Update: 2012-01-05 04:17 AM +0630

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

tha1ta1-195b2-7.htm   

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{ώa.ta.} सत
{ώa.da.} सद

 

UKT notes
• Lotus Sutra • Satī सती - widow burning

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{ώa.ta.} सत
p195b2-7

• सत् (sat.h)
Skt: सत् (sat.h) - a good man - OnlineSktDict

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p195b3

• सत्चित्आनन्द (sat.hchit.haananda)
Skt: सत्चित्आनन्द (sat.hchit.haananda) - bliss consciousness - OnlineSktDict

• सतः (sataH)
Skt: सतः (sataH) - of the enternal - OnlineSktDict

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p195b3-2

• सतत (satata)
Skt: सतत (satata) - always - OnlineSktDict

• सततं (satataM)
Skt: सततं (satataM) - always - OnlineSktDict

• सततयुक्तानां (satatayuktaanaaM)
Skt: सततयुक्तानां (satatayuktaanaaM) - always engaged - OnlineSktDict

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p195b3-3

• सतां (sataaM)
Skt: सतां (sataaM) - of saintly people - OnlineSktDict

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p195b3-4

• सति (sati)
Skt: सति (sati) - being  - OnlineSktDict

• सती (satii)
Skt: सती (satii) - Sati - OnlineSktDict
Skt: सती satī - two kinds of metre, virtuous woman, good and virtuous or faithful wife,
  wife, female, her ladyship, female ascetic, your ladyship, fragrant earth - SpkSkt

See my note on Satī - widow burning.

 

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p195b3-5

• सत्कार (satkaara)
Skt: सत्कार (satkaara) - respect - OnlineSktDict

• सत्कार्य (satkaarya)
Skt: सत्कार्य (satkaarya) - good or useful work particularly helpful to many - OnlineSktDict

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p195b4

• सत्त्व (sattva)
Skt: सत्त्व (sattva) - inner strength - OnlineSktDict

• सत्त्वं (sattvaM)
Skt: सत्त्वं (sattvaM) - the strength - OnlineSktDict

• सत्त्ववतं (sattvavataM)
Skt: सत्त्ववतं (sattvavataM) - of the strong - OnlineSktDict

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p196top

• सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः (sattvasa.nshuddhiH)
Skt: सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः (sattvasa.nshuddhiH) - purification of one's existence - OnlineSktDict

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p196top-2

• सत्त्वस्थाः (sattvasthaaH)
Skt: सत्त्वस्थाः (sattvasthaaH) - those situated in the mode of goodness - OnlineSktDict

• सत्त्वात् (sattvaat.h)
Skt: सत्त्वात् (sattvaat.h) - from the mode of goodness - OnlineSktDict

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p196top-3

• सत्त्वानां (sattvaanaaM)
Skt: सत्त्वानां (sattvaanaaM) - good beings - OnlineSktDict

• सत्त्वानुरूपा (sattvaanuruupaa)
Skt: सत्त्वानुरूपा (sattvaanuruupaa) - according to the existence - OnlineSktDict

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p196top-4

• सत्त्वे (sattve)
Skt: सत्त्वे (sattve) - the mode of goodness - OnlineSktDict

• सत्पुरुष (satpurushha)
Skt: सत्पुरुष (satpurushha) - good man - OnlineSktDict

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p196top-5

• सत्य (satya)
Skt: सत्य (satya) - Truth - OnlineSktDict
Skt: सत्य  satya - n. truth - SpkSkt

• सत्यं (satyaM)
Skt: सत्यं (satyaM) - Truth - OnlineSktDict

• सत्यमेव (satyameva)
Skt: सत्यमेव (satyameva) - Truth alone - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1

• सत्यसंधं (satyasa.ndhaM)
Skt: सत्यसंधं (satyasa.ndhaM) - the one bound by Truth - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-2

• सत्यस्य (satyasya)
Skt: सत्यस्य (satyasya) - of truth - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-3

• सत्रं (satraM)
Skt: सत्रं (satraM) - (n) session - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-4

• सत्सङ्गत्वे (satsa.ngatve)
Skt: सत्सङ्गत्वे (satsa.ngatve) - in good company - OnlineSktDict

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{ώa.da.} सद
not entd in OnlineSktDict

€ सद  sada
Skt: सद  sada  m. fruit, particular ekAha, particular part of the back of a sacrificial animal - SpkSkt

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p196b1-5

• सद्भवे (sad.hbhave)
= स द ् भ व े
Skt: सद्भवे (sad.hbhave) - in the sense of the nature of the Supreme - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-6

