- UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~kau:la.} - - UHS-PMD0011

UKT: The word {n~kau:la.} is made up of three syllables which I have coloured differently.

UKT: Look for Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wangerin subsp. hexapetalum Wangerin
   Alangium is a small genus of flowering plants. The genus is treated either in a broad view of the dogwood family Cornaceae, or as the sole member of its own family Alangiaceae. ... One species, Alangium chinense (Chinese: 八角枫; pinyin: bā jiǎo fēng), is considered one of the fifty fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alangium 110522
   See my note on Alangium salviifolium

Pal: aṅga - n. (√aṅg) a limb, member, body, division, quality, requisite - UPMT-PEDict004
Pal: {n~ga.} - - UHS-PMDict0011

Pal: aṅga-ggaha - m. ( √gah) disease -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-ja - n. ( √jā ) blood, love, hair, disease, offspring -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-ja - n. ( √jā) membrum virile  -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅgaṇa - (√aṅg) a courtyard, house floor, sin - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ga.Na.} - - UHS-PMD0011

Pal: aṅgti - m. brahmā, fire -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅgada - n. a dress with close fitting sleeves -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅganāppiya
Pal: aṅganāppiya - m. the amherstia tree -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅgapaccariga
Pal: aṅgapaccariga - n. limbs big and small -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-pāli
Pal: aṅga-pāli - m. embrace -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-m-aṅga
Pal: aṅga-m-aṅga - n. limbs big and small -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-madda
Pal: aṅga-madda - m. (√mad) a shampooer -- UPMT-PED004

Pal: aṅga-rakkhinī
Pal: aṅga-rakkhinī - f. (√rakkh) a coat of mail, robe -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅga-rāga
Pal: aṅga-rāga - m. ( √raj) besmearing the body with unguents -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅga-ruha
Pal: aṅga-ruha - n. (√ruh) the hairs of the body -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgaloṭa
Pal: aṅgaloṭa - m. green ginger -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgava
Pal: aṅgava - m. a dried fruit -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅga-vikati
Pal: aṅga-vikati - f. (√kar) a swoon, stupefaction, apoplexy -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅga-saṅga
Pal: aṅga-saṅga - m. (√saj) sexual intercourse -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅga-hāra
Pal: aṅga-hāra - m. (√har) deportment of the body  -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgāṅgi
Pal: aṅgāṅgi - n. boxing -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgādhipa
Pal: aṅgādhipa -m. (√pa) a king -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgāra
Pal: aṅgāra - mn. live coal, charcoal -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgāra-dhānikā
Pal: aṅgāra-dhānikā - f. a stove -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgāra-puppha
Pal: aṅgāra-puppha - m. (√phus) the plant canna indica  -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgāra-majarī - vallarī
Pal: aṅgāra-majarī - vallarī - f. a kind of tree -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgārikā
Pal: aṅgārikā - f. sugarcane, a butea flower -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgārinī
Pal: aṅgārinī - f. a small stove  -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgikā
Pal: aṅgikā - f. a shirt, bodice, shorts -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgīkaraṇa
Pal: aṅgīkaraṇa - n. a promise, mutual consent, contract -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgīrasa
Pal: aṅgīrasa - m. name of a buddha or a sage -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅguṭṭha
Pal: aṅguṭṭha - m. the thumb -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgula
Pal: aṅgula - mn. a finger, finger's breadth, inch -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgulitta
Pal: aṅgulitta - tāna - n. gloves -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅguli-pabba
Pal: aṅguli-pabba - n. a finger-joint -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅguli-motana
Pal: aṅguli-motana - n. the cracking of finger- joints -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgulīka - īya
Pal: aṅgulīka - īya - mn. a finger-ring -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgulī-sambhūta
Pal: aṅgulī-sambhūta - m. the finger-nails -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgulyābharaṇa
Pal: aṅgulyābharaṇa - n. a finger-ring -- UPMT-PED005

Pal: aṅgūsa
Pal: aṅgūsa - m. an arrow, elephant-goad -- UPMT-PED005

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UKT notes

Alangium salviifolium

From: http://www.herbsnspicesinfo.com/medicinal-herbs/alangium-salviifolium.aspx 110522

