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TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

we2-178b3-6.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{w} वे
{wt~ta.} वेत्त = व े त ् त
{w:} वै

 

UKT notes
Four Vedas vaishya वैश्य - traders & merchants Vaisravana (Kubera) Veda religion Vedanta

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{w} वे
p178b3-6

वेगं (vegaM)
Skt: वेगं (vegaM) - urges - OnlineSktDict

वेगः (vegaH)
Skt: वेगः (vegaH) - (m) speed - OnlineSktDict

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p178b4

वेणी (veNii)
Skt: वेणी (veNii) - (f) pigtail, pony tail - OnlineSktDict

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p178b4-2

वेणुः (veNuH)
Skt: वेणुः (veNuH) - flute - OnlineSktDict

वेतनम् (vetanam.h)
Skt: वेतनम् (vetanam.h) - (n) salary - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: vetana - n. hire, wages - UPMT-PED204

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{wt~ta.} वेत्त = व े त ् त
p179top

वेत्त (vetta)
Skt: वेत्त (vetta) - the knower - OnlineSktDict

वेत्ति (vetti)
Skt: वेत्ति (vetti) - knows - OnlineSktDict

वेत्थ (vettha)
Skt: वेत्थ (vettha) - know - OnlineSktDict

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p179top-2

वेद (veda)
Skt: वेद (veda) - Ancient Indian Religious Texts - OnlineSktDict
Pal: veda - m. knowledge, emotion, Veda - UPMT-PED204

See my note on the Four Vedas

वेदः (vedaH)
Skt: वेदः (vedaH) - (masc.nom.sing.) the Veda - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Veda religion

वेदक्रम (vedakrama)
Skt: वेदक्रम (vedakrama) - vedaas - OnlineSktDict

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p179top-3

वेदना (vedanaa)
Skt: वेदना (vedanaa) - feelings of pain- OnlineSktDict
Pal: vedana - fn. sensation, feeling, perception - UPMT-PED204

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p179top-4

वेदयज्ञ (vedayaGYa)
Skt: वेदयज्ञ (vedayaGYa) - by sacrifice - OnlineSktDict

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p179top-5

वेदवादरताः (vedavaadarataaH)
Skt: वेदवादरताः (vedavaadarataaH) - supposed followers of the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

वेदवित् (vedavit.h)
Skt: वेदवित् (vedavit.h) - the knower of the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

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p179b1

वेदविदः (vedavidaH)
Skt: वेदविदः (vedavidaH) - person conversant with the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

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p179b1-2

वेदाः (vedaaH)
Skt: वेदाः (vedaaH) - Vedic literatures - OnlineSktDict

वेदानां (vedaanaaM)
Skt: वेदानां (vedaanaaM) - of all the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

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p179b1-3 

वेदान्त (vedaanta)
Skt: वेदान्त (vedaanta) - Vedic method of Self-Realisation - OnlineSktDict

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p179b1-4

वेदान्तकृत् (vedaantakRit.h)
Skt: वेदान्तकृत् (vedaantakRit.h) - the compiler of the Vedanta - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Vedanta

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p179b1-5 

वेदान्तवेद्यो (vedaantavedyo)
Skt: वेदान्तवेद्यो (vedaantavedyo) - one knowable thro' ' upanishat.h' - OnlineSktDict

वेदितव्यं (veditavyaM)
Skt: वेदितव्यं (veditavyaM) - to be understood - OnlineSktDict

वेदितुं (vedituM)
Skt: वेदितुं (vedituM) - to understand - OnlineSktDict

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p179b1-6

वेदे (vede)
Skt: वेदे (vede) - in the Vedic literature - OnlineSktDict

वेदेषु (vedeshhu)
Skt: वेदेषु (vedeshhu) - Vedic literatures - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2

वेदैः (vedaiH)
Skt: वेदैः (vedaiH) - by study of the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2-2

वेद्यं (vedyaM)
Skt: वेद्यं (vedyaM) - what is to be known - OnlineSktDict

वेद्यः (vedyaH)
Skt: वेद्यः (vedyaH) - knowable - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2-3 

वेधस् (vedhas.h)
Skt: वेधस् (vedhas.h) - brahmaa - OnlineSktDict

वेधसे (vedhase)
Skt: वेधसे (vedhase) - to the Brahman (like rAma) - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2-4

वेपथुः (vepathuH)
Skt: वेपथुः (vepathuH) - trembling of the body - OnlineSktDict

वेपथुमथी (vepathumathii)
Skt: वेपथुमथी (vepathumathii) - she who is sweating - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2-5

