Update: 2011-09-09 11:37 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{aSh} अश्  /ʃ/
{aSh~ta.} {arh~ta.} {ahy~ta.}
{aSh~na.} {arh~na.} {ahy~na.} अश्नत
{aSh~ma. {arh~ma.}  {ahy~ma.} अश्म
{aSh~ya.} {arh~ya.} {ahy~ta.}
{aSh~ra. {arh~ra.}  {ahy~ra.}
 {aSh~la. {arh~la.}  {ahy~la.}
 {aSh~wa. {arh~wa.}  {ahy~wa.}

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UKT notes :

In these entries you'll notice that we need to kill the inherent vowel of श. Thus, this phoneme is clearly not a medial but a basic akshara in its own right, and we need to assign a dedicated grapheme to it, and that the official {ra.ha.hto:} and semi-official {a.ya.ping.ha.hto:} graphemes are not appropriate.

Asvattaha (Ficus religiosa)
Ashvini (अश्विनी = अ श् वि नी) {a.a.wa.ni}
Ashvamedha 'horse sacrifice' (अश्वमेध = अ श ् व म े ध )
Ashwatthama (अश्वत्थामा = अ श ् व त ् थ ा म ा ) : a Kaurava warrior

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{aSh~ta.}  {arh~ta.}  {ahy~ta.}
no entry in OnlineSktDict

Skt: अशीतितम   aśītitama   adj.   eightieth - Spk Skt


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{aSh~na.} {arh~na.} {ahy~na.} अश्नत

अश्नतः (ashnataH)
= अ श ् न त ः
Skt: अश्नतः (ashnataH) - of one who eats - OnlineSktDict

अश्नन् (ashnan.h)
Skt: अश्नन् (ashnan.h) - eating - OnlineSktDict

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अश्नन्ति (ashnanti)
Skt: अश्नन्ति (ashnanti) - enjoy - OnlineSktDict

अश्नामि (ashnaami)
Skt: अश्नामि (ashnaami) - accept - OnlineSktDict

अश्नासि (ashnaasi)
Skt: अश्नासि (ashnaasi) - you eat - OnlineSktDict

अश्नते (ashnute)
Skt: अश्नते (ashnute) - achieves - OnlineSktDict

अश्नाति { अश् } aśnāti  {aś}  v.9  get, enjoy, eat

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{aSh~ma. {arh~ma. {ahy~ma.} अश्म

अश्म (ashma)
  Skt: अश्म (ashma) - stone - OnlineSktDict
  * Pal: asmā  m.  a stone  -  UPMT-PED029

अश्मन् (ashman.h)
Skt: अश्मन् (ashman.h) - (masc) stone - OnlineSktDict
  Skt: अश्मन्  aśman  n.  stone  - SpkSkt

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no entry in OnlineSktDict

अस्यति { अस् }   asyati {as}  v.4  throw, cast, shoot at, drive away, frighten away -- SpSkt
UKT: The pronunciation is not derived from {aSh~ya.}: अस्यति = अ स ् य त ि .
It is // {a.ya.ti.}

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{aSh~ra. {arh~ra.}  {ahy~ra.}

अश्रद्दधानः (ashraddadhaanaH)
Skt: अश्रद्दधानः (ashraddadhaanaH) - without faith in revealed scriptures - OnlineSktDict

अश्रद्दधानाः (ashraddadhaanaaH)
Skt: अश्रद्दधानाः (ashraddadhaanaaH) - those who are faithless - OnlineSktDict

अश्रद्धया (ashraddhayaa)
Skt: अश्रद्धया (ashraddhayaa) - without faith - OnlineSktDict

अश्रु (ashru)
Skt: अश्रु (ashru) - (n) tears - OnlineSktDict

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अश्रूपूर्णाकुल (ashruupuurNaakula)
Skt: अश्रूपूर्णाकुल (ashruupuurNaakula) - full of tears - OnlineSktDict

अश्रौषं (ashraushhaM)
Skt: अश्रौषं (ashraushhaM) - have heard - OnlineSktDict

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 {aSh~la. {arh~la.}  {ahy~la.}

अश्लाघ्य (ashlaaghya)
= अ श ् ल ा घ ् य
Skt: अश्लाघ्य (ashlaaghya) - adj. virtueless - OnlineSktDict

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 {aSh~wa. {arh~wa.}  {ahy~wa.}

अश्व (ashva) = अ श ् व 
Skt: अश्व (ashva) - a horse - OnlineSktDict
Pal: assa  m.  a horse, corner - UPMT-PED029
 Pal: {~a.} 3 entries - UHS-PMD0150

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अश्वत्थं (ashvatthaM)
Skt: अश्वत्थं (ashvatthaM) - a banyan tree - OnlineSktDict

अश्वत्थः (ashvatthaH) 
Skt: अश्वत्थः (ashvatthaH) - the banyan tree - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Asvattaha


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अश्वत्थामा (ashvatthaamaa) .
Skt: अश्वत्थामा (ashvatthaamaa) - Asvatthama - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Ashwatthama (a Kaurava warrior).


