Update: 2011-09-10 02:19 AM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{a.n}/{a.thn} असं
{a.a.}/{a.tha.}  अस
{a.a}/{a.tha} असा
{a.i.}/{a.thi.} असि
{a.u.}/{a.thu.} असु
{a.u}/{a.thu} असू
{a.Ri.}/{a.thRi.} असृ
{a.au}/{a.thau} असौ

UKT: The sound of Burmese-Myanmar and Pali-Myanmar r6c5 grapheme {a.}/{tha.} is one of the most misunderstood sounds for several reasons.
The English digraph problem. The English-Latin digraph <th> is realized in English words such as <thin> /θɪn/ and <that> /t/. The <th> in <thin> is a voiceless (vl.) interdental fricative with the sound /θ/ (thibilant sound), and <th> in <that> is its voiced counterpart. This digraph <th>, at least the vl., was written as the monograph <> in Old English and was known as the 'thorn' character. If only this thorn character had been in use today in modern English, we could easily transliterate the Burmese-Pali grapheme as {a.} and forget {tha.}.
Confusion with Devanagari r4c2 थ  th. It is common to transliterate Hindi-, Sanskrit-, or Pali- Devanagari थ as th (IAST transliteration). The equivalent of this grapheme in Burmese-Myanmar is {hta.}. Because of this confusion, the Pali-Myanmar word {ht-ra.} 'monk' is pronounced as {th-ra.} with the connected meaning 'alcohol'.
Second confusion from Devanagari . The r6c5 grapheme {a.}/{tha.} is equivalent of Sanskrit-Devanagari स sa . This has led most Western linguists to think that Burmese-Myanmar has the sound /s/ for {a.}/{tha.}. One went as far as to suggest (in personal communication) that in ancient Burmese, the sound was /s/ even though it is now pronounced as /θ/. See Zev Handel, "Rethinking the medials of Old Chinese: Where are the rs?" http://faculty.washington.edu/zhandel/Handel_r.pdf 091217

UKT notes
Asita Asura voiceless dental fricative {a.}/{tha.} /θ/

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{a.n}/{a.thn} असं 

असंन्यस्त (asa.nnyasta) 
Skt: असंन्यस्त (asa.nnyasta) -without giving up- OnlineSktDict

असंयता (asa.nyataa)
Skt: असंयता (asa.nyataa) -unbridled - OnlineSktDict

असंशयं (asa.nshayaM)
Skt: असंशयं (asa.nshayaM) -undoubtedly - OnlineSktDict

असंशयः (asa.nshayaH)
Skt: असंशयः (asa.nshayaH) -beyond a doubt - OnlineSktDict

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{a.a.}/{a.tha.} अस

असक्त (asakta)
Skt: असक्त (asakta) -unattached - OnlineSktDict

असक्तं (asaktaM)
Skt: असक्तं (asaktaM) -without attraction - OnlineSktDict

असक्तः (asaktaH)
Skt: असक्तः (asaktaH) -without attachment - OnlineSktDict

असक्तबुद्धः (asaktabuddhiH)
Skt: असक्तबुद्धः (asaktabuddhiH) -having unattached intelligence - OnlineSktDict

असक्तात्मा (asaktaatmaa)
Skt: असक्तात्मा (asaktaatmaa) -one who is not attached - OnlineSktDict

असक्तिः (asaktiH)
Skt: असक्तिः (asaktiH) -being without attachment - OnlineSktDict

असङ्ख्यः (asa.nkhyaH)
Skt: असङ्ख्यः (asa.nkhyaH) -(m) countless - OnlineSktDict

असङ्गशस्त्रेण (asa.ngashastreNa)
Skt: असङ्गशस्त्रेण (asa.ngashastreNa) -by the weapon of detachment - OnlineSktDict

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असत् (asat.h)
Skt: असत् (asat.h) -matter - OnlineSktDict

असतः (asataH)
Skt: असतः (asataH) -of the nonexistent - OnlineSktDict

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असत्कृतं (asatkRitaM)
Skt: असत्कृतं (asatkRitaM) -without respect - OnlineSktDict