वेपमानः (vepamaanaH)
Skt: वेपमानः (vepamaanaH) - trembling - OnlineSktDict

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p179b2-6

वेला (velaa)
Skt: वेला (velaa) - (fem) time - OnlineSktDict
Pal: vela - n. a garden. f. time, shore, boundary, multitude - UPMT-PED205

वेश (vesha)
Skt: वेश (vesha) - dress - OnlineSktDict
Pal: vesa - m. dress, appearance, equipment, disguise - UPMT-PED205

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p179b3

वेषः (veshhaH)
Skt: वेषः (veshhaH) - make-ups, garbs, roles -  OnlineSktDict

वेष्टिः (veshhTiH)
Skt: वेष्टिः (veshhTiH) - (m) dhoti - OnlineSktDict

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{w:} वै
p179b3-2

वै (vai)
Skt: वै (vai) - emphasis - OnlineSktDict

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p179b3-3

वैकुण्ठ (vaikuNTha)
Skt: वैकुण्ठ (vaikuNTha) - the abode of Vishnu - OnlineSktDict

वैकुण्ठाधिपती (vaikuNThaadhipatii)
Skt: वैकुण्ठाधिपती (vaikuNThaadhipatii) - ruler of vaikuNTha which is Vishnu - OnlineSktDict

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p179b3-4

वैक्लव्यं (vaiklavyaM)
Skt: वैक्लव्यं (vaiklavyaM) - (Nr.Nom.sing) sorrow - OnlineSktDict

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p179b3-5

वैद्यः (vaidyaH)
Skt: वैद्यः (vaidyaH) - doctor- OnlineSktDict

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p179b3-6

वैध (vaidha)
Skt: वैध (vaidha) - (adj) legal - OnlineSktDict

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p179b3-7

वैनतेयः (vainateyaH)
Skt: वैनतेयः (vainateyaH) - Garuda - OnlineSktDict

वैमानिकः (vaimaanikaH)
Skt: वैमानिकः (vaimaanikaH) - (m) pilot - OnlineSktDict

वैद्युतानल   vaidyutānala
Skt: वैद्युतानल   vaidyutānala  m. fire of lightning - SpkSkt

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p179b4

वैयक्तिक (vaiyaktika)
Skt: वैयक्तिक (vaiyaktika) - (adj) personal  - OnlineSktDict

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p179b4-2

वैयाकरण (vaiyaakaraNa)
Skt: वैयाकरण (vaiyaakaraNa) - Grammar - OnlineSktDict

वैयाकरणस्यैषः (vaiyaakaraNasyaishhaH)
Skt: वैयाकरणस्यैषः (vaiyaakaraNasyaishhaH) - to the grammarian + this - OnlineSktDict

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p180top 

वैर (vaira)
Skt: वैर (vaira) - enmity - OnlineSktDict

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p180top-2

वैराग्य (vairaagya)
Skt: वैराग्य (vairaagya) - uncolouredness, not desiring physical objects - OnlineSktDict

वैराग्यं (vairaagyaM)
Skt: वैराग्यं (vairaagyaM) - renunciation - OnlineSktDict

वैराग्येण (vairaagyeNa)
Skt: वैराग्येण (vairaagyeNa) - by detachment - OnlineSktDict

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वैराज्य (vairaajya)
Skt: वैराज्य (vairaajya) - excellent rulership - OnlineSktDict

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वैरिणं (vairiNaM)
Skt: वैरिणं (vairiNaM) - greatest enemy - OnlineSktDict

वैरिषु (vairishhu)
Skt: वैरिषु (vairishhu) - on enemies - OnlineSktDict

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p180top-5

वैशेशिका (varisheshikaa)
Skt: वैशेशिका (varisheshikaa) - one of the schools (systems) of Indian philosophy - OnlineSktDict

वैश्य (vaishya).
Skt: वैश्य (vaishya) - the cast of merchants and professionals - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: vessa - m. one of the merchant class - UPMT-PED205

See my notes on vaishya .

वैश्यः (vaishyaH)
Skt: वैश्यः (vaishyaH) - mercantile people - OnlineSktDict

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p180b1

वैश्रवण (vaishravaNa).
Skt: वैश्रवण (vaishravaNa) - son of Vishravas (typically applied only to Kubera) - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on (vaishravaNa)

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p180b1-2

वैश्वानरः (vaishvaanaraH)
Skt: वैश्वानरः (vaishvaanaraH) - My plenary portion as the digesting fire - OnlineSktDict

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p180b1-3

वैष्णव (vaishhNava)
Skt: वैष्णव (vaishhNava) - a large sect of followers of Sri Vishnu - OnlineSktDict

वैज्ञानिकः (vaiGYaanikaH)
Skt: वैज्ञानिकः (vaiGYaanikaH) - (m) scientist - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

The Four Vedas

From New Advant - the Catholic Encyclopedia :
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15318a.htm 110805