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अश्वमेध aśvamedh (ashvamedha) . See my notes on Ashvamedha
Skt: अश्वमेध aśvamedh (ashvamedha) - a form of sacrifice where a horse is sent around
  to establish supremacy - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अश्वमेध  aśvamedha  m.  horse-sacrifice, sacrifice of a horse - SpkSkt
Pal: assamedha - m.  horse-sacrifice - UPMT-PED029
Pal: {~a.m-Da.} - UHS-PMD0151

अश्वानां (ashvaanaaM)
Skt: अश्वानां (ashvaanaaM) - among horses - OnlineSktDict

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अश्विनि (ashvini) . UKT: Differentiate from अश्विनी (ashvinii).
Skt: अश्विनि (ashvini) - a mudraa, contraction of the anal sphincter muscles - OnlineSktDict

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अश्विनौ (ashvinau)
Skt: अश्विनौ (ashvinau) - the two Asvinis - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अश्विनी {ash-wi.ni},
Pal: {a.a.wa.ni} [CAUTION: English transcription is misleading.]

See my notes on Ashvini

आश्विन āśvina m. September-October
अश्विनोत्तरार्ध  aśvinottarārdha n. October
आश्विनपूर्वार्ध  āśvinapūrvārdha n. September

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UKT notes


From: http://www.sanathanadharma.com/symbol/asvattha.htm 100515

The asvattha (Fiscus religiosa), the holy fig tree, is said to have issued forth from Indra and is considered to be the best of trees. The eternal tree of life with its branches below (in this world) and the roots above (in god) is described as an asvattha in the Hindu scriptures. There is a celestial asvattha tree under which the gods gather. So, the holy men, gods on earth, are fond of sitting under an asvattha tree. It is supposed to be endowed with magical powers. Childless women worship it and circumambulate it with the hope and faith of being granted children. Its wood is made use of, for preparing the sacrificial fire (through arani) .

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 091031

Ashvini (अश्विनी) (Horse Woman) (अ श ् व ि न ी) [Nakshatra (नक्षत्र = न क ् ष त ् र ) number 1 of 27]

Western star name : β and γ Arietis
Lord : Ketu (South lunar node)
Symbol : Horse's head
Deity : Ashwini Kumaras, the horse-headed twins who are physicians to the gods
Indian zodiac : 0 - 1320' Mesha ; Western zodiac 26 Aries - 920' Taurus
The moon in Ashvini indicates a person who is a pioneer, innovator and explorer, who is heroic, courageous, restless, impatient, with a zest for life. They have a strong desire to be of service to others. They are energetic, magnetic and attractive, and are quick in speech and actions. However, they can also be inconsiderate and irresponsible.

Asvins or Aswins

From: http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/concepts/aswins.asp 100515

The Asvins or Ashvins or Aswins are twin deities whose origin is shrouded in myth, mystery and symbolism. They are possessors of horses, harbingers of the goddess of dawn Ushas, and knowers of the secrets of plant life. A number of hymns are addressed to them because of their healing and curative powers. They are said to descend to earth thrice a day to help the mankind with their restorative and curative powers. The Asvins are considered to be the brothers of Usha, the goddess of dawn and may actually represent twilight, when darkness and light appear intertwined on the horizon just before dawn as well as before dusk. They are praised in the hymns as wonder workers, physicians of gods, with nimble hands and miraculous healing powers, bestowing beauty and health upon the worshippers. In the epic Mahabharata, they were responsible for the birth of Nakula and Sahadeva, the handsome twins who had rare skills in rearing and taming horses.

