Update: 2012-01-03 07:39 PM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{dur~} दुर्
{doag~ga.} दुर्ग (durga)
{doab~ba.} दुर्ब (durba)
{doal~la.} दुर्ल (durla)
{du-ha.} दुह = द ु ह
{doah~} दुह् = द ु ह ् [UKT: the Skt: killed-h changes into Pal: killed-k ]

UKT note: You'll find some entries which may be mistaken for {du.} in the folder {dur-}. However, they are of the form {doa~} such as {doa~}.

UKT notes
Goddess Durga / Shakti
King Duryodhana (the eldest Kaurava - the enemies of Pandavas)
Grapheme shape problem : Kālī {ka-li} / , and Kali {ka.li.}
The role of killed-r in change of Sanskrit into Pali
Theory of BEPS

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{dur~} दुर् 

Splitting up the rime of the first syllable in Pali vertical conjuncts

UKT: In words prefixed with Skt (durga), the change into Pal is given as du-gga by UPMT (U Pe Maung Tin) in Pali English Dictionary p112. This implies a short vowel {du.} or a long vowel {du} for d followed by the 'double' consonant gg . The idea of 'double' consonants such as cc seems to be ingrained in native English speakers and those trained by them. In particular, for a word like <success>, I hold that there is no 'double' consonant. Instead, <success> is a disyllabic word pronounced as /sək'ses/ in which the so-called 'double C' is broken down into /k/ of the first syllable, and into /s/ of the second. See my discussion on Pronouncing the Double C on Antimoon Forum in the year 2009.

Thus in दुर्ग (durga) the change is not into du-gga , but to change the vowel of the first syllable and split the double gg into the coda-g of the first syllable and onset-g of the second arriving at {doag~ga.} . Similarly in Skt: दुर्जन -->  Pal: dujjana {doaz~za.na.}, I have to change the killed-r into /z/. That you do not split up the rime of the first syllable as has been done by UPMT is indicated by the vertical conjunct known in Bur-Myan as {paaHt-sing.} (MED272). See The role of killed-r in change of Sanskrit into Pali in my BEPS Sanskrit-English Dictionary - UKT100815
Posted by U Kyaw Tun aka Joe Tun, www.tuninst.net


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{doag~ga.} दुर्ग (durga)

दुर्ग (durga)
Skt: दुर्ग (durga) - fort - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: du-gga  adj. (√gam) difficult to pass; n. a strong-hold, bad road - UPMT-PED112
*Pal: {doag~ga.} - UHS-PMD0477

दुर्गति (durgati)
Skt: दुर्गति (durgati) - bad state, defeat - OnlineSktDict

दुर्गतिं (durgatiM)
Skt: दुर्गतिं (durgatiM) - to degradation - OnlineSktDict

दुर्गम् (durgam.h)
Skt: दुर्गम् (durgam.h) - (n) fort - OnlineSktDict

दुर्गा (durgaa)
Skt: दुर्गा (durgaa) - Goddess Durga - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Goddess Durga

दुर्गाणि (durgaaNi)
Skt: दुर्गाणि (durgaaNi) - impediments - OnlineSktDict

दुर्घटना (durghaTanaa)
Skt: दुर्घटना (durghaTanaa) - (f) calamity, disaster - OnlineSktDict

दुर्जन (durjana)
Skt: दुर्जन (durjana) - wicked person - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dujjana  m. a bad man - UPMT-PED112
Pal: {doaz~za.na.} - UHS-PMD0477

दुष्टमति   duṣṭamati  
Skt: दुष्टमति   duṣṭamati   adj.   ill-intentioned , evil-intentioned - SpkSkt

द्युतातु शुल्बीय   dyutātu śulbīya
Skt: द्युतातु शुल्बीय   dyutātu śulbīya   n.   cesium sulphate  

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दुर्जनं (durjanaM)
Skt: दुर्जनं (durjanaM) - bad person - OnlineSktDict

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दुर्निग्रहं (durnigrahaM)
Skt: दुर्निग्रहं (durnigrahaM) - difficult to curb - OnlineSktDict

दुर्निरीक्ष्यं (durniriikShyaM)
Skt: दुर्निरीक्ष्यं (durniriikShyaM) - difficult to see - OnlineSktDict

दुर्निवार (durnivaara)
Skt: दुर्निवार (durnivaara) - hard to correct - OnlineSktDict