• सदय (sadaya)
Skt: सदय (sadaya) - compassionate - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-7

• सदसत् (sadasat.h)
Skt: सदसत् (sadasat.h) - to cause and effect - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-8

• सदा (sadaa)
Skt: सदा (sadaa) - always - OnlineSktDict

• सदाचार (sadaachaar)
Skt: सदाचार (sadaachaar) - good conduct/ behaviour - OnlineSktDict

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p196b1-9

• सदानन्द (sadaananda)
Skt: सदानन्द (sadaananda) - ever joyous - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2

• सदाशिव (sadaashiva)
Skt: सदाशिव (sadaashiva) - a form of Shiva - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-2

• सदुपयोग (sadupayoga)
Skt: सदुपयोग (sadupayoga) - correct or right use derived from sat.h + upayoga - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-3

• सदृश (sadRisha)
Skt: सदृश (sadRisha) - (adj) similar, looking like - OnlineSktDict

• सदृशं (sadRishaM)
Skt: सदृशं (sadRishaM) - accordingly - OnlineSktDict

• सदृशः (sadRishaH)
Skt: सदृशः (sadRishaH) - like - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-4

• सदृशी (sadRishii)
Skt: सदृशी (sadRishii) - like that - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-5

• सदैव (sadaiva)
Skt: सदैव (sadaiva) - always - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-6

• सदोदित (sadodita)
Skt: सदोदित (sadodita) - always, constant - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-7

• सदोषं (sadoshhaM)
Skt: सदोषं (sadoshhaM) - with fault - OnlineSktDict

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p196b2-8

• सद्गमय (sadgamaya)
Skt: सद्गमय (sadgamaya) - sat.h and gamaya: Truth and lead (causal of 'go') - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3 

• सदाशिव (sadbuddhiM)
Skt: सदाशिव (sadbuddhiM) - sat.h+buddhiM : good+awareness
   (loosely speaking 'mind') - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-2

• सद्यः (sadyaH)
Skt: सद्यः (sadyaH) - instantly - OnlineSktDict

• सद्यह (sadyah)
Skt: सद्यह (sadyah) - immediately - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-3

• सन् (san.h)
Skt: सदृशं (sadRishaM) - being so - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-4

• सनातन (sanaatana)
Skt: सदृशः (sadRishaH) - ancient - OnlineSktDict

• सनातनं (sanaatanaM)
Skt: सदृशी (sadRishii) - eternal atmosphere - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-5

• सनातनः (sanaatanaH)
Skt: सदैव (sadaiva) - eternally the same - OnlineSktDict

• सनातनाः (sanaatanaaH)
Skt: सदोदित (sadodita) - eternal - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-6

• सन्कल्पमस्तु (sankalpamastu)
Skt: सदोषं (sadoshhaM) - saMkalpaM + astu: resolution + let there be - OnlineSktDict

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p196b3-7

• सन्तः (santaH)
Skt: सद्गमय (sadgamaya) - the devotees - OnlineSktDict

€ सधर्म  sadharma 
Skt: सधर्म  sadharma adj.  similar 

€ सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्र Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra
Skt: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्र Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 100313

UKT: The Sanskrit सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्र  is a compound
= स द ् ध र ् म प ु ण ् ड र ी क स ू त ् र  
which can be broken up into 3 separate words:
  * स द ् ध र ् म = सद्धर्म Saddharma
  * प ु ण ् ड र ी क = पुण्डरीक Puṇḍarīka
  * स ू त ् र = सूत्र Sūtra
See my note on Lotus Sutra .

 

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p196b4

• सन्तत (santata)
Skt: सन्तत (santata) - repeated - OnlineSktDict

• सन्ततगमन (santatagamana)
Skt: सन्ततगमन (santatagamana) - unbroken togetherness - OnlineSktDict

• सन्तप्त (santapta)
Skt: सन्तप्त (santapta) - burning - OnlineSktDict

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p197top

• सन्तरिष्यसि (santarishhyasi)
Skt: सन्तरिष्यसि (santarishhyasi) - you will cross completely - OnlineSktDict

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p197top-2

• सन्ताः (santaaH)
Skt: सन्ताः (santaaH) - are respected - OnlineSktDict

• सन्ताप (santaapa)
Skt: सन्ताप (santaapa) - harassment - OnlineSktDict

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p197top-3

• सन्ति (santi)
Skt: सन्ति (santi) - there are - OnlineSktDict

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• सन्तुष्ट (santushhTa)
Skt: सन्तुष्ट (santushhTa) - satisfied - OnlineSktDict