Vedas:
The sacred books of ancient India. The Sanskrit word veda means "knowledge", more particularly "sacred book". In its widest sense the term designates not only the sacred texts, but also the voluminous theological and philosophical literature attached thereto, the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, and Sutras (see BRAHMINISM). [UKT ]

But usually the term veda applies only to the four collections (Samhitas) of hymns and prayers composed for different ritualistic purposes: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda. Of these only the first three were originally regarded as canonical; the fourth attained to this position after a long struggle. [UKT ]

The language of the Vedas is an artificial literary language fully perfected, and is not a mere popular dialect. In this respect it resembles the later classical Sanskrit, from which it differs considerably in phonology and inflections. Though differences exist in the language of the four Vedas, still there is such agreement on cardinal points as against later Sanskrit that the term Vedic, which is in common use for the oldest form of the language of India, is amply justified.

UKT: My stipulation is that Vedic and classical Sanskrit are not only different but they belong to different language families: Vedic to the the Tib-Bur group, and the classical Sanskrit to the IE group. And that Vedic is similar to the Pal-Myan found in the country of Myanmar. Peoples from present day India and northern Myanmar have not only common language roots (particularly in the articulation of the vowels) but also in beliefs in worship of nature gods and goddess and in particular the worship of the Naga. The ideas of Myanmar Waizzar-religion which hides under Theravada Buddhism seems to be very similar to the Vedic religion. Before King Anawratha uprooted the pre-Theravada practices in the 11th century, drinking a ritualistic drink {-r} (equated to the Vedic Soma) was drunk in religious feasts. -- UKT110805

 

The Rig-Veda

("Veda of verses"; from ric, or before sonants rig, "laudatory stanza") is the oldest and most important of these collections. In its present form it contains 1028 hymns (including eleven supplementary ones in the eighth book), arranged in ten mandalas (cycles), or books, which vary in extent, only the first and tenth being approximately equal. The poems themselves are of different authorship and date from widely different periods. According to the generally accepted view the oldest of them dates back to 1500 B.C., when the Aryan conquerors spread over the Punjab in Northern India and occupied the land on both sides of the Indus. The texts themselves show that the collection is the result of the work of generations of poets, extending over many centuries. Books II to VII inclusive are each the work of a single poet, or rishi (seer), and his descendants; hence they are aptly called "family books". Book III is attributed to the family of Vishvamitra, IV to that of Vamadeva, V to that of Vasishtha. [UKT ]

The hymns in books I and X are all composed by different families. The ninth consists exclusively of hymns addressed to Soma, the deified plant, the juice of which was used for the Soma sacrifice. Books II to VII are the oldest, and book X the most recent, in point of origin.

The monotony of the Rig-Veda is due not only to the nature of its mythological content, but also to the fact that hymns to the same deity are usually grouped together. Thus, approximately 500 hymns are addressed to two gods alone: Indra, the god of lightning and storms, and Agni, the god of fire. The element of nature- worship is a marked feature in most of the hymns, with are invocations of different deities. The value of the great collection as presenting the earliest record of the mythology of an Indo-European people is apparent. Several of the gods go back to the time of Indo-Iranian unity, e.g. Yama (the Avestan Yima), Soma (haoma), Mitra (the later Persian Mithra). Some of the divinities, especially the higher ones, still exhibit the attributes which enable us to trace their origin to the personification of natural phenomena.  [UKT ]

Thus Indra personified thunder , Agni fire, Varuna the sea, Surya the sun, Ushas the dawn, the Maruts the storm, and others were of a somewhat similar character. [UKT ]

UKT: Hindu Indra, though similar to Buddhist Sakka are not the same. They are very different in temperament and outlook. Indra is a wrathful vengeful god who is to be feared. Sakka is more peaceful and is loved and revered as a Waizzar {Bo:tau thi.kra:ming:}. See an {ing:} invoking him on the right. - UKT110805

Indra was the favourite god of the Vedic Aryans; almost one fourth of all the hymns in the Rig-Veda are addressed to him and they are among the best in the collection. Next to Indra stands Agni. The hymns in his praise are often obscure in thought and turgid in phraseology and abound in allusions to a complicated ritual. Many hymns are in honour of Soma. Other gods invoked are the two Ashins, somewhat resembling the Diocsuri of ancient Greece, the terrible Rudra, Parjanya the rain-god, Vayu the wind-god, Surya the sun-god, Pushan the protector of roads and stray kine. Prayers are also addressed to groups of divinities like the Adityas and the Vishve Devas (all the gods). Only a few hymns sing the praise of Vishnu and of Shiva in his earlier form as Rudra, though these two deities became later the chief gods of the Hindu pantheon. Goddesses play a small part, only Ushas, the goddess of dawn, has some twenty hymns in her honour; these poems are of exceptional literary merit.