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{doab~ba.} दुर्ब

दुर्बल (durbala)
Skt: दुर्बल (durbala) - weak - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dubbala  adj. weak - UPMT-PED112
Pal: {doab~ba.la.} - UHS-PMD0480

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दुर्बुद्धि (durbuddhi)
Skt: दुर्बुद्धि (durbuddhi) - stupid person, idiot - OnlineSktDict

दुर्बुद्धेः (durbuddheH)
Skt: दुर्बुद्धेः (durbuddheH) - evil-minded - OnlineSktDict

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दुर्भिक्ष (durbhikSha)
Skt: दुर्भिक्ष (durbhikSha) - famine - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dubbhikkha  n. famine - UPMT-PED112
Pal: {doab~Bai~hka.} - UHS-PMD0481

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दुर्भितिः (durmatiH)
Skt: दुर्भितिः (durmatiH) - foolish - OnlineSktDict

दुर्भनः (durmanaH)
Skt: दुर्भनः (durmanaH) - (adj) evil-minded - OnlineSktDict

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दुर्भेधा (durmedhaa)
Skt: दुर्भेधा (durmedhaa) - unintelligent - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dummedha - adj. foolish - UPMT-PED112
Pal: {doam~m-Da.} - - UHS-PMD0481

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दुर्भोधनः (duryodhanaH)
Skt: दुर्भोधनः (duryodhanaH) - King Duryodhana - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on King Duryodhana (the eldest Kaurava - the enemies of Pandavas),
and A problem of grapheme shapes : Kālī {ka-li} / , and Kali {ka.li.} .

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{doal~la.} दुर्ल

दुर्लभ (durlabha) = द ु र ् ल
Skt: दुर्लभ (durlabha) - ungettable - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dullabha - not entered in UPMT-PED
Pal: {doal~la.Ba.} - UHS-PMD0482

दुर्लभं (durlabhaM)
Skt: दुर्लभं (durlabhaM) - rare (thing) - OnlineSktDict

दुर्लभतरं (durlabhataraM)
Skt: दुर्लभतरं (durlabhataraM) - very rare - OnlineSktDict

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दुर्वचन (durvachana)
Skt: दुर्वचन (durvachana) - wicked statements - OnlineSktDict

दुर्वादलश्यामं (durvaadalashyaamaM)
Skt: दुर्वादलश्यामं (durvaadalashyaamaM) - black as the 'durvA' (flower) petal - OnlineSktDict

दुर्विदग्ध (durvidagha)
Skt: दुर्विदग्ध (durvidagha) - foolishly puffed up, vain - OnlineSktDict

दुर्वृत्त (durvRitta)
Skt: दुर्वृत्त (durvRitta) - those having wickedness - OnlineSktDict

दुर्वृत्तं (durvRittaM)
Skt: दुर्वृत्तं (durvRittaM) - bad deed - OnlineSktDict

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दुश्किर्ती (dushkirtii)
Skt: दुश्किर्ती (dushkirtii) - adj. declared evil - OnlineSktDict

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दुष्कृतां (dushhRitaaM)
Skt: दुष्कृतां (dushhRitaaM) - of the miscreants - OnlineSktDict

दुष्कृतिनः (dushhkRitinaH)
Skt: दुष्कृतिनः (dushhkRitinaH) - miscreants - OnlineSktDict

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दुष्टग्रह (dushhTagraha)
Skt: दुष्टग्रह (dushhTagraha) - Aspected (Aspecting) - OnlineSktDict

दुष्टबुद्धी (dushhTabuddhii)
Skt: दुष्टबुद्धी (dushhTabuddhii) - adj. evil spirited - OnlineSktDict

दुष्टासु (dushhTaasu)
Skt: दुष्टासु (dushhTaasu) - being so polluted - OnlineSktDict

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दुष्पूरं (dushhpuuraM)
Skt: दुष्पूरं (dushhpuuraM) - insatiable - OnlineSktDict

दुष्पूरेण (dushhpuureNa)
Skt: दुष्पूरेण (dushhpuureNa) - never to be satisfied - OnlineSktDict

दुष्प्रापः (dushhpraapaH)
Skt: दुष्प्रापः (dushhpraapaH) - difficult to obtain - OnlineSktDict

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दुस्तर (dustara)
Skt: दुस्तर (dustara) - hard to cross - OnlineSktDict