Botanical Name : Alangium salviifolium
English Name : Sage-leaf Alangium
Hindi Name : Ankol, Vang
Sanskrit Name : Ankol

Alangium salviifolium is a tree found in India. It is also found in Western Africa, Madagascar, Southern Asia, Philippines and tropical Australia, and the Pacific Islands .
   This tree is a member of Alangeceae plant family..
   This is tall thorny tree . It grows to a height of about 3 to 10 meters. The bark is ash colored, rough and faintly fissured. The leaves are elliptic oblong, elliptic lanceolate or oblong lanceolate. The flowers are greenish white, fascilcled, axillary or on old wood. The berries are ovoid, ellipsoid or nearly globose, glabrous, smooth and violet to purple. The flowering season is February to June.

Usage: In Ayurveda the roots and the fruits are used for treatment of rheumatism, and hemorrhoid.Externally it is used for the treatment of bites of rabbits, rats, and dogs.

Chemical compounds obtained: a- and b- Alangine, Alangicin, Marckindine, Tubulosin and emitine are obtained from this plant.

Go back Alangium-salviifolium-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angulimal 100211

Angulimala (Pāli: "garland of fingers") is an important early figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravada school. Depicted in the suttas as a ruthless killer who is redeemed by conversion to Buddhism, his story is seen as an example of the redemptive power of the Buddha's teaching and the universal human potential for spiritual progress.

Textual sources

Two texts in the Pali canon concern themselves with Angulimala's initial encounter with the Buddha and his conversion. The first is the Theragatha {ht-ra. ga-hta}, verses 866-91, and the second is the Angulimala Sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya. Both offer a fairly short description of Angulimala's encounter with the Buddha, and omit much of the background information later incorporated into the story (such as Angulimala being placed under an oath by a jealous teacher). These later additions- which appear in the sutta commentaries attributed to Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala (the Majjhima Nikaya commentary known as the Papancasudani (Ps) and the Therigatha commentary Paramattha-dipani (Pad), respectively)- may represent attempts by later commentators to "rehabilitate" the character of Angulimala- making him appear as a fundamentally good human being entrapped by circumstance, rather than as a vicious killer. The sutta texts themselves do not provide for any motive for Angulimala's actions, other than pure sadism.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theragatha 100305
The Theragatha (-gāthā), often translated as Verses of the Elder Monks (Pāli: thera elder (masculine) + gatha verse), is a Buddhist scripture, a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist sangha. In the Pali Canon, the Theragatha is classified as part of the Khuddaka Nikaya, the collection of short books in the Sutta Pitaka. Many of the verses of the Theragatha concern the attempts of monks to overcome the temptations of Mara. It consists of 264 poems, organized into 21 chapters. Notable texts from the Theragatha include the eighth poem of chapter sixteen, consisting of verses recited by the reformed killer Angulimala, and the third poem of chapter seventeen, in which the Buddha's cousin and retainer Ananda mourns the passing of his master. The natural companion to the Theragatha is the Therigatha, the Verses of the Elder Nuns.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therigatha 100305
The Therigatha, often translated as Verses of the Elder Nuns (Pāli: thera elder (feminine) + gatha verse), is a Buddhist scripture, a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist sangha. In the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, the Therigatha is classified as part of the Khuddaka Nikaya, the collection of short books in the Sutta Pitaka. It consists of 73 poems, organized into 16 chapters. Despite its small size, the Therigatha is a very significant document in the study of early Buddhism. The Therigatha contains a number of passages that re-affirm the view that women are the equal of men in terms of religious attainment, as well as a number of verses that seem to address issues that might be of particular interest to women in South Asian society. Included in the Therigatha are the verses of a mother whose child has died (Thig VI.1 and VI.2), a former prostitute who became a nun (Thig V.2), a wealthy heiress who abandoned her life of pleasure (Thig VI.5), and even of the Buddha's own stepmother, Maha Pajapati (Thig VI.6). An additional collection of scriptures concerning the role and abilities of women in the early sangha is found in the fifth division of the Samyutta Nikaya, known as the Bhikkhuni-samyutta.
   A number of the nuns whose verses are found in the Therigatha also have verses in the book of the Khuddaka Nikaya known as the Apadāna, often called the Biographical Stories in English. The majority of these have been translated into the English language.