असत्कृतः (asatkRitaH)
Skt: असत्कृतः (asatkRitaH) -dishonored - OnlineSktDict

असत्यं (asatyaM)
Skt: असत्यं (asatyaM) -unreal - OnlineSktDict

असदृषी (asadRishhii)
Skt: असदृषी (asadRishhii)  -unfit - OnlineSktDict

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असपत्नं (asapatnaM)
= अ स प त ् न ं
Skt: असपत्नं (asapatnaM) -without rival - OnlineSktDict

असमर्थः (asamarthaH)
Skt: असमर्थः (asamarthaH) -unable - OnlineSktDict

असम्प्ज्ञात (asampraGYaata)
Skt: असम्प्ज्ञात (asampraGYaata)  -unconscious samadhi - OnlineSktDict

असम्मूढः (asammuuDhaH)
Skt: असम्मूढः (asammuuDhaH) - undeluded - OnlineSktDict

असम्मूढाः (asammuuDhaaH)
Skt: असम्मूढाः (asammuuDhaaH) -unbewildered - OnlineSktDict

असम्मोहः (asammohaH)
Skt: असम्मोहः (asammohaH) -freedom from doubt - OnlineSktDict

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{a.a}/{a.tha} असा

असारं (asaaraM)  
Skt: असारं (asaaraM) -worthless/ without essence - OnlineSktDict

असावादित्यः (asaavaadityaH)
Skt: असावादित्यः (asaavaadityaH) -asau and AdityaH: this (person ) and Sun - OnlineSktDict

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{a.i.}/{a.thi.} असि

असि (asi)
Skt: असि (asi)  -you are - OnlineSktDict

अस्ति { अस् }  
= अ स ् त ि -- SpkSkt
  v. 1 Par   be
  v.2 Par  be, live, exist, be present, take place, to have, constitute

अस्ति { अस् }   asti {as}  he is/ she is/ it is [as] - SpSkt
  = अ स ् त ि

असितः (asitaH) -
Skt: असितः (asitaH) -Asita - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Asita - the hermit who foretold the Buddhahood

असिद्ध्योः (asid.hdhyoH)
Skt: असिद्ध्योः (asid.hdhyoH) -and failure - OnlineSktDict

असिद्धौ (asiddhau)
Skt: असिद्धौ (asiddhau)  -failure - OnlineSktDict

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{a.u.}/{a.thu.} असु

असुखं (asukhaM)
Skt: असुखं (asukhaM)  -full of miseries - OnlineSktDict

असुर asura (asura)
Skt: असुर asura (asura)  - devil - OnlineSktDict
Skt: असुर  asura  m. demon (sunless) ; evil spirit - SpkSkt

See my notes on Asura - demonized in Hinduism
but venerated as Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism.

असुराणां (asuraaNaaM)
Skt: असुराणां (asuraaNaaM) - of demons - OnlineSktDict

असुरान् (asuraan.h)
Skt: असुरान् (asuraan.h) - demons - OnlineSktDict

असुरक्षित  asurakṣita 
Skt: असुरक्षित  asurakṣita  adj.  insecure - SpkSkt

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{a.u}/{a.thu} असू

असू (asuu)
Skt: असू (asuu) - to hate, be jealous - OnlineSktDict

असून् (asuun.h)
Skt: असून् (asuun.h) - life - OnlineSktDict

असूया  (asuuyaa)
Skt: असूया  (asuuyaa)  - (f) envy - OnlineSktDict
Skt: असूया  asūyā  f.  envy - SpkSkt

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{a.Ri.}/{a.thRi.} असृ

असृज (asRij)
Skt: असृज (asRij)  - (neut) blood - OnlineSktDict

असृष्तान्नं (asRishhTaannaM)
Skt: असृष्तान्नं (asRishhTaannaM)  - without distribution of prasaadam - OnlineSktDict

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{a.au}/{a.thau} असौ

असौ (asau)
Skt: असौ (asau)  - him ( from adas.h) - OnlineSktDict

असौम्य (asaumya)
Skt: असौम्य (asaumya)  - (adj) unpleasant - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asita 100228

Asita was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BCE. He is best known for having predicted that Prince Siddhartha of Kapilavastu would either become a great king (chakravartin) or become a supreme religious leader (Buddha).

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.