The Rigvedic hymns describe them as lords of hundred powers, who constantly strive to do good to others. They can make the blind and lame see and walk, the injured recover quickly from their afflictions, help men produce offspring or the cows yield more milk. They can reduce the heat in the human body, cure the septic sores, store the germ of life in female creatures and perform even surgery. Traveling in a chariot with three spokes, they come down to the earth thrice a day carrying with them heavenly medicines. Symbolically they are considered to the semidarkness before dawn. Because of their benevolence they  are invariably invoked during vedic sacrifics. In the Hindu iconography, the asvins are usually depicted as handsome young men with the heads of horses.

UKT: More in the original article.

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From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvamedha 100227

The Ashvamedha (अश्वमेध aśvamedh; " horse sacrifice") [Pal: assamedha - m.  horse-sacrifice - UPMT-PED029] was one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 2225[1] and the pertaining commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.15). The Rigveda does have descriptions of horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda.

Gayatri Pariwar have been organising performances of a modernised version of the sacrifice, not involving actual animal sacrifice, since 1991.

Vedic sacrifice

The Ashvamedha could only be conducted by a king (rājā). Its object was the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom.

The horse to be sacrificed must be a stallion, more than 24, but less than 100 years old. The horse is sprinkled with water, and the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer whisper mantras into its ear. Anyone who should stop the horse is ritually cursed, and a dog is killed symbolic of the punishment for the sinners. The horse is then set loose towards the North-East, to roam around wherever it chooses, for the period of one year (or half a year, according to some commentators). The horse is associated with the Sun, and its yearly course. If the horse wanders into neighbouring provinces hostile to the sacrificer, they must be subjugated. The wandering horse is attended by a hundred young men, sons of princes or high court officials, charged with guarding the horse from all dangers and inconvenience. During the absence of the horse, an uninterrupted series of ceremonies is performed in the sacrificer's home.

After the return of the horse, more ceremonies are performed. The horse is yoked to a gilded chariot, together with three other horses, and RV 1.6.1,2 (YV VSM 23.5,6) is recited. The horse is then driven into water and bathed. After this, it is anointed with ghee by the chief queen and two other royal consorts. The chief queen anoints the fore-quarters, and the others the barrel and the hind-quarters. They also embellish the horse's head, neck, and tail with golden ornaments. The sacrificer offers the horse the remains of the night's oblation of grain.

After this, the horse, a hornless he-goat, a wild ox (go-mrga, Bos gavaeus) are bound to sacrificial stakes near the fire, and seventeen other animals are attached to the horse. A great number of animals, both tame and wild, are tied to other stakes, according to a commentator 609 in total (YV VSM 24 consists of an exact enumeration).

Then the horse is slaughtered (YV VSM 23.15, tr. Griffith)

Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifice and accept thyself.
Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee.

The chief queen ritually calls on the king's fellow wives for pity. The queens walk around the dead horse reciting mantras. The chief queen then has to mimic copulation with the dead horse, while the other queens ritually utter obscenities.[2]

On the next morning, the priests raise the queen from the place where she has spent the night with the horse. With the Dadhikra verse (RV 4.39.6, YV VSM 23.32), a verse used as a purifier after obscene language.

The three queens with a hundred golden, silver and copper needles indicate the lines on the horse's body along which it will be dissected. The horse is dissected, and its flesh roasted. Various parts are offered to a host of deities and personified concepts with cries of svaha "all-hail". The Ashvastuti or Eulogy of the Horse follows (RV 1.162, YV VSM 24.2445), concluding with:

May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring
Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship!

The priests performing the sacrifice were recompensed with a part of the booty won during the wandering of the horse. According to a commentator, the spoils from the east were given to the Hotar, while the Adhvaryu a maiden (a daughter of the sacrificer) and the sacrificer's fourth wife.

The Shatapatha Brahmana emphasizes the royal nature of the Ashvamedha:

Verily, the Asvamedha means royal sway: it is after royal sway that these strive who guard the horse. (ŚBM trans. Eggeling 1900)

It repeatedly states that "the Asvamedha is everything" (ŚBM trans. Eggeling 1900)

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Ashwatthama : a Kaurava warrior

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashwatthama 100227

In the Indian epic Mahābhārata, Ashwatthama (अश्वत्थामा, Aśvatthāmā) or Ashwatthaman (अश्वत्थामन्, Aśvatthāman) was the son of guru Dronacharya. He is one of the seven Chiranjeevins. Dronacharya loved him dearly. Rumours about his death in the Kurukshetra war led to the death of his father by the hands of Prince Dhrishtadyumna.