The number of secular hymns are small, but many of them are of particular interest. They are of various content. In one (book X, 34) a gambler laments his ill luck at dice and deplores the evil passion that holds him in his grasp. In the same book (X, 18) there occurs a funeral hymn, from which important information may be gained concerning the funeral rites of the Vedic age. Evidently cremation was most in vogue, though burial was also resorted to. There are also some riddles and incantations or prayers exactly like those in the Atharva-Veda. Historical references are occasionally found in the so-called danastutis (praises of gifts), which in most cases are not independent poems, but laudatory stanzas appended to some ordinary hymn, and in which the poet gives thanks for generosity shown to him by some prince. Some six or seven hymns deal with cosmogonic speculations. It is significant that some of the hymns, chiefly in book X, are cast in the form of a dialogue. Here we may possibly discern the beginnings of the Sanskrit drama. The poetry of the Rig-Veda is neither popular nor primitive, as it has been erroneously considered, but is the production of a refined sacerdotal class and the result of a long period of cultural development. It was intended primarily for use in connection with the Soma sacrifice, and to accompany a ritual, which, though not so complicated as at the time of the Brahmanas, was far from simple. The Rig-Veda has come down to us in only one recension, that of the Shakala school. Originally there were several schools: The "Mahabhashya" (great commentary), about the second century B.C., knows of twenty-one, while some later writings know of two only. In these schools the transmission of the hymns was most carefully attended to; a most elaborate mnemonic system was devised to guard against any changes in the sacred text, which has thus come down to us practically without variants.

Editions of the Rig-Veda were published by Max Muller, "Rig- Veda-Samhita with the Commentary of Sayancharya" (6 vols., London, 1849-74; 2nd ed., 4 vols., 1890-95); "The Hymns of the Rig-Veda in the Samhita and Pada Texts" (2nd ed., 2 vols., London, 1877); Aufrecht, "Samhita Text", in Roman characters (2nd ed., Bonn, 1877); selections in Lanman's "Sanskrit Reader" (Boston, 1884); Bothlingk, "Sanskrit-Chrestomathie" (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1897); Windisch, "Zwolf Hymnen des Rig-Veda", with Sayana's commentary (Leipzig, 1883). Translations were made into: English verse by Griffith (2 vols., Benares, 1896-97); selections in prose by Max Muller in "Sacred Books of the East", XXXII (Oxford, 1891); continued by Oldenburg, ibidem, XLVI (1897); German verse by Grassmann (2 vols., Leipzig, 1876-77); German prose by Ludwig (6 vols., Prague, 1876-88). On the Rig-Veda in general see: Kaegi, "The Rig-Veda", tr. Arrowsmith (Boston, 1886); Odenberg, "Rig- Veda", books I-Vi in "Gttinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften", new series, XI (Berlin, 1909).

The Sama-Veda

("Veda of chants") consists of 1549 stanzas, taken entirely (except 75) from the Rig-Veda, chiefly from books VIII and IX. Its purpose was purely practical, to serve as a textbook for the udgatar or priest who attended the Soma sacrifice. The arrangement of the verses is determined solely by their relation to the rites attending this function. The hymns were to be sung according to certain fixed melodies; hence the name of the collection. Though only two recensions are known, the number of schools for the veda is known to have been very large. The Sama- Veda was edited: (with German tr.) by Benfey (Leipzig, 1848); by Satyavrata Samashrami in Bibl. Ind. (Calcutta, 1873); Engl. tr. by Griffith (Benares, 1893).

The Yajur-Veda

("Veda of sacrificial prayers") consists also largely of verses borrowed from the Rig-Veda. Its purpose was also practical, but, unlike the Sama-Veda, it was compiled to apply to the entire sacrificial rite, not merely the Soma offering. There are two recensions of this Veda known as the "Black" and "White" Yajur-Veda. The origin and meaning of these designations are not clear. The White Yajur-Veda contains only the verses and sayings necessary for the sacrifice, while explanations exist in a separate work; the Black incorporates explanations and directions in the work itself, often immediately following the verses. Of the black there are again four recensions, all showing the same arrangement, but differing in many other respects, notably in matters of phonology and accent. By the Hindus the Yajur-Veda was regarded as the most important of all the Vedas for the practice of the sacrificial rites. The four recensions of the Yajur-Veda have been separately edited: (1) "Vajasaneyi Samhita" by Weber (London and Berlin, 1852), tr. Griffith (Benares, 1899); (2) "Taittiriya S." by Weber in "Indische Studien", XI, XII (Berlin, 1871-72); (3) "Maitrayani S." by von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1881-86); "Kathaka S." by von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1900-09).