From: Asita's Prediction , p.16-19, in The Life of Buddha , by Andre Ferdinand Herold, 1922, tr. from the French by Paul C. Blum, 1927. http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/lob/lob06.htm 100301

THE great hermit Asita, whose austerities were pleasing to the Gods, heard of the birth of him who was to save mankind from the torment of rebirth. In his thirst for the true law, he came to the palace of King Suddhodana and gravely approached the women's quarters. His years and his learning lent him great dignity.

pix from: http://media.photobucket.com/image/Asita/saddharakkhita_photo/F4copy.jpg 100415

The king showed him the courtesies that custom prescribed and addressed him in a seemly manner:

"Happy, indeed, am I! Truly, this child of mine will enjoy distinguished favor, for the venerable Asita has come purposely to see me. Command me. What must I do? I am your disciple, your servant."

The hermit, his eyes shining with the light of joy, gravely spoke these words:

"This has happened to you, O noble, generous and hospitable king, because you love duty and because you are ever kind to those who are wise and to those who are full of years. This has happened to you because your ancestors, though rich in land [{p17}] and rich in gold, were above all rich in virtue. Know the reason for my coming, O king, and rejoice. In the air I heard a divine voice speaking and it said: 'A son has been born to the king of the Sakyas, a son who will have the true knowledge.' I heard these words, and I came, and my eyes shall now behold the glory of the Sakyas."

Overwhelmed with joy, the king went to fetch the child. Taking him from his nurse's breast, he showed him to the aged Asita.

The hermit noticed that the king's son bore the marks of omnipotence. His gaze hovered over the child, and presently his lashes were wet with tears. Then he sighed and turned his eyes to the sky.

The king saw that Asita was weeping, and he began to fear for his son. He questioned the old man:

"You say, O venerable roan, that my son's body differs little from that of a God. You say that his birth was a wondrous thing, that in the future his glory will be supreme, yet you look at him with eyes that are filled with tears. Is his life, then, to be a fragile thing? Was he born only to bring me sorrow? Must this new branch wither before it has burst into flower? Speak, O saintly man, speak quickly; you know the great love a father bears his son."

"Be not distressed, O king," replied the hermit. [{p18}]

"What I have told you is true: this child will know great glory. If I weep, it is for myself. My life draws to a close and he is born, he who will destroy the evil of rebirth. He will surrender sovereign power, he will master his passions, he will understand truth, and error will disappear in the world before the light of his knowledge, even as night flees before the spears of the sun. From the sea of evil, from the stinging spray of sickness, from the surge and swell of old age, from the angry waves of death, from these will he rescue the suffering world, and together they will sail away in the great ship of knowledge. He will know where it takes its rise, that swift, wonderful, beneficent river, the river of duty; he will reveal its course, and those who are tortured by thirst will come and drink of its waters. To those tormented by sorrow, to those enslaved by the senses, to those wandering in the forest of existences like travellers who have lost their way, he will point out the road to salvation. To those burning with the fire of passion, he will be the cloud that brings refreshing rain; armed with the true law, he will go to the prison of desires where all creatures languish, and he will break down the evil gates. For he who will have perfect understanding will set the world free. Therefore do not grieve, O king. He alone is to be pitied who will not hear the voice of your son, and that is why [{p19}] I weep, I who, in spite of my austerities, in spite of my meditations, will never know his message and his law. Yes, even he is to be pitied who ascends to the loftiest gardens of the sky."

UKT: End of story.

From: http://www.vipassana.info/ay/asita.htm 100415

1. Asita.-Often called the Buddhist Simeon, though the comparison is not quite correct. He was a sage and the chaplain of Sīhahanu, father of Suddhodana. He was the teacher of the Suddhodana, and later his chaplain. He came morning and evening to see the king, Suddhodana, who showed him as great respect as he had while yet his pupil; this, we are told, is a characteristic of Sākiyan kings.