The story: early life

According to the sutta and commentarial texts, omens seen at the time of Angulimala's birth (the flashing of weapons in the city, and the appearance of the 'constellation of thieves' in the sky) indicated that Angulimala would become a robber. Angulimala's father, the Brahmin chaplain to the king of Kosala, named him Ahimsaka ("harmless" - derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word Ahimsa), as an attempt to deter the dark fate predicted at his birth (Pad indicates that he was initially named Himsaka ("harmful"), but that the name was later changed).

Angulimala was sent to Taxila to study under a well-known Brahmin guru. There he excelled in his studies and became the teachers' favourite student, enjoying special privileges in his teachers' house. However, the other students grew jealous of Ahimsaka's speedy progress and sought to turn his master against him. To that end, they made it seem as though Ahimsaka had seduced the master's wife and boasted that he was wiser than the guru. Unwilling or unable to attack Ahimsaka directly (Pad states that Ahimsaka was as "strong as seven elephants", while Ps states that the teacher worried that his business would suffer if he was found to have murdered a student), the teacher said that Ahimsaka's training was complete, but that he must provide the traditional final gift offered to a guru before the teacher would grant his approval. As his payment, the teacher demanded 1,000 fingers, each taken from a different victim, thinking that Angulimala would be killed in the course of seeking this grisly prize (Pad states that Angulimala was required to fetch 1,000 fingers from right hands, seemingly unaware that this could be achieved by killing 200 people. Ps states, even more strangely, that he was told to "kill a thousand legs", and gathered fingers only as an aid to keeping an accurate count).

Sources indicate that one of his motivations may have been the unquestioning obedience to the guru - an echo of the higher principles governing his earlier life. But tradition reports that it was probably his innate disposition to violence. In his previous life, he was a Yakkha - a man-eating spirit with superhuman strength. The guru's instructions may have also aroused a strange attraction for killing, or could be seen as a challenge to his manly prowess. It was reported that in all his past lives, two traits were prominent: his physical strength and his lack of compassion.

It is also suggested that he was in fact cast out of his Guru's house, branding him an outcast among Brahmins. Being unable to find acceptance anywhere, he turned to brigandry, murdering pilgrims and traders passing through the wilderness, and collecting a finger each from their right hands.

As to the giving of goodbye gifts, this was customary in ancient India. We find an example in the Book of Pausya (Pausyaparvan, Mbh.1,3) of the Vedic epic Mahbhratha. Here the teacher sends his disciple Uttanka away after Uttanka has proven himself worthy of being trustworthy and in the possession of all the Vedic and Dharmashastric teachings. Uttanka says to his teacher: "What can I do for you that pleases you (kim te priyam karavni), because thus it is said: Whoever answers without (being in agreement with) the Dharma, and whoever asks without (being in agreement with) the Dharma (the Law in the literal sense of the word), either occurs: one dies or one attracts animosity." Friedrich Wilhelm (Prfung und Initiation im Buche Pausya und in der Biographie des Nropa, Wiesbaden 1965, p. 11) maintains that similar phraseology already occurs in the "Book of Manu" (II,111) and in the "Institutes of Vishnu". I.e., taking leave of one's teacher and promising to do whatever this teacher asks of you brings, according tot the Vedic teachings, enlightenment or similar attainment. It is therefore not unusual that Angulimla did his teacher's horrible biding, although being an good and kind person at heart, in the knowledge that in the end he would reap the highest attainment.

Life as a highway murderer

Ahimsaka became a highwayman, killing travelers who passed through the forest. When the people of the kingdom began to avoid the roads, he entered the villages and dragged people from their homes. He never took clothes or jewels from his victims, only fingers. To keep count of the number of victims that he had taken, he strung them on a thread and hung them on a tree. However because birds began to eat the flesh from the fingers, he started to wear them around his neck as a garland. Thus he came to be known as Angulimala ("garland (or necklace) of fingers").

Meeting the Buddha

Villagers petitioned the king of Kosala, who vowed to hunt down Angulimala. Fearing for her son's life, Angulimala's mother set out to find him and warn him of the king's intent. The Buddha perceived with his "divine eye" (faculty of clairvoyance) that Angulimala had slain 999 victims, and was desperately seeking a thousandth. If the Buddha encountered Angulimala that day, he would become a monk and subsequently attain Nirvana. If Angulimala encountered his mother instead, he would slay her as his thousandth victim and fall into hell for millennia as a matricide.

The Buddha set off to intercept Angulimala, despite being warned by the people of the village in which he was staying. On the road through the forest of Kosala, Angulimala first saw his mother who came to warn him of the impending arrival of the kings' army. Angulimala, after some deliberation, decided to make her his 1000th victim. But then when Buddha also arrived, he chose to kill him instead. He drew his sword, and started running towards the Buddha. But although Angulimala was running as fast as he could, he couldn't catch up with the Buddha who was walking calmly. "The Blessed One willed a feat of psychic power such that Angulimala, though running with all his might, could not catch up with the Blessed One walking at normal pace" (MN 86, translation from Thanissaro Bhikku). This bewildered Angulimala so much that he called to the Buddha to stop. The Buddha said that he himself had already stopped, and that it was Angulimala who should stop. Angulimala asked for further explanation, after which the Buddha said that he had stopped harming living beings, and that Angulimala was still harming and hurting living beings. After hearing this, Angulimala changed his ways, vowed to cease his life as a brigand and joined the Buddhist order.

Angulimala the monk

Later, King Pasenadi (the king of Kosala) set out to find and kill Angulimala. He stopped first to pay a visit to the Buddha and his followers at the monastery where they dwelled. He explained to the Buddha his purpose, and the Buddha asked how the king would respond if he were to discover that Angulimala had given up the life of a highwayman and become a monk. The king said that he would salute him and offer to provide for him in his monastic vocation. The Buddha then revealed that Angulimala sat only a few feet away, his hair and beard shaven off, a member of the Buddhist order. The king, astounded, offered to donate robe materials to Angulimala, and then returned to his palace.

Later, Angulimala came across a young woman undergoing a difficult labor. He went to the Buddha and asked him what he could do to ease her pain. The Buddha told Angulimala to go to the woman and say:

'Sister, since I was born I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this truth may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your fetus.'

Angulimala pointed out that it would be untrue for him to say this. The Buddha offered this revised stanza:

'Sister, since I was born with the noble birth (became a monk), I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this truth may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your fetus.'

The Buddha was making a word-play here on the word "born" to support Angulimala, who was suffering from severe remorse which was badly obstructing his meditation, of his renewed commitment to harmlessness since becoming a monk.

After Angulimala delivered this benediction, the woman safely gave birth to her child. This verse, commonly called the Angulimala paritta, continues to be recited at the blessings of houses or pregnant women in Theravada countries.

This helped Angulimala focus his mind on his basic meditation subject. Before, there would always appear in his mind's eye, the place in the jungle where he had slain so many people. After performing the Act of Truth, he was seen to bring safety to people and people started to approach him and provide him with almsfood.

At last, his earlier name Ahimsaka fully befitted him. Most of the people had gained full confidence in his inner transformation and there was no lack of support for him.

However a resentful few could not forget that he was responsible for the deaths of their loved ones. Unable to win revenge through the law, they took matters into their own hands. With sticks and stones, they attacked him as he walked for alms.

With a bleeding head, torn outer robe and a broken alms bowl, Angulimala managed to return to the monastery. The Buddha encouraged Angulimala to bear his torment with equanimity; he indicated that Angulimala was experiencing the fruits of the karma that would otherwise have condemned him to hell. This illustrates the Buddhist belief that while the effects of karma are inescapable, the form that they take and the schedule on which they occur can be modified by later actions in this case, Angulimala experienced physical suffering during the course of his last life, rather than experiencing torment in another birth for a much longer period of time.

Being an arahant, Angulimala remained firm and invulnerable in mind and heart. But his body, the symbol and fruit of previous kamma was still exposed to the effects of his former evil deeds. As an arahant, he needed no words of consolation, but a reminder of the kammic concatenation of cause and effect, which still has to be endured until the end.

When he entered Sāvatthi for alms, he was attacked by the mob, but on the admonition of the Buddha, endured their wrath as penance for his former misdeeds.

Meanings and interpretations

To the Theravada and Mahayana, Angulimala's story serves as an example that even the worst of people can undo the faults in their beings and return to the right path. The Theosophical viewpoint on this story is similar, and also includes that Karma must be repaid, but it is up to the individual as to how they react to their karma that will determine the change in their character. Even though Angulimala had repented and was enlightened, he still had to pay the karma of killing so many. He was peaceful and accepted what was done, and was therefore liberated from the Wheel of Rebirth.

Angulimala's story also illustrates the Buddhist belief that individuals can be reformed more readily through compassion than through punishment. As Angulimala says, "Some prisoners are tamed with punishment of a stick, or a hook or a whip. I was tamed without a stick or a weapon. I was tamed by the kind words of the Compassionate Buddha."

Richard F. Gombrich, in his paper Who was Angulimala?, has postulated that the story of Angulimala may represent an encounter between the Buddha and a follower of an early form of Saivite or Shakti tantra. Gombrich reaches this conclusion on the basis of a number of inconsistencies in the sutta text that indicate possible corruption (particularly the failure of the verses in the Theragatha to conform to accepted Pāli metrical schemes), and the fairly weak explanations for Angulimala's behaviour provided by the commentators. He notes that there are several other references in the early Pāli canon that seem to indicate the presence of devotees of Siva, Kali, and other divinities associated with sanguinary tantric practices, and that Angulimala's behaviour would not be inconsistent with certain violent practices that were observed in India by Thuggee-like transgressive cults into recent times. If Gombrich's thesis could be conclusively proven, it would establish the Angulimala Sutta as likely being the earliest known documentation of tantric practices in South Asia, about which very little is known before the 7th century CE.

Modern influences

In 1985, the British-born Theravada monk Venerable Ajahn Khemadhammo Mahathera founded ANGULIMALA: The Buddhist Prison Chaplaincy in England. It has been recognized by the British government as the official representative of the Buddhist religion in all matters concerning the British prison system, and provides chaplains, counseling services, and instruction in Buddhism and meditation to prisoners throughout England, Wales, and Scotland.

In 2003, Thai director Suthep Tannirat attempted to release a film entitled Ongkulimal (the Thai pronunciation of Angulimala) that re-told the story of the famous monk. Conservative Buddhist organizations in Thailand launched a protest, claiming that the movie distorted Buddhist teachings, and introduced Hindu and theistic influences not found in the source material. The Thai film censorship board rejected appeals to ban the film, but insisted that the director cut some violent material, and re-title the film to distance it further from its scriptural sources. Interestingly, what seemed to be most offensive to many was the fact that the director omitted commentarial information that depicted Angulimala as a hapless victim of the actions of others, and instead portrayed him (as the sutta does) as engaging in his violent behaviour of his own free choice.

In 2006, peace activist Satish Kumar retold the story of Angulimala in his short book, The Buddha and the Terrorist.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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The Six Vedangas

From: http://www.bookrags.com/research/vedgas-eorl-14/ 110629

VEDĀṄGAS. Vedāṅgas (Sanskrit, "limbs of the Veda") are subjects supplementary and subsidiary to the Vedas, the sacred texts of the pre-Hindu religion of ancient India. While the earliest sections of the Vedas date back to at least 1000 BCE, and probably earlier, the first works classified as Vedāṅga were composed not before the sixth or seventh centuries BCE, and the initial appearance of much of the classic literature of this genre is usually dated to no earlier than the fifth and fourth centuries BCE.

The Vedāṅgas are those subjects that were to be studied in order to correctly understand the Vedas and perform the rituals those texts enjoin. The texts categorized as Vedāṅgas are in the form of technical treatises written in the extremely condensed, aphoristic, and mnemonic style known as sūtra (literally "thread," referring to the idea that each aphorism is woven together with the others into a whole rather than tied sequentially into a linear chain). Because of the brevity and concision of their prose style, these works require further explication on the part of a teacher or through written commentary.

Although clearly appendages to the sacred Vedas, the Vedāṅgas were among the earliest texts to be categorized as smṛti, that is, "remembered" or traditional texts passed on from teacher to pupil and ultimately traceable back to a human author. While thus differentiated from the absolutely authoritative Vedas (which were classified as "revealed" or śruti, and regarded as not being the product of human beings), the Vedāṅgas are nevertheless often treated as approximating, if not fully equaling, the status of the Vedas themselves. The Vedāṅgas are, as one scholar has said, "at the same time without and within the Veda."

The Vedas and Vedāṅgas depict a religion entirely concerned with the performance, meaning, and implications of ritual and fire sacrifice. But as opposed to the often loosely structured hymns, myths, and speculative prose characteristic of the Vedas per se, the Vedāṅgas are precise, rationally and systematically organized, and highly technical.

The subjects covered in the six primary Vedāṅgas ritual action (kalpa), grammar (vyākaraṇa), phonology or phonetics (śikṣā), prosody (chandas), etymology (nirukta), and astrology and astronomy (jyotiṣa) all emerged out of necessities related to correct ritual performance. In this sense it can be said that all the earliest sciences of ancient India spring from ritual (and not, as in ancient Greece, for example, from mathematics). The Kalpasūtras are directly concerned with the rules for the correct performance of the ritual acts. Grammar, phonology, prosody, and etymology originated in order to ensure the proper and exact preservation and recitation of the Vedic mantras (inherently powerful verbal spells) that were an essential part of the performance of the ritual. And the science of jyotiṣa came into being to guarantee precision in the calculations for accurately timing the occurrences of the various rituals.

The Vedāṅgas, then, are "limbs" of the Vedas in that they help one correctly preserve, understand, and apply the material in those sacred texts. It is said in later texts that grammar is the mouth of the Vedas, etymology is its ears, ritual procedure is its hands, phonetics is its nose, prosody its feet, and astronomy/astrology its eyes.

Of the six primary Vedāṅgas, phonetics or Śikṣā (literally meaning "the study" or "teaching") is usually listed first and is regarded as the most important. Because the Vedas were preserved and transmitted orally, rules for precise pronunciation were crucial for maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the texts. Phonetics emerged as the first branch of linguistics, and its categories sound, accent, quantity, articulation, recital, and connection were fundamental for the subsequent development of linguistic studies. Important works on phonetics were composed by Pāṇini, Nārada, Vyāsa, and others.

Vyākaraṇa ("distinction," "separation") is so termed because grammar distinguishes roots, suffixes, and prefixes: it is the science that analyzes the parts and structure of a word and the method for such divisions. It also explains how correct words and sentences are formed from basic elements so that the intended meaning is clearly expressed, and is therefore also a crucial science for both the preservation and the understanding of the Vedas. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī  (Eight chapters) is the foundational text on grammar, along with important commentaries by Kātyāyanīputra (Kātyāyana) and Patan̄jali.

Chandas, or prosody, is the Vedāṅga that gives rules for the various meters in which the Vedas are recited, and lays out their classification and characteristics. The meters are divided into fourteen types ranging from those with twenty-four letters (the gāyatrī) to those with seventy-six. The word chandas is sometimes used a synonym for Vedic speech itself, as opposed to common language (bhāṣā).

According to tradition, there were originally some fourteen works of etymology included in the Vedāṅga designated Nirukta. Only one of these survives. The sole extant representative of the Vedāṅga dealing with etymology is the Nirukta by Yāska (dated ca. 500 BCE), which is a commentary on an older work (called the Nighantu) consisting of lists, groupings, and synonyms of words from the Ṛgveda. Yāska provides etymologies for these words and explanations of the stanzas from the Ṛgveda in which they occur. In the Nirukta, Yāska says he composed his text to insure that the correct meaning of the Veda is preserved even as people's abilities decline the further removed they are from the time of the original seers, who "heard" the Veda with direct intuitive insight. Without the aid of etymology, Yāska claims, the meaning of the Veda cannot be properly determined.

Vedic rituals were performed regularly at the various "junctures" of time: sunrise and sunset, the advent of new and full moons, the turn of the seasons, and the beginning of the new year. The ancient Indian science of astronomy developed out of the need for exact computations of the proper times for performing those rituals. Additionally, works on this subject also address what we would label astrology: the casting of horoscopes and predictions made on the basis of the location of the planets and stars, which helped the specialist adduce the most auspicious times for important events.

Finally, the Vedāṅga called Kalpa (from the Sanskrit root meaning "to prepare, design, arrange, or accomplish") consists of the rules and procedures for the actual performance of rituals. Kalpasūtras were produced by different ritual schools attached to one or another of the Vedas and are named after their mythical or semi-mythical founders (e.g., Baudhāyana, Āpastamba, etc.). A full Kalpasūtra consists of four principal components. First, there is the Śrautasūtra, which deals with the rules for performing the most complex rituals of the Vedic repertoire. Next comes the Gṛhyasūtra, which lays out the injunctions governing performance of the simpler "domestic" or household rituals. Third is the Dharmasūtra, which extends the reach of ruled, ritualized behavior to ethics and purity as they pertain to nearly every sector of daily life. Finally, a complete Kalpasūtra will also contain a Śulbasūtra that gives the rules of measurement for the construction of ritual altars. From this last component developed the Indian sciences of geometry, trigonometry, and algebra.

In addition to these six primary Vedāṅgas, four secondary "limbs" (upāṅgas) to Vedic literature are also sometimes listed: history (purāṇa), logic (nyāya), ritual exegesis (mimamsa), and teachings on religious duty (dharmaśāstra). To this list of four Vedas, six Vedāṅgas, and four Upāṅgas are added four so-called "secondary Vedas" (upavedas) medicine (āyurveda), the science of archery (dhanurveda), musicology (gandharvaveda), and political science (arthaśāstra) to complete the list of eighteen divisions of the literature of the "orthodox" tradition stemming from the Vedas.


For a summary of the Vedāṅgas, see Kanchi Kamkoti Peethadheeshwar, The Vedas and Vedangas, rev. ed. (Kumbakonam, India, 1988); Maurice [Moriz] Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, vol. 1 (1907; reprint, Delhi, 1981), esp. pp. 249270; Arthur A. Macdonnell, A History of Sanskrit Literature (London, 1913); and Arthur Berriedale Keith, The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads (Cambridge, Mass., 1925). For particular Vedāṅgas, consult (for the Kalpasūtras) Jan Gonda, The Ritual Sūtras (Wiesbaden, Germany, 1977); (for grammar, phonetics, and etymology), Hartmut Scharfe, Grammatical Literature (Wiesbaden, Germany, 1977); and (for astronomy/astrology), David Pingree's Jyotihśāstra: Astral and Mathematical Literature (Wiesbaden, Germany, 1981).

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Unusual rimes as indicators of intra-language transcription

-- UKT 110924

The rimes of the fricative-stops (r2) {ic} and {iz}, retroflex-stop (r3) {T}, and unusual nasals (c5) {ng}, {i}, {N} as codas are the most interesting in inter-transcription between Pali and Sanskrit, and serve as an introduction to BEPS Pali English Dictionary which I hope to write later - UKT110520. Click to see the entries in UPMT-PED, British Burma Press1920.

Here we see the {king:si:} orthography for the first time. I am wondering why the old Bur-Myan grammarians had chosen to put the {nga. t} on top of the following grapheme. Was it because these ancients of Old Pagan (or more properly of Tagaung) - the contemporaries of the Gupta period in India had noticed that this sound corresponding to the Devanagri-{nga.} was missing in Indian speeches, but present in Burmese. This conjecture of mine may be dismissed as just a day-dream. I am basing my argument on the fact that the Devanagari grapheme for /ŋ/ ङ , had to be borrowed from /ɖ/ ड and a dot added. Please note that I am in need of help from a phonetician. -- UKT110924

Please see Wikipedia for retroflex sounds in Indian languages: "Compare /d/ and /ɖ/. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured, also known as breathy voice [ɖ]." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_retroflex_plosive .

Hindi does not have the grapheme for /ŋ/ ङ . The grapheme had to be borrowed from /ɖ/ ड and a dot added. Contrast this observation with presence of dedicated graphemes in both Brahmi (Asoka) and Myanmar scripts. The Bur-Myan grapheme is of the same shape as the English <c>:  Brahmi has the same grapheme but in angular form.

{king:si:} is not indicated in Pali-Latin of U Pe Maung Tin, but is an outstanding feature in Pal-Myan of U Hoke Sein. It should not be mixed up with {a.nga.} . {king:si:} literally means 'ridden by a centipede'. The above shows three types of conjuncts for the same word.

The following two entries from A. A. Macdonell
Mac-004 ( http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416) and one from SpkSkt probably involving {king:si:} and / {I.}/{i.} with the pronunciation /{ain}/ need to be checked. The clue is the 'bear' . See UHS-PMD0189. Personal note:

अङ्गिन्् angin [UKT sp?] - a. having members; having all members; -resources; m. living being. -- Mac-004

अङ्गिन्  aṅgin - adj. having expedients, having limbs, corporeal, having subordinate parts, principal - SpkSkt

अङ्गिर ṅg-ira, ˚स्् [ -s ] m. messenger between gods and me&ndot ; (Agni being the chief of them) ; N. of a Rishi ; a star in the Great Bear : pl. N. of the Atharva-veda and of a family of seers . -- Mac-004

An added problem I am having stems from the numerous transcription and transliteration systems. I am relying more on the Devanagari spellings than on the English renditions. Another source of problem is due to the authors not differentiating the script (grapheme) from the speech (phoneme). It is accepted that all human speeches or sounds have about the same number of vowel phonemes - about a dozen. However those with the written scripts represent the vowel sounds with varying number of characters. Thus when we say that there are "eight vowels in Pali" what we actually mean is that there are only 8 characters (graphemes) to handle all the vowel sounds of Pali. -- UKT110517 , update 110703

"Pali has only 8 vowels" and {::ting} /aṅ/ is not one of them. The following are usually given as the vowels of Pali: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o . However, in terms of Devanagari, these vowels are written as three {a.wuN}-pairs and one {a.a.wuN}-pair. Each vowel is presented as a vowel-letter and a vowel-sign. The vowel-signs are used to form syllables with consonants. - UKT110703

{a.wuN}-pair: a अ {a.}/{aa.},  ā आ {a}/{aa} // --, ा
{a.wuN}-pair:  i इ {I.},  ī ई   {I} //  ि, ी
{a.wuN}-pair: u उ {U.},  ū ऊ / {U}// ु, ू 
{a.a.wunN}-pair:   e ए {}, o ओ {AU:} //  े, ो 

Though Pali has only 8 vowels, Burmese has more. According to A. W. Lonsdale it has the following 10 vowel-graphemes.

It looks as if there are 12 vowels in the above inset. Actually:
- the short-vowel of /u/ is given as   or , and - the vowel /au/ as or .

According to A. W. Lonsdale, the vowels {} and {au} are "distinctly Burmese, not to be found in Pali, although there are letters in Sanskrit nearly corresponding to them in sound."

The term {a.a.wunN}-pair:   e ए {}, o ओ {AU:} //  े, ो  is probably misleading for Bur-Myan, because the front-vowel pair [ {}] and [... {}] corresponding to {} and {:} has two or three registers each - the creak, modal, and emphatic: {.}, {}, {:} and {.}, {}, {:} . It is also similar for the back-vowel pairs: {o.} {o} {o:} and {au.} {au} {au:} .

See p004 of A. W. Lonsdale Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis, British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899.  The "near correspondence between Burmese and Sanskrit" has prompted me to suggest that Burmese must have come into contact with Sanskrit independently of Pali. Or, another conjecture: the grammars of Burmese and Magadhi/Pali of the Arigyi monks who King Anawrahta had uprooted in the 11th century must have been different from those found in Myanmar today and that U Hoke Sein's orthography, particularly the {king:si:}, is the remnant of the grammars of the Arigyis, and that U Pe Maung Tin has followed the International Pali derived from the Pali of Sri Lanka. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT110522.

[Note to HTML editor: be careful of how I have to avoid the tilde ~ and other signs to conform to DOS in giving file-names to my Romabama pix-fonts. {king:si:} as in- , and {::ting} as an02 . ]

I'm lucky to have found (110514) TamilCube English to Pali Online Dictionary which gives some Pali words in both Devanagari and English transcriptions. It is being used to check UPMT-PED as well.

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