The Atharva-Veda

("Veda of the atharvans or fire priests") differs widely from the other Vedas in that it is not essentially religious in character and not connected with the ritual of the Soma sacrifice. It consists chiefly of a variety of spells and incantations, intended to curse as well as to bless. There are charms against enemies, demons, wizards, harmful animals like snakes, against sickness of man or beast, against the oppressors of Brahmans. But there are also charms of a positive character to obtain benefits, to insure love, happy family-life, health and longevity, protection on journeys, even luck in gambling. Superstitions from primitive ages were evidently current among the masses. To some of the spells remarkably close parallels can be adduced from Germanic and Slavic antiquity. The Atharva-Veda is preserved in two recensions, which, though differing in content and arrangement, are of equal extent, comprising 730 hymns and about 6000 stanzas, distributed in twenty books. Many of the verses are taken from the Rig-Veda without change; a considerable part of the sayings is in prose. The books are of different age; the first thirteen are the oldest, the last two are late additions. Book XX, consisting entirely of hymns in praise of Indra, all taken from the Rig-Veda, was undoubtedly added to give the Atharva's connection with the sacrificial ceremonial and thus to insure its recognition as a canonical book. But this recognition was attained only after a considerable lapse of time, and after the period of the Rig-Veda. In the "Mahabharata" the canonical character of the Atharva is distinctly recognized, references to the four Vedas being frequent. Though as a whole this collection must have come into existence later than the Rig-Veda, much of its material is fully as old and perhaps older. For the history of religion and civilization it is a document of priceless value. The Atharva-Veda has been edited by Roth and Whitney (berlin, 1856); Engl. tr. in verse by Griffith (2 vols., Benares, 1897); prose by Bloomfield in "Sacred Books of the East", XLII; by Whitney, revised by Lanman (2 vols., Cambridge, Mass, 1905). Consult Bloomfield, "The Atharaveda" in "Grundriss der Indoarischen Philologie", II (Strasburg, 1899).

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Vaishya वैश्य - Traders and Merchants

UKT: The pronunciation of the word वैश्य (vaishya) has always been a problem for me, until I realized that वैश्य (vaishya) begins with the sound approximating {w:} वै or IPA /vɛː/ . I am waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT 100130 .

From: http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/India/Class_Caste.html 100130
See also: http://www.csuchico.edu/~cheinz/syllabi/asst001/spring98/4.htm 100130

Third in the caste system, the Vaishya's duty was to ensure the community's prosperity through agriculture, cattle raising and trade. Later, the Shudras (or lower working class) took over agriculture and cattle rearing while the Vaishyas became traders and merchants. The Vaishya were said to have come from Braham's thighs.

Young men of this caste also studied with a guru (teacher) to learn the holy texts and become "twice born".

From the end of the 4th century BC, as the country became politically stable, trade routes to previously uncharted areas developed. The merchant community was the first to benefit. Artisans formed guilds (like a "trade union") and co-operatives in the urban areas. Guild leaders became important figures in society. Guilds also provided technical education, though formal education remained the monopoly of the Brahmins. As their economic power increased, they were expected to give alms (food and money) to Brahmins, throw feasts for them, and donate generously towards the building of temples and shrines.

Even though they were educated about the holy texts and economically strong because they controlled commerce, Vaishyas were denied a high social status, for which they resented the upper castes. One expression of this resentment was their support of the anti-Brahminical sects that developed around the 6th century BC, like Buddhism and Jainism.

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Vaiśravaṇa (vaishravaNa)  वैश्रवण
Kubera  कुबेर

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubera 100201

Kubera (Skt कुबेर) (also Kuvera or Kuber) is the king of the Yakshas and the lord of wealth in Hindu mythology. He is also known as Dhanapati, the lord of riches[1]. He is one of the Guardians of the directions , representing the Uttara-disha, meaning north of 4 directions in Sanskrit.

Kubera is also the son of Sage Vishrava (hence he is also called Vaisravana) and in this respect, he is also the elder brother of the Lord of Lanka, Ravana[2].

Kubera's house was believed to be the abode of Adilakshmi, the goddess of wealth who, pleased by his devotion, gave him immense wealth making him nideesha or the keeper of riches. Kubera also credited money to Vishnu for his marriage with Padmavati[3]. In remembrance of this, the reason devotees going to Tirupati donate money in Venkateshwara's Hundi so that he can pay back to Kubera. According to the Vishnupuran this process will go on till the end of Kali yuga.