Simeon 1. In the New Testament, the devout Jew who proclaimed the Nunc Dimittis while holding the infant Jesus in his arms. - AHTD

With the king's leave, Asita renounced the world and lived in the king's pleasance. In due course he developed various iddhi powers. Thenceforward he would often spend the day in the deva worlds. Once, while in Tāvatimsa, he saw the whole city decked with splendour and the gods engaged in great rejoicing. On inquiry he learnt that Siddhattha Gotama, destined to become the Buddha, had been born. Immediately he went to Suddhodana's home and asked to see the babe. From the auspicious marks on its body he knew that it would become the Enlightened One and was greatly overjoyed, but realising that he himself would, by then, be born in an Arūpa world and would not therefore be able to hear the Buddha preach, he wept and was sad. Having reassured the king regarding the babe's future, Asita sought his sister's son, Nalaka, and ordained him that he might be ready to benefit by the Buddha's teaching when the time came. Later Asita was born in the Arūpa world (Sn., pp.131-36; SnA.ii.483ff.; J.i.54f).

According to Buddhaghosa (SnA.ii.483), Asita was so-called because of his dark complexion. He also had a second name, Kanha Devala (SnA.ii.487). Other names for him were Kanha Siri (Sn.v.689), Siri Kanha (SnA.487) and Kāla Devala (J.i.54).

He is evidently to be distinguished from Asita Devala, also called Kāla Devala.

The Lalita Vistara has two versions of Asita's prophecy, one in prose and one in verse, which, in their chief details, differ but slightly from the Pāli version. In the former his nephew is called Naradatta, and Asita himself is represented as being a great sage dwelling in the Himālaya but unknown to Suddhodana.

Here is evidently a confusion of his story with that of Asita Devala. In the Mahāvastu version (ii.30f) he is spoken of as the son of a brahmin of Ujjeni, and he lives in a hermitage in the Vindhyā mountains. It is noteworthy that in the Jātaka version he is called, not an isi, but a tāpasa, an ascetic practising austerities. And there we are told that when the king brought the boy, the future Buddha, and prepared to make him do reverence to the ascetic, the babe's feet turned up and placed themselves on the ascetic's head. For there is no one fit to be reverenced by a Bodhisatta, and had they put the babe's head at the feet of the ascetic, the ascetic's head would have split into seven pieces.

The tāpasa could see forty kappas into the past and forty kappas into the future. J.i.54-5. See Thomas, op. cit., pp. 38 ff., on the growth of the Asita legend.

UKT: End of the story.

Go back Asita-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asura 100414

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, the Asura (Skt: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes referred to as demons or sinful. They were opposed to the Devas. Both groups are children of Kasyapa. The views of Asuras in Hinduism vary due to the many deities who were Asuras then later became known as Devas. The name is cognate to Ahura indeed, the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes the use of the term in reference to Zoroastrianism, where "Ahura" would perhaps be more appropriate and sir, which implies a common Proto-Indo-European [PIE] origin for the Asura and the sir. In entry 48 of his Indogermanisches etymologisches Wrterbuch, Julius Pokorny reconstructs this common origin as *ansu-.

The negative character of the Asura in Hinduism seems to have evolved over time. In general, the earliest texts have the Asuras presiding over moral and social phenomena (e.g. Varuna, the guardian of Ṛt, or Bhaga, the patron of marriages) and the Devas presiding over natural phenomena (e.g. Ushas, whose name means "dawn", or Indra, Lord).

In later writings, such as the Puranas and Itihasas, we find that the "Devas" are the Godly beings and the "Asuras" the demonic ones. According to the Bhagavad Gita (16.6), all beings in the Universe partake either of the divine qualities (Daivi Sampad) or the demonic qualities (Asuri Sampad). The sixteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita describes the divine qualities briefly and the demonic qualities at length. In summary, the Gita (16.4) says that the Asuric qualities are pride, arrogance, conceit, anger, harshness, and ignorance.

The Padma Purana says that the devotees of Vishnu are endowed with the divine qualities (viṣṇu-bhaktaḥ smṛto daiva) whereas the Asuras are just the opposite (āsuras tad-viparyayaḥ).

In an Indo-Iranian context

The term Asura is linguistically related to the Ahuras of Zoroastrianism, but has in that religion a different meaning. For one, the term applies to a very specific set of divinities, only three in number (Ahura Mazda, Mithra and Apam Napat). For another, there is no direct opposition between the Ahuras and the Daevas: The fundamental opposition in Zoroastrianism is not between groups of divinities, but between Asha "Truth" and Druj "Lie/Falsehood". The opposition between the Ahuras and Daevas is an expression of that opposition: the Ahuras, like all the other Yazatas, are defenders of Asha; the Daevas on the other hand are in the earliest texts divinities that are to be rejected because they are misled by "the Lie" (see Daeva for details).