• सन्तुष्टः (santushhTaH)
Skt: सन्तुष्टः (santushhTaH) - perfectly satiated- OnlineSktDict

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p197top-5

• सन्तोश (santosha)
Skt: सन्तोश (santosha) - satisaction - OnlineSktDict

• सन्तोष (santoshha)
Skt: सन्तोष (santoshha) - satisfacton - OnlineSktDict

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p197top-6

• सन्दर्भ (sandarbha)
Skt: सन्दर्भ (sandarbha) - reference - OnlineSktDict

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p197top-7

• सन्दृश्यन्ते (sandRishyante)
Skt: सन्दृश्यन्ते (sandRishyante) - are seen - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1 

• सन्देश (sandesha)
Skt: सन्देश (sandesha) - message - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-2

• सन्देहः (sandehaH)
Skt: सन्देहः (sandehaH) - (m) doubt - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-3

• सन्धि (sandhi)
Skt: सन्धि (sandhi) - The junctional point of two consecutive bhaavas - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-4

• सन्धीकाल (sandhiikaala)
Skt: सन्धीकाल (sandhiikaala) - twilight (both morning and evening time) - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-5

• सन्नद्धः (sannaddhaH)
Skt: सन्नद्धः (sannaddhaH) - fully armed, prepared - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-6

• सन्निभानि (sannibhaani)
Skt: सन्निभानि (sannibhaani) - as if - OnlineSktDict

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p197b1-7

• सन्नियम्य (sanniyamya)
Skt: सन्नियम्य (sanniyamya) - controlling - OnlineSktDict

• सन्निविष्टः (sannivishhTaH)
Skt: सन्निविष्टः (sannivishhTaH) - situated- OnlineSktDict

• सन्निहिते (sannihite)
Skt: सन्निहिते (sannihite) - (in the) presence, nearness of - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Lotus sutra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 110501

The Lotus Sūtra (Skt: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sūtras, and the basis on which the Tiantai and Nichiren sects of Buddhism were established.

The earliest known Sanskrit title for the sūtra is the Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, which translates to "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma." In English, the shortened form Lotus Sūtra is common. The Lotus Sūtra has also been highly regarded in a number of Asian countries where Mahāyāna Buddhism has been traditionally practiced. Translations of this title into the languages of some of these countries include:

• Sk: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्र Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra
• Chinese: 妙法蓮華經 miΰofǎ liαnhuα jīng, shortened to 法華經 fǎhuα jīng
• Japanese: 妙法蓮華経 myōhō renge kyō, shortened to 法華経 hōke kyō
• Korean: 묘법연화경 myobeop yeonhwa gyeong, shortened to 법화경 beophwa gyeong
• Vietnamese Diệu phαp liκn hoa kinh, shortened to Phαp hoa kinh

History

The oldest parts of the text (Chapters 1-9 and 17) were probably written down between 100 BCE and 100 CE: most of the text had appeared by 200 CE.[1]

The Lotus Sutra presents itself as a discourse delivered by the Buddha toward the end of his life. The tradition in Mahayana states that the sutra was written down at the time of the Buddha and stored for five hundred years in a realm of nāgas. After this they were reintroduced into the human realm at the time of the Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir. The sutra's teachings purport to be of a higher order than those contained in the āgamas of the Sūtra Piṭaka, and that humanity had been unable to understand the sutra at the time of the Buddha, and thus the teaching had to be held back.

The Lotus Sutra was originally translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmarakṣa, aka Zhu Fahu, in 286 CE in Chang'an during the Western Jin Period (265-317 CE) (E. Zurcher The Buddhist Conquest of China, 57-69). However, the view that there is a high degree of probability that the base text for that translation was actually written in a Prakrit language has gained widespread acceptance. Jan Nattier has recently summarized this aspect of the early textual transmission of such Buddhist scriptures in China thus, bearing in mind that Dharmarakṣa's period of activity falls well within the period she defines: "Studies to date indicate that Buddhist scriptures arriving in China in the early centuries of the Common Era were composed not just in one Indian dialect but in several . . . in sum, the information available to us suggests that, barring strong evidence of another kind, we should assume that any text translated in the second or third century CE was not based on Sanskrit, but one or other of the many Prakrit vernaculars."[2]

This early translation by Dharmarakṣa was superseded by a translation in seven fascicles by Kumārajīva in 406 CE, although it is known that Kumārajīva made extensive use of the earlier version to the extent of borrowing readings directly from Dharmarakṣa's version. The Chinese title is usually abbreviated to 法華經, which is read Fǎ Huα Jīng in Chinese and Hokekyō in Japanese, Beophwagyeong in Korean, and Phαp Hoa Kinh" in Vietnamese. The Sanskrit copies are not widely used outside of academia. It has been translated by Burton Watson. According to Burton Watson it may have originally been composed in a Prakrit dialect and then later translated into Sanskrit to lend it greater respectability.