Those who worship Lord Kubera will get His blessings, He also stablises to be with every individual with good strength, better business sufficient inflow of money, education, industiral growth etc. Auspious date to worship Lord Kubera is between Oct 15th Nov. 15 (Tamil Month Iyppasi). Thursday is the most auspicious day with star Pusa. He faces Northern direction.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisravana 100201

Vaiśravaṇa (Skt वैश्रवण) or Vessavaṇa (Pāli वेस्सवण, Sinhala වෛශ්‍රවණ) also known as Jambhala, is the name of the chief of the Four Heavenly Kings and an important figure in Buddhist mythology.

The name Vaiśravaṇa is derived from the Sankrit viśravaṇa "Great Fame"[1].

Vaiśravaṇa is also known as Kubera (Sanskrit) or Kuvera (Pāli), and as Jambhala (Sanskrit).[2][3]

Other names include:

多聞天 (simplified characters: 多闻天): Chinese Duō Wn Tiān, Korean Damun Cheonwang (다문천왕), Japanese Tamonten. The characters mean "Much hearing god" or "Deity who hears much".
毘沙門天: Chinese Pshāmn Tiān, Japanese Bishamonten. This is a representation of the sound of the Sanskrit name in Chinese (Vaiśravaṇ → Pishamen) plus the character for "heaven" or "god".
Tibetan: རྣམ་ཐོས་སྲས (rnam.thos.sras [Namthse])
Mongolian: (Баян) Намсрай (Bayan) Namsrai
Thai: ท้าวกุเวร or ท้าวเวสสุวรรณ (Thao Kuwen or Thao Vessuwan)

The character of Vaiśravaṇa is founded upon the Hindu deity Kubera, but although the Buddhist and Hindu deities share some characteristics and epithets, each of them has different functions and associated myths. Although brought into East Asia as a Buddhist deity, Vaiśravaṇa has become a character in folk religion and has acquired an identity that is partially independent of the Buddhist tradition (cf. the similar treatment of Kuan Yin and Yama).

Vaiśravaṇa is the guardian of the northern direction, and his home is in the northern quadrant of the topmost tier of the lower half of Mount Sumeru. He is the leader of all the yakṣas who dwell on the Sumeru's slopes.

He is often portrayed with a yellow face. He carries an umbrella or parasol (chatra) as a symbol of his sovereignty. He is also sometimes displayed with a mongoose, often shown ejecting jewels from its mouth. The mongoose is the enemy of the snake, a symbol of greed or hatred; the ejection of jewels represents generosity.

Theravāda Buddhist tradition

In the Pāli scriptures of the Theravāda Buddhist tradition, Vaiśravaṇa is called Vessavaṇa {wai~a.wa.Na.} (UHS-PMD0925). Vessavaṇa is one of the Cātummahārājāno, or four Great Kings, each of whom rules over a specific direction. Vessavaṇa's realm is the northern quadrant of the world, including the land of Uttarakuru. According to some suttas, he takes his name from a region there called Visāṇa; he also has a city there called Ālakamandā which is a byword for wealth. Vessavaṇa governs the yakkhas beings with a nature between 'fairy' and 'ogre'.

Vessavaṇa's wife is named Bhujatī, and he has five daughters, Latā, Sajjā, Pavarā, Acchimatī, and Sutā. He has a nephew called Puṇṇaka {poaN~Na.ka.}, a yakkha, husband of the nāga woman Irandatī. He has a chariot called Nārīvāhana. His weapon was the gadāvudha (Skt: gadāyudha), but he only used it before he became a follower of the Buddha.

UKT: There are stories, some well authenticated (one by my mother Daw Hla May and another by my wife Daw Thanthan: both of them being actual witness at the scenes.), on the supernatural phenomenon known as Poannaka-attacks very much like the poltergeist of the West. It is said that to cause such an attack a Poannaka-inn 'magic square or rune' has to be used. An inn associated with the Poannaka-inn is the Irannathi-inn. This later inn is used to bring an unwilling woman under a man's control to force her to become his wife. Though these practices are well-talked about, I have yet to find an inn-master (considered to belong to the Black Magi practice - and therefore staying 'underground') to provide me with these two runes. - UKT 110415

Vessavaṇa has the name "Kuvera" from a name he had from a past life as a rich brahmin mill-owner, who gave all the produce of one of his seven mills to charity, and provided alms to the needy for 20,000 years. He was reborn in the Cātummahārājikā heaven as a result of this good kamma.

As with all the Buddhist deities, Vessavaṇa is properly the name of an office (filled for life) rather than a permanent individual. Each Vessavaṇa is mortal, and when he dies, he will be replaced by a new Vessavaṇa. Like other beings of the Cātummahārājika world, his lifespan is 90,000 years (other sources say nine million years). Vessavaṇa has the authority to grant the yakkhas particular areas (e.g., a lake) to protect, and these are usually assigned at the beginning of a Vessavaṇa's reign.