The notion of an "inverted morality" and the supposition that a dichotomy between Ahuras/Asuras and Daevas/Devas already existed in Indo-Iranian times is not supportable from either the Iranian or Indian perspectives. Not only is such a dichotomy not evident in the earliest texts of either culture, neither the RigVeda's Asuras nor the Gathas' Daevas are demons. The demonisation of the Asuras in India and the demonisation of the Daevas in Iran both took place "so late that the associated terms cannot be considered a feature of Indo-Iranian religious dialectology".[1]

The idea of a prehistorical opposition between the *Asurs/*Devs, originally presented in the 19th century but popularized in the mid-20th century had for some time already been largely rejected by Avesta scholars when a landmark publication (Hale, 1986[2]) attracted considerable attention among Vedic scholars. Hale discussed, "as no one before him" (so Insler's review[3]), the attestations of sura and its derivatives in chronological order of the Vedic texts, leading to new insights into how the Asuras came to be the demons that they are today and why the venerated Varuna, Mithra, Rudra, Agni, Aryaman, Pusan and Parjanya are all Asuras without being demonic. Although Hale's work has raised further questions such as how the later poets could have overlooked that the RigVeda's Asuras are all exalted Gods the theory of a prehistoric opposition is today conclusively rejected.

Following Hale's discoveries, Thieme's earlier proposal[4] of a single Indo-Iranian *Asura began to gain widespread support. In general (particulars may vary), the idea runs as follows: Indo-Iranian *Asura developed into Varuna in India and into Ahura Mazda in Iran. Those divinities closest related to that "Asura [who] rules over the Gods" (AV 1.10.1, cf. RV II.27.10) inherit the epithet, for instance, Rudra as Devam Asuram (V 42.11).

In Buddhism

Asuras also appear as a type of supernatural being in traditional Buddhist cosmology.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Go back asura-note-b

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voiceless dental fricative

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_dental_fricative 091217

The voiceless [vl.] dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet [IPA] that represents this sound is θ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is T. The IPA symbol is the Greek letter theta, which is used for this sound in Greek, and the sound is thus often referred to as "theta". It is familiar to English speakers as the <th> in <thing>.

The dental fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.

Among the more than 60 languages with over 10 million speakers, only English, Standard Arabic, Castilian Spanish (i.e., as spoken in Spain only), Burmese, and Greek have the voiceless dental fricative. [UKT ]

Speakers of languages and dialects without the sound [such as Sanskrit and central European speakers?] sometimes have difficulty producing or distinguishing it from similar sounds, and typically replace it with a voiceless alveolar fricative, voiceless dental plosive, or a voiceless labiodental fricative (known respectively as th-alveolarization, [1] th-stopping, [2] and th-fronting. [3])

UKT: Whenever Burmese is mentioned by a non-native Burmese-Myanmar, especially by a French and German, a red flag of caution goes up in my mind. The following are the descriptions and diagrams showing the POAs of the three fricatives arranged in the order usually given by IAST tables: श ष स


The above 4 diagrams of POAs are from Online Phonetics Course, Dep. of Linguistics, Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL), Switzerland. http://www.unil.ch/ling/english/index.html . Because of the geographic location of the location of the original educational establishment, I presume the author to be a central-European - someone who is very different ethnically from me.

CAUTION: As a native Burmese-Myanmar speaker, I don't agree with the diagrams, particularly Fig.3.14b and Fig.3.17. See my work Phonetics for Myanmar in my collection. - UKT 100310

Voiceless alveolar fricative (husher). /ʃ/ U0283 The tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge; the shape of the tongue is that described for hushers in general. Fig.3.19. (UNIL)

To my ear, /ʃ/ and (as in {U.hyic} Aegle marmelos - fam. Rutaceae. Common name: Bael Fruit) are the same. Yet, when I try to pronounce /ʃ/ with the tongue-tip touching the alveolar ridge, I found I couldn't. My tongue tip always touches the root of the lower teeth. Similarly for the /s/ given below, my tongue-tip is not on the alveolar ridge but down below touching the lower teeth. As for /θ/, the tongue is either between the upper and lower teeth (interdental) or just behind them. Unfortunately, didn't give a diagram for /θ/. As the matter stands, I will rely on my hearing (and forget the POA) and say that /ʃ/ and are the same. -- UKT 100310.