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दुस्स्थान (dussthaana)
Skt: दुस्स्थान (dussthaana) - astrology an evil position (6th, 8th, 12th natal signs)
  - UKT-edit-OnlineSktDict

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{du.ha.} दुह = द ु ह

दुहिता (duhitaa) = द ु ह ि त ा
Skt: दुहिता (duhitaa) - f.  daughter - OnlineSktDict
Pal: duhitā  f.  a daughter - UPMT-PED113
Pal: {du.hi.ta} - - UHS-PMD0483

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{doah~} दुह् = द ु ह ्

दुह्खैः (duhkhaiH) = द ु ह ् ख ै ः
Skt: दुह्खैः (duhkhaiH) - (instr.) by sorrow(s) - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Goddess Durga

UKT personal note: I came face to face in my childhood years with the image of this goddess at the Ramakrishna Society building in Thompson Street, East Rangoon. I was living with my father U Tun Pe, my mother Daw Hla May, my cousins Ma (now Daw) San Tin and her brother Ko (now U) Saw Tun at 221 Thompson St. almost across the Ramakrishna Building. The time was the Durga puja in 1946. Because the family could speak English, we became friends with the religious and lay workers at the Ramakrishna Building in particular with a white "brother" (whose name I have forgotten) and a lay resident, a Mr. K. C. Sen who was working at the COD (Central Ordinance Depot) of the CAS(B) of the British and Indian forces. Though we were very young, my cousin and I helped at the desk of the Society library. Those were my childhood days, and we learned the library work quite well, and our volunteer work did improve our English. Though we were Buddhists, Durga the Bengali (Hindu) goddess became my personal goddess: she represents all my friends in those happy days! Wherever they are, may she seek them out and give them my thanks - gone, but never to be forgotten. - UKT100814

The following is on Durga from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durga 100814

In Hinduism, Durga (Skt: दुर्गा, meaning "the inaccessible"[1] or "the invincible"; Bengal: দুর্গা, durga) or Maa Durga (Bengali: মা দুর্গা, ma durga, meaning "Mother Durga") "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress". Durga is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having ten arms, riding a lion or a tiger, carrying weapons and a lotus flower, maintaining a meditative smile, and practicing mudras, or symbolic hand gestures.

Theory of BEPS

- UKT 110827

Since it is written above that "Durga is a form of Devi ", you should read the Wikipedia article on Devi itself: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devi 110827. Out of this extensive article, I will quote:
   " Parvati is the daughter of the mountains (the Himalayas), and manifests the aspect of the goddess as the wife of Shiva. She is generally considered a benign goddess. She is one of the principal deities of Shaktism and sometimes considered the essence of Shakti herself, i.e. Adi-shakti. [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_parashakti 110828 ] She has been identified as a reincarnation of Dakshayani or Sati, Shivas first wife, who destroyed her by self-immolation because her father, Daksha, had insulted Shiva."
   This quoted text has given me the idea that Parvati was a goddess, most likely the supreme goddess, of the Tib-Bur speakers just south of the Himalayas who had lived in the corridor extending from Afghanistan through Nepal into northern-Myanmar. That Sati had become the first wife of Siva shows the conflict between two cultures - that of Siva worshipers - the rhotic sibilant Dravidian speakers, and Shakti worshippers - the non-rhotic thibilant Tib-Bur speakers. The anger of Daksha shows the reaction of the non-rhotic thibilant Tib-Bur speakers.
   The next piece to be quoted from the same article:
   " Another important aspect of the Female divine are the various Shakti Peethas spread all across the nation [the Indian subcontinent], where over 51 body parts of Devi Sati, first wife of Lord Shiva fell after being broken apart by the Sudarshana Chakra of Lord Vishnu.
   "Goddess Sati had earlier performed self-immolation at the ceremonial feast of her father king Daksha and an enraged and inconsolable Lord Shiva was wandering all over the Creation, with her dead body, threatening its very existence. Each point on the earth where her body parts fell is now venerated as a Shakti Peetha - the seat of Shakti or female power."
   Soon the clash of two cultures became the clash of three when another group of rhotic sibilant speakers, the Indo-Europeans - the worshippers of Vishnu, came in from the north-west. The result was the gradual disappearance of the Tib-Bur pronunciations:
   non-rhotic /l/ {la.} being changed into rhotic /r/ {ra.}, and,
   thibilant-dental-fricative /θ/ स {a.} as in English <thin> into sibilant-dental-fricative/ʃ/ श {hya.} as in English <shin>
   onset palatal-plosive-stop /c/ च {sa.} into sibilant-dental-fricative ष {Sa.}
   coda palatal-plosive-stop /c/ {c} into coda velar-plosive-stop /k/ {k} - without hissing sound - some into sibilant-dental-fricative {S} - with hissing sound.
   Of course the palatal <c> is very difficult to articulate in the first place, with the result that in English words such as <success>, it has been thought that <cc> is a single unit, the so-called 'double c', forgetting that the word is actually disyllabic /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515), and that the digraph <cc> has to be split up.
   A parallel of English <success> is found in Bur-Myan {ic~sa} which can be expanded into {ic-sa} (I've coloured two {sa.} differently to show that one is a coda and the next is an onset).
   In Skt-Dev, the onset, <c> has became /ʧ/ - the English affricate as in <church>. However, in Bur-Myan, the sound of <ch> in <church> is a medial made up of {hka.} and {ya.} which does not agree with Skt-Dev. In Skt-Dev this sound is च ca. The Skt-Dev speakers have a problem with {hka.} and some words in Bur-Myan with this sound is transcribed into <kh>, and some into <ks>. This problem is found in Pal-Myan {hkt-ti.ya.} becoming क्षत्रिय Kshatriya in Skt-Dev where क्ष = क ् ष .
   The problem of affricate is compounded in English because of the lack of differentiation between tenuis and ordinary voiceless which are thought to be due to the absence/presence of aspiration. Thus IPA [s] and [sʰ] are just regarded as allophones <s> and not as clearly differentiable as च ca & छ cha as in Skt-Dev, and {sa.} and {hsa.} in Bur-Myan.
   By the time of Panini, the problem of pronunciation which is of extreme importance in the recitation of Hindu prayers - the Vedic chants- had become so acute that he codified the Vedic into the Classical Sanskrit. -- UKT110827
Go back Theory-BEPS-note-b