Ashwatthama had led a devastating campaign against the Pandavas who were repeatedly saved from annihiliation by Krishna's interference and subterfuge in the battle of Kurukshetra. [UKT ]

The various means of deceit adopted by the Pandavas in winning the war had deeply aggrieved Ashwatthama. Seeking justice for the dishonorable slaying of his father Acharya Drona as also the treacherous attack on Duryodhana that resulted in his mortal injuries, Ashwatthama swore vengeance to his dying king Duryodhana. He promised to kill the Pandavas and restore the balance of power that had been so grossly upset by Krishna's favoritism.

On the last night of the war, after Duryodhana's defeat, a very disturbed and restless Ashwatthama was resting sleepless under a large tree. He observed how an owl, attacked and harrassed by crows in the morning, attacked back at night. He surmised that war was best fought from a position of strength. He gathered the only other surviving Kaurava warriors, Kritavarma and Kripacharya, and attacked the Pandava camp.

The Kaurava warriors were initially thwarted by a demon Krishna had employed to guard the Pandava camp. This demon was so powerful that the Kaurava warriors exhausted every means of subduing it. Ashwatthama decided to pray to Lord Shiva, his patron God, and offer himself as sacrifice. Lord Shiva was so impressed by his ardour that he appeared in person and blessed Ashwatthama. He said that the Pandavas were successful in winning the war only because Lord Shiva, out of his enormous love for Krishna, had kept his protective hands over them. However now their time was over and they too would need to die. He then blessed Ashwatthama that whoever faced him that night would die. Upon this, Lord Shiva handed Ashwatthama his own sword and entered his body.

Ashwatthama entered the Pandava camp and wreaked havoc. Dhristadumnya, was kicked to his death. Shikhandi, and thousands of other Pandava warriors were mercilessly put to the edge of Ashwatthama's sword and perished. Those to tried fleeing Ashwatthama's wrath were hacked down by Kripacharyya and Kritavarma who were positioned at the camp's entrance. Ashwatthama sustained numerous wounds and injuries in this battle but nothing could stop him from executing his vow.

Owing to Krishna's deceit, Ashwatthama tragically killed Draupadi's five sons believing them to be the five Pandava brothers. He was also misled by a hermit at whose ashram the Pandava brothers and Krishna were hiding out of fear of death. After destroying the entire Pandava camp Ashwatthama retreated to Sage Vyasa's ashram.

Next morning, the Pandavas instigated by Draupadi and Krishna decided to attack Ashwatthama. After reminding the Pandavas that he was unarmed and meditating as per his Bramhanical tradition, Ashwtthama realised that the Pandava brothers would not stop their attack unless he killed them and enacted his vow. Using his sacred knowledge of the Vedas, Ashwatthama devised a Bramhashira from a blade of grass, and invoked it against the Pandavas and Krishna. Arjuna being trained by the murdered Acharya Drona in the same weapon, was the only person who could respond to Ashwatthama's Bramhashira. Acting on Krishna's advice he invoked it against Ashwatthama.

Seeing the two powerful weapons heading for a catastrophic collision that would result in the end of the world, the sages asked for the weapons to be withdrawn. Arjuna seeing that the war had been won and that the weaponless Ashwtthama could be subdued by the numerically superior Panadava brothers, readily chose to withdraw his weapon. However Ashwtthama steadfastly refused, saying that his own death did not matter to him and that his vow to the dying Duryodhana would be honoured. Saying this he directed the Bramhashira at the wombs of the Pandava women so that their clan would be annihiliated just like the Kauravas had been.

It is believed that Krishna revived Abhimanyu's son who was destroyed in his mother's womb by Ashwatthama's weapon. It is also believed that acting on the advice of many sages Ashwatthama handed over his gemstone to Sage Vyasa who in turn handed it to Yudhisthira who was weak and characterless without it. Whilst many believe that Ashwatthama was cursed into exile by Krishna, facts tend to indicate that Ashwatthama was so disgusted at the conduct of the decisive Kurukshetra war that he decided to leave India and migrate to the land now known as the Arabian peninsula.

Legend says that an old fort near Burhanpur, India called Asirgarh has a Lord Shiva temple on top where Ashwatthama offers a red rose everyday to Lord Shiva early in the morning.

Ashwatthama was one of the three survivors of the Kaurava army, along with Kritavarma and Kripacharya. He is believed to be an incarnation of Rudra, later day Shiva, who voluntarily consumed the poison of vengeance without concern about its consequences. Ashwatthama is destined to be one of the seven saptarishis in the next manavantara.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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