Voiceless alveolar fricative (hisser). /s/ U0073
The apico-alveolar hissers are produced by bringing the end of the tongue close to the alveolar ridge. Fig.3.17. 

Voiceless dental spirant. /θ/ U03B8. The tongue tip is held close to the upper teeth, either behind them (dental) or just underneath them (the interdental articulation).


Features of the voiceless dental fricative:

Its manner of articulation is simple fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence, but without the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.

Its place of articulation [POA] is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue on either the lower or the upper teeth, or both.

Its phonation type is voiceless [vl.], which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.

It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.


Language Word / IPA / Meaning / Notes
Albanian thot [θɔtə] 'to say'
Arabic : Standard [4] ثابت [ˈθaːbit] 'firm'  : See Arabic phonology
Amami -- [θeda] 'sun'
Arapaho -- [jɔːθɔn] 'bee'
Asu -- [iiθo] 'eye'
Berta -- [θɪ́ŋɑ̀] 'to eat'
Burmese {thon:} [θʊ̃] 'three' (UKT: Romabama entry is mine: IPA had a question mark)
Cornish eth [ɛθ] 'eight'
Emiliano-Romagnolo faza [ˈfaːθɐ] 'face'
English thin [θɪn] 'thin' : See English phonology
Galician cero [θeɾo] 'zero'
Greek θάλασσα [ˈθalasa] 'sea' : See Modern Greek phonology
Gweno -- [riθo] 'eye'
Gwichin thał  [θaɬ] 'pants'
Hn nihthn [nihθɑn] 'I want'
Harsusi -- [θəroː] 'two'
Hlai : Basadung -- [θsio] 'one'
Kabyle fa[faθ] 'to cut'
Karen : Sgaw -- [θ˧] 'three'
Karuk -- [jiθa] 'one'
Kickapoo -- [nɛθwi] 'three'
Kwama -- [mɑ̄ˈθl] 'to laugh'
Leonese ceru [θeɾu]  'zero'
Lorediakarkar -- [θar] 'four'
Massa -- [faθ] 'five'
Saanich ? [teθʔəs]  'eight'
Sardinian : Nuorese petha [pɛθa] 'meat'
Shark Bay -- [θar]  'four'
Shawnee nthwi   [nθwɪ] 'three' 
Sioux : Nakota ? [ktũˈθa] 'four'
Spanish : Castilian [5] cazar  [kaˈθar] 'to hunt' : See Spanish phonology 
Swahili thamini   [θɑmini] 'value'
Tanacross thiit [θiːtʰ] 'embers'
Toda -- [wɨnboθ] 'nine'
Turkmen sekiz   [θeki] 'eight'
Tutchone : Northern tho   [θo] 'pants'
Tutchone : Southern th   [θɨ] 'pants'
Upland Yuman : Havasupai -- [θerap] 'five'
Upland Yuman : Hualapai -- [θarap] 'five'
Upland Yuman : Yavapai -- [θerapi] 'five'
Welayta -- [ɕiθθa] 'flower'
Welsh saith[saiθ] 'seven'
Western Neo-Aramaic ? [θloːθa] 'three'


Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative

The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative (also known as "slit" fricatives) is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including <θ̠>, <θ͇> (retracted or alveolarized θ , respectively), or <ɹ̝̊> (constricted voiceless ɹ ).


Its manner of articulation is simple fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence, but without the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.

Its POA is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.

Its phonation type is vl. , which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.

It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.



Language Word / IPA / Meaning / Notes
English Scouse [6] and Hiberno-English attain [əˈθ̠eɪn] 'attain' : Allophone of /t/ . See English phonology
Icelandic  aki [θ̠aki̠] 'roof' : See Icelanddic phonology

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