An embodiment of creative feminine force (Shakti), Durga exists in a state of svātantrya (independence from the universe and anything/anybody else, i.e., self-sufficiency) and fierce compassion. Kali is considered by Hindus to be an aspect of Durga. Durga is also the mother of Ganesha and Kartikeya.[2] She is thus considered the fiercer, demon-fighting form of Shiva's wife, goddess Parvati. Durga manifests fearlessness and patience, and never loses her sense of humor, even during spiritual battles of epic proportion.


The word Shakti [UKT: continue reading Shakti also from Wikipedia.] means divine feminine force, and Durga is the warrior aspect of the Divine Mother. Other incarnations include Annapurna and Karunamayi (karuna = kindness). Durga's darker aspect Kali is represented as the consort of the god Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing.

As a goddess, Durga's feminine power contains the energies of the gods. Each of her weapons was gifted to her by various gods: Rudra's trident, Vishnu's discus, Indra's thunderbolt, Brahma's kamandalu, Kuber's Ratnahar, etc.

According to a narrative in the Devi Mahatmya story of the Markandeya Purana text, Durga was created as a warrior goddess to fight an asura (an inhumane force/demon) {a.u.ra} named Mahishasur. He had unleashed a reign of terror on earth, heaven and the nether worlds, and he could not be defeated by any man or god, anywhere. The gods went to Brahma, who had given Mahishasura the power to be the invincible conqueror of the universe. Brahma could do nothing. They made Brahma their leader and went to Vaikuntha the place where Vishnu lay on Ananta Naag. They found both Vishnu and Shiva, and Brahma eloquently related the reign of terror Mahishasur had unleashed on the three worlds. Hearing this Vishnu, Shiva and all of the gods became very angry and beams of fierce light emerged from their bodies. The blinding sea of light met at the Ashram of a priest named Katyan. The goddess Durga took the name Katyani from the priest and emerged from the sea of light. She introduced herself in the language of the Rig-Veda, saying she was the form of the supreme Brahman who had created all the gods. Now she had come to fight the demon to save the gods. They did not create her; it was her lila that she emerged from their combined energy. The gods were blessed with her compassion.

It is said that upon initially encountering Durga, Mahishasura underestimated her, thinking: "How can a woman kill me, Mahishasur the one who has defeated the trinity of gods?" However, Durga roared with laughter, which caused an earthquake which made Mahishasur aware of her powers.