Modern scholars have not released much of the sutra on early fragments, except to say that they are not dependent on the Chinese or Tibetan Lotus sutras. Furthermore, other scholars have noted how the cryptic Dharani passages within the Lotus sutra represent a form of the Magadhi dialect that is more similar to Pali than Sanskrit. For instance, one Dharani reads in part: "Buddhavilokite Dharmaparikshite". Although the vilo is attested in Sanskrit, it appears first in the Buddhist Pali texts as "vilokita" with the meaning of "a vigilant looker" from vi, denoting intensification,[3] and lok, etymologically connoting "to look".[4]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Lotus-sutra-note-b

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Satī

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sati_practice  110429

Satī (Skt: सती, the feminine of sat "true"; also called suttee)[4] is a religious funeral practice among some Hindu communities in which a recently widowed Hindu woman either voluntarily or by use of force and coercion would have immolated herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.[1] The practice is rare and has been outlawed in India since 1829.[2]

The term is derived from the original name of the goddess Sati, also known as Dakshayani, who self-immolated because she was unable to bear her father Daksha's humiliation of her (living) husband Shiva. The term may also be used to refer to the widow herself. The term sati is now sometimes interpreted as "chaste woman."

Origin

Few reliable records exist of the practice before the time of the Gupta empire, approximately 400 AD. [Corresponding to Old Pagan and Pagan periods in Myanmar.] After about this time, instances of sati began to be marked by inscribed memorial stones. The earliest of these are found in Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, though the largest collections date from several centuries later, and are found in Rajasthan. These stones, called devli, or sati-stones, became shrines to the dead woman, who was treated as an object of reverence and worship. They are most common in western India.[3]

By about the 10th century sati, as understood today, was known across much of the subcontinent. It continued to occur, usually at a low frequency and with regional variations, until the early 19th century.

Widows did this because it was supposed to cast away any sins the husband had committed, making him able to have a happy afterlife. This was voluntary for the widow, but they were put under much pressure to do it and were looked upon as a bad person if they didn’t go through with it.

Some instances of voluntary self-immolation by both women and men that may be regarded as at least partly historical accounts are included in the Mahabharata and other works. However, large portions of these works are relatively late interpolations into an original story,[4] rendering difficult their use for reliable dating. Also, neither immolation nor the desire for self-immolation are regarded as a custom in the Mahabharata. Use of the term 'sati' to describe the custom of self-immolation never occurs in the Mahabarata, unlike other customs such as the Rajasuya yagna. Rather, the self-immolations are viewed as an expression of extreme grief at the loss of a beloved one.

The ritual has prehistoric roots, and many parallels from other cultures are known. Compare for example the ship burial of the Rus' described by Ibn Fadlan, where a female slave is burned with her master.[5]

Aristobulus of Cassandreia, a Greek historian who traveled to India with the expedition of Alexander the Great, recorded the practice of sati at the city of Taxila. A later instance of voluntary co-cremation appears in an account of an Indian soldier in the army of Eumenes of Cardia, whose two wives vied to die on his funeral pyre, in 316 BC. The Greeks believed that the practice had been instituted to discourage wives from poisoning their old husbands.[6]

Voluntary death at funerals has been described in northern India before the Gupta empire. The original practices were called anumarana, and were uncommon. Anumarana was not comparable to later understandings of sati, since the practices were not restricted to widows — rather, anyone, male or female, with personal loyalty to the deceased could commit suicide at a loved one's funeral. These included the deceased's relatives, servants, followers, or friends. Sometimes these deaths stemmed from vows of loyalty,[3] and bear a slight resemblance to the later tradition of seppuku in Japan.[7]

It is theorized that sati, enforced widowhood, and girl marriage were customs that were primarily intended to solve the problem of surplus women and surplus men in a caste and to maintain its endogamy.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

endogamy n. 1. Anthropology Marriage within a particular group in accordance with custom or law. - AHTD

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back sutii-note-b

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