When the Buddha was born, Vessavaṇa became his follower, and eventually attained the stage of sotāpanna (Skt: srotaāpanna, one who has only seven more lives before enlightenment). He often brought the Buddha and his followers messages from the gods and other humans, and protected them. He presented to the Buddha the Āṭānāṭā verses, which Buddhists meditating in the forest could use to ward off the attacks of wild yakkhas or other supernatural beings who do not have faith in the Buddha. These verses are an early form of paritta chanting.

Bimbisāra, King of Magadha, after his death was reborn as a yakkha called Janavasabha in the retinue of Vessavaṇa.

In the early years of Buddhism, Vessavaṇa was worshipped at trees dedicated to him as shrines. Some people appealed to him to grant them children.

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Veda religion

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_Vedic_religion 110425

The religion of the Vedic period (also known as Vedism or Vedic Brahmanism or, in a context of Indian antiquity, simply Brahmanism[1]) is a historical predecessor of Hinduism.[2] Its liturgy is reflected in the Mantra portion of the four Vedas, which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites that often involved sacrifices. This mode of worship is largely unchanged today within Hinduism; however, only a small fraction of conservative Shrautins continue the tradition of oral recitation of hymns learned solely through the oral tradition.

Texts dating to the Vedic period, composed in Vedic Sanskrit, are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and some of the older Upanishads (Bṛhadāraṇyaka, Chāndogya, Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) are also placed in this period. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 shrauta priests and the purohitas. According to traditional views, the hymns of the Rigveda and other Vedic hymns were divinely revealed to the rishis, who were considered to be seers or "hearers" (shruti means "what is heard") of the Veda, rather than "authors". In addition the Vedas are said to be "apaurashaya", a Sanskrit word meaning uncreated by man and which further reveals their eternal non-changing status.

The mode of worship was worship of the elements like fire and rivers, worship of heroic gods like Indra, chanting of hymns and performance of sacrifices. The priests performed the solemn rituals for the noblemen (Kshsatriya) and some wealthy Vaishyas. People prayed for abundance of children, rain, cattle (wealth), long life and an afterlife in the heavenly world of the ancestors. This mode of worship has been preserved even today in Hinduism, which involves recitations from the Vedas by a purohita (priest), for prosperity, wealth and general well-being. However, the primacy of Vedic deities has been seconded to the deities of Puranic literature.

Elements of Vedic religion reach back to a Proto-Indo-Iranian religion and an earlier Proto-Indo-European religion. The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BC, Vedic religion gradually metamorphosizing into the various schools of Hinduism, which further evolved into Puranic Hinduism.[citation needed] Vedic religion also influenced Buddhism and Jainism.[citation needed] However aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived in corners of the Indian subcontinent, such as Kerala where the Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient Srauta rituals, which are considered extinct in all other parts.

Rituals

Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others:

The Soma tradition, frequently referred to in the Rigveda and descended from a common Indo-Iranian practice.
Fire rituals:
  The Agnihotra or oblation to Agni, a sun charm,
  The Agnicayana, the sophisticated ritual of piling the fire altar.
The Agnistoma or Soma sacrifice
The New and Full Moon as well as the Seasonal (Cāturmāsya) sacrifices
The royal consecration (Rajasuya) sacrifice
The Ashvamedha or horse sacrifice
The Purushamedha or sacrifice of a man, imitating that of the cosmic Purusha, cf. Purusha Sukta as well as, in its Shrauta form, the Ashvamedha.
The rituals referred to in the Atharvaveda are concerned with medicine and healing practices, as well as black and white magic.

The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) has parallels in the 2nd millennium BC Sintashta and Andronovo culture as well as in Rome (October horse), medieval Ireland, and beyond in Central and East Asia. In India it was allegedly continued until the 4th and even the 18th century CE (Jaya Singh at Jaipur). The practice of vegetarianism may already have arisen in late Vedic times. Although in the Rigveda, the cow's description as aghnya (that which should not be killed) may refer to poetry,[3] it may be reflective of some of the social practices, as were other practices like rituals and deity worship. Incipient change to contemporary vegetarianism is seen as early as the late Brahmanas and Upanishads and may have continued under the influence of Jainism and Buddhism. Buddhism, according to some, emerged out of a cultural strand distinct from Vedic thought.[4]

The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference in RV 10.15.14, invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdh-) and uncremated (nagnidagdha-)".

Pantheon

The Vedic pantheon, similar to its Greek, Slavic or Germanic counterparts, comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena, and like the Germanic Vanir and Aesir it knows two classes of gods, Devas and Asuras. The Devas (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc.) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians. Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "All-gods", the Vishvadevas.

Monistic tendencies

In the view of some, the Rigveda, in its youngest books (books 1 and 10) contains hymns for monistic thought that, however, need to be interpreted in the context of the individual hymns, where the 'monistic' trend is not visible. Often quoted are the isolated padas 1.164.46,

Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān,
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ
"They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmān.
To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan."(trans. Griffith)

10.129 and 10.130, dealing with a creator deity, especially verse 10.129.7:

iym vsṛṣṭiḥ ytaḥ ābabhūva / ydi vā dadh ydi vā n / yḥ asya dhyakṣaḥ param vyman / sḥ aṅg veda ydi vā n vda
"He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, / Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not." (trans. Griffith)

kam st in 1.164.46c means "being one". Such quotes and concepts received emphasis in classical Hinduism, from the time of Adi Shankara at the latest, and they receive emphasis in contemporary Hinduism from monotheistic sects like Arya Samaj and some forms of Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

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Vedanta

UKT: Was there a historical person who could be called the compiler of the Vedanta? -- 110414

From: http://www.asitis.com/15/15.html 110414

Chapter 15. The Yoga of the Supreme Person

Text 15:

sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto
mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca
vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham

Synonyms:

sarvasya--of all living beings; ca--and; aham--I; hrdi--in the heart; sannivistah--being situated; mattah--from Me; smrtih--remembrance; jnanam--knowledge; apohanam ca--and forgetfulness; vedaih--by the Vedas; ca--also; sarvaih--all; aham--I am; eva--certainly; vedyah--knowable; vedanta-krt--the compiler of the Vedanta; veda-vit--the knower of the Vedas; eva--certainly; ca--and; aham--I.

Translation:

I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas I am to be known; indeed I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas.

UKT: The above download refers to Bhagavad Gita, and the personage speaking was Krishna, and he referred to himself as the "compiler of Vedanta". We must note that Krishna was not a historical person as Gautama Buddha was. We must also note that the "transmigration of Soul" as depicted in Hinduism is contrary to the Buddhist philosophy which refutes the idea of a non-changing soul. I'm waiting for comments from my peers. -- 110414

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanta 110414

Vedānta (IPA: /vɪˈdɑːntə/, Hindi: [ʋeːd̪aːn̪t̪], Skt: वेदान्त, Vedānta) was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads. The name is a morphophonological form of Veda-anta = "Veda-end" = "the appendix to the Vedic hymns." It is also speculated that "Vedānta" means "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas."[1] By the 8th century CE, the word also came to be used to describe a group of philosophical traditions concerned with the self-realisation by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality (Brahman). Vedanta can also be used as a noun to describe one who has mastered all four of the original Vedas. Vedānta is also called Uttarā Mīmāṃsā, or the 'latter enquiry' or 'higher enquiry', and is often paired with Purva Mīmāṃsā, the 'former enquiry'. Pūrva Mimamsa, usually simply called Mimamsa, deals with explanations of the fire-sacrifices of the Vedic mantras (in the Samhita portion of the Vedas) and Brahmanas, while Vedanta explicates the esoteric teachings of the Āraṇyakas (the "forest scriptures"), and the Upanishads, composed from ca. the 9th century BCE until modern times.

Vedanta is not restricted or confined to one book and there is no sole source for Vedāntic philosophy.[2]

History

In earlier writings, Skt: 'Vedānta' simply referred to the Upanishads, the most speculative and philosophical of the Vedic texts. However, in the medieval period of Hinduism, the word Vedānta came to mean the school of philosophy that interpreted the Upanishads. Traditional Vedānta considers scriptural evidence, or shabda pramāna, as the most authentic means of knowledge, while perception, or pratyaksa, and logical inference, or anumana, are considered to be subordinate (but valid).

The systematization of Vedāntic ideas into one coherent treatise was undertaken by Badarāyana in the Vedānta Sutra which was composed around 200 BCE.[3] The Vedānta-sūtra are known by a variety of names, including:
  (1) Brahma-sūtra,
  (2) Śārīraka,
  (3) Vyāsa-sūtra,
  (4) Bādarāyaṇa-sūtra,
  (5) Uttara-mīmāṁsā and
  (6) Vedānta-darśana.[4]
[UKT ]

The cryptic aphorisms of the Vedanta Sutras are open to a variety of interpretations, resulting in the formation of numerous Vedanta schools, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own sub-commentaries. Consistent throughout Vedanta, however, is the exhortation that ritual be eschewed in favor of the individual's quest for truth through meditation governed by a loving morality, secure in the knowledge that infinite bliss awaits the seeker. Nearly all existing sects of Hinduism are directly or indirectly influenced by the thought systems developed by Vedantic thinkers. Hinduism to a great extent owes its survival to the formation of the coherent and logically advanced systems of Vedanta.

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