And the terrible Mahishasur rampaged against her, changing forms many times. First he was a buffalo demon, and she defeated him with her sword. Then he changed forms and became an elephant that tied up the goddess's tiger and began to pull it towards him. The goddess cut off his trunk with her sword. The demon Mahishasur continued his terrorizing, taking the form of a lion, and then the form of a man, but both of them were gracefully slain by Durga.

Then Mahishasur began attacking once more, starting to take the form of a buffalo again. The patient goddess became very angry, and as she sipped divine wine from a cup she smiled and proclaimed to Mahishasur in a colorful tone "Roar with delight while you still can, O illiterate demon, because when I will kill you after drinking this, the gods themselves will roar with delight". When Mahashaur had half emerged into his buffalo form, he was paralyzed by the extreme light emitting from the goddess's body. The goddess then resounded with laughter before cutting Mahishasur's head down with her sword.

Thus Durga slew Mahishasur, thus is the power of the fierce compassion of Durga. Hence, Mata Durga is also known as Mahishasurmardhini the slayer of Mahishasur. According to one legend, the goddess Durga created an army to fight against the forces of the demon-king Mahishasur, who was terrorizing Heaven and Earth. After ten days of fighting, Durga and her army defeated Mahishasur and killed him. As a reward for their service, Durga bestowed upon her army the knowledge of jewelry-making. Ever since, the Sonara community has been involved in the jewelry profession [3].

The goddess as Mahisasuramardhini appears quite early in Indian art. The Archaeological Museum in Matura has several statues on display including a 6-armed Kushana period Mahisasuramardhini that depicts her pressing down the buffalo with her lower hands [4]. A Nagar plaque from the first century BC - first century AD depicts a 4-armed Mahisamardhini accompanied by a lion. But it is in the Gupta period that we see the finest representations of Mahisasuramardhini (2-, 4-, 6-, and at Udayagiri, 12-armed). The spear and trident are her most common weapons. a Mamallapuram relief shows the goddess with 8 arms riding her lion subduing a bufalo-faced demon (as contrasted with a buffalo demon); a variation also seen at Ellora. In later sculptures (post-seventh Century), sculptures show the goddess having decapitated the buffalo demon.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

The following is on Shakti from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti 100814


Shakti (Skt: शक्ति) 'shak ' - "to be able," meaning sacred force or empowerment, is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that move through the entire universe.[1] Shakti is the concept, or personification, of divine feminine creative power, sometimes referred to as 'The Great Divine Mother' in Hinduism. On the earthly plane, Shakti most actively manifests through female embodiment and fertility, though it is also present in males in its potential, unmanifest form.[2]

Not only is the Shakti responsible for creation, it is also the agent of all change. Shakti is cosmic existence as well as liberation, its most significant form being the Kundalini Shakti,[3] a mysterious psychospiritual force.[4] Shakti exists in a state of svātantrya, dependence on no-one, being interdependent with the entire universe.

In Shaktism, Shakti is worshiped as the Supreme Being. However, in other Hindu traditions of Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Shakti embodies the active feminine energy Prakriti of Purusha, who is Vishnu in Vaishnavism or Shiva in Shaivism. Vishnu's female counterpart is called Lakshmi, with Parvati being the female half of Shiva.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Durga-note-b

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Duryodhana (the eldest Kaurava - the enemies of Pandavas)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duryodhana 100815

In the Hindu epic the Mahābhārata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन, Duryodhana, "difficult to fight with") is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. He [Duryodhana] was an avatar of the demon Kali[1] [Asura {ka.li.} who ruled the universe in Kali Yuga (कलियुग [kəli juɡə] which began 18 February 3102 BCE ?] who had possessed the soul of Nala, forcing him [Yudhisthira ? - the eldest Pandava] to gamble away his kingdom.[2] .

UKT: When you read Hindu religious epics, read them from the point of view of a Theravada Buddhist to have a balance view. To the Theravada Buddhists, the idea of good and evil is relativistic because of which Devas {d-wa.} and Asuras {a.u.ra.} are treated as the same kind. This is logical since the king of the Devas, Sakka {i.kra:} (in Hinduism, he is Indra) has chief queens who are the daughters of the Asura king. If Asuras are demons, then it is not logical for the Devas to have female demons as their chief queens. - UKT100816


When Dhritarashtra's queