Update: 2011-09-08 03:01 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{a.ra.} अर
{a.ra} अरा
{a.ri} अरि
{a.rau:} अरो

The grapheme {a.kri:} - {a.}, is the horizontal conjunct of two {a.l:}, {a.} . A hypothetical conjunct अञ्ञ (= अ ञ ् ञ) is usually pronounced as /ɪɲ.ɲa/ : the stressed syllable in Bur-Myan pronunciation is // {ing-a.}. Observation to be further checked - UKT100223 .

UKT notes

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{a.ra.} अर

अरण्यम् (araNyam.h) 
  Skt: अरण्य  araṇya  nforest, wilderness, desert - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: {a.ri~a.} - UHS-PMD0123
  Pal: अरञ्ञ  araa - n.  a  forest - UPMT-PED027
  -- UKT: The pronunciation // {ing-a.} and not // {n-a.}:
    waiting for comments from my peers. 100223
    अपचेतयति { अप- चित् }  apacetayati {apa- cit}  v.caus.  desert - SpkSkt

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अरण्यैकसः (araNyaukasaH) 
Skt: अरण्यैकसः (araNyaukasaH)  - OnlineSktDict

अरतिः (aratiH)
Skt: अरतिः (aratiH)   - OnlineSktDict

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{a.ra} अरा

अरागद्वेषतः (araagadveshhataH)
Skt: अरागद्वेषतः (araagadveshhataH)  - without love or hartred - OnlineSktDic

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{a.ri.} अरि

अरि (ari)
Skt: अरि (ari) - enemies - OnlineSktDic
Pal: {a.ri.} - UHS-PMD0125
Pal: अरि  ari  m.  an enemy - UPMT-PED027

अरिभाव (aribhaava)
Skt: अरिभाव (aribhaava)  - the 6th house in a Rashi or bhava chart - OnlineSktDic

अरिषु (arishhu)
Skt: अरिषु (arishhu)  - on enemies - OnlineSktDic

अरिष्टनेमिः (arishhTanemiH) .
Skt: अरिष्टनेमिः (arishhTanemiH) - the appellation to Garuda?- OnlineSktDic

See my note on Garuda .

अरिसूदन (arisuudana)
Skt: अरिसूदन (arisuudana) - O killer of the enemies - OnlineSktDic

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{a.rau:} अरो

अरोगित (arogita)

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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda 100414

The Garuda (Skt: Garuḍa गरुड, eagle; Pal: Garuḷa ; UKT: {ga.Lon}) is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology.

From an Indian perspective, Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila and the Brahminy kite is considered to be the contemporary representation of Garuda[1]

Other nations adopt a more stylistic approach to the Garuda's depiction, where it depicts an eagle (being much larger than a Brahminy kite) [2].

In Hinduism

In Hindu mythology, Garuda is a lesser Hindu divinity, usually the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu. Garuda is depicted as having the golden body of a strong man with a white face, red wings, and an eagle's beak and with a crown on his head. This ancient deity was said to be massive, large enough to block out the sun.

His stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanishad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him. Various names have been attributed to Garuda - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Tarkshya, Vainateya, Vishnuratha and others. The Vedas provide the earliest reference of Garuda, though by the name of Śyena, where this mighty bird is said to have brought nectar to earth from heaven. The Puranas, which came into existence much later, mention Garuda as doing the same thing, which indicates that Śyena (Sanskrit for Eagle) and Garuda are the same. One of the faces of Śrī Pacamukha Hanuman is Mahavira Garuda. This face points towards the west. Worship of Garuda is believed to remove the effects of poisons from one's body. In Tamil Vaishnavism Garuda and Hanuman are known as "Periya Thiruvadi" and "Siriya Thiruvadi" respectively.

In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - "Of birds, I am the son of Vinata (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda.

Garuda plays an important role in Krishna Avatar in which Krishna and Satyabhama ride on Garuda to kill Narakasura. On another occasion, Lord Hari rides on Garuda to save the devotee Elephant Gajendra. It is also said that Garuda's wings when flying will chant the Vedas.

In the Mahabharata

The story of Garuda's birth and deeds is told in the first book of the great epic Mahabharata.[3] According to the epic, when Garuda first burst forth from his egg, he appeared as a raging inferno equal to the cosmic conflagration that consumes the world at the end of every age. Frightened, the gods begged him for mercy. Garuda, hearing their plea, reduced himself in size and energy.

Garuda's father was the creator-rishi Kasyapa. His mother was Vinata, whose sister was Kadru, the mother of serpents. One day, Vinata entered into and lost a foolish bet, as a result of which she became enslaved to her sister. Resolving to release his mother from this state of bondage, Garuda approached the serpents and asked them what it would take to purchase her freedom. Their reply was that Garuda would have to bring them the elixir of immortality, also called amrita. It was a tall order. The amrita at that time found itself in the possession of the gods, who guarded it jealously, since it was the source of their immortality. They had ringed the elixir with a massive fire that covered the sky. They had blocked the way to the elixir with a fierce mechanical contraption of sharp rotating blades. And finally, they had stationed two gigantic poisonous snakes next to the elixir as deadly guardians.

Undaunted, Garuda hastened toward the abode of the gods intent on robbing them of their treasure. Knowing of his design, the gods met him in full battle-array. Garuda, however, defeated the entire host and scattered them in all directions. Taking the water of many rivers into his mouth, he extinguished the protective fire the gods had thrown up. Reducing his size, he crept past the rotating blades of their murderous machine. And finally, he mangled the two gigantic serpents they had posted as guards. Taking the elixir into his mouth without swallowing it, he launched again into the air and headed toward the eagerly waiting serpents. En route, he encountered Vishnu. Rather than fight, the two exchanged promises. Vishnu promised Garuda the gift of immortality even without drinking from the elixir, and Garuda promised to become Vishnu's mount. Flying onward, he met Indra the god of the sky. Another exchange of promises occurred. Garuda promised that once he had delivered the elixir, thus fulfilling the request of the serpents, he would make it possible for Indra to regain possession of the elixir and to take it back to the gods. Indra in turn promised Garuda the serpents as food.

At long last, Garuda alighted in front of the waiting serpents. Placing the elixir on the grass, and thereby liberating his mother Vinata from her servitude, he urged the serpents to perform their religious ablutions before consuming it. As they hurried off to do so, Indra swooped in to make off with the elixir. From that day onward, Garuda was the ally of the gods and the trusty mount of Vishnu, as well as the implacable enemy of snakes, upon whom he preyed at every opportunity.

According to the Mahabharata, Garuda had six sons from whom were descended the race of birds. The members of this race were of great might and without compassion, subsisting as they did on their relatives the snakes. Vishnu was their protector.[4]

Throughout the Mahabharata, Garuda is invoked as a symbol of impetuous violent force, of speed, and of martial prowess. Powerful warriors advancing rapidly on doomed foes are likened to Garuda swooping down on a serpent.[5] Defeated warriors are like snakes beaten down by Garuda.[6] The field marshall Drona uses a military formation named after Garuda.[7] Krishna even carries the image of Garuda on his banner.[8]

As the national symbol of Indonesia, it is somewhat intertwined with the concept of the phoenix and is symbolic of creative energy.

The Garuda Pancasila is coloured or gilt gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation and is a representation of the Elang Jawa or Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail and 45 on the neck, which represent the date Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield it carries with the Indonesian Panca Sila heraldry symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle.[9]

In Buddhism

In Buddhist mythology, the garuḍas (Pal: garuḷā); UKT: {ga.Lon}) are enormous predatory birds with intelligence and social organization. Another name for the garuḍa is suparṇa (Pal: supaṇṇa), meaning "well-winged, having good wings". Like the Nāgas, they combine the characteristics of animals and divine beings, and may be considered to be among the lowest devas.

The exact size of the garuḍa is uncertain, but its wings are said to have a span of many miles. This may be a poetic exaggeration, but it is also said that when a garuḍa's wings flap, they create hurricane-like winds that darken the sky and blow down houses. A human being is so small compared to a garuḍa that a man can hide in the plumage of one without being noticed (Kākātī Jātaka, J.327). They are also capable of tearing up entire banyan trees from their roots and carrying them off.

Garudas are the great golden-winged Peng birds. They also have the ability to grow large or small, and to appear and disappear at will. Their wingspan is 330 yojanas. One yojana is 40 miles long, so you can see how long 330 yojanas must be! With one flap of its wings, a Peng bird dries up the waters of the sea so that it can gobble up all the exposed dragons - big, little, young, and old! With another flap of its wings, it can level the mountains by moving them into the ocean.

Garudas have very great spiritual penetrations, and dragons used to fear them more than anything. But since the garudas have taken refuge with the Buddha, they live in peace with the dragons and don't eat them anymore. Chapter One of the Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra explains the four kinds of garudas.

There were also the four garuda-kings : Great-Power-Virtue Garuda-King, Great-Body Garuda-King, Great-Fulfillment Garuda-King, and Free-At-Will Garuda-King, each accompanied by hundreds of thousands of attendants.

The garuḍas have kings and cities, and at least some of them have the magical power of changing into human form when they wish to have dealings with people. On some occasions Garuḍa kings have had romances with human women in this form. Their dwellings are in groves of the simbalī, or silk-cotton tree.

The garuḍas are enemies to the Nāgas, a race of intelligent serpent- or dragon-like beings, whom they hunt. The garuḍas at one time caught the nāgas by seizing them by their heads; but the nāgas learned that by swallowing large stones, they could make themselves too heavy to be carried by the garuḍas, wearing them out and killing them from exhaustion. This secret was divulged to one of the garuḍas by the ascetic Karambiya, who taught him how to seize a nāga by the tail and force him to vomit up his stone (Pandara Jātaka, J.518).

The garuḍas were among the beings appointed by Śakra to guard Mount Sumeru and the Trāyastriṃśa heaven from the attacks of the asuras.

In the Mahasamyatta Sutta, the Buddha is shown making temporary peace between the Nagas and the garuḍas.

The Sanskrit word garuḍa has been borrowed and modified in the languages of several Buddhist countries. In Thai the word for a garuḍa is Krut (ครุฑ). In Burmese, garuḍas are called ga-lon {ga.Lon}. In Kapampangan the native word for eagle is Galura. In Japanese a garuḍa is called Karura (however, the form Garuda ガルーダ is used in recent Japanese fiction - see below).

For the Mongols, the garuḍa is called Khan Garuda or Khangarid (Mongolian: Хангарьд). Before and after each round of Mongolian wrestling, wrestlers perform the Garuḍa ritual, a stylised imitation of the Khangarid and a hawk.

In the Qing Dynasty fiction The Story of Yue Fei (1684), Garuda sits at the head of the Buddha's throne. But when a celestial bat (an embodiment of the Aquarius constellation) farts during the Buddhas expounding of the Lotus Sutra, Garuda kills her and is exiled from paradise. He is later reborn as Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. The bat is reborn as Lady Wang, wife of the traitor Prime Minister Qin Hui, and is instrumental in formulating the "Eastern Window" plot that leads to Yue's political execution.[10]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Garuda-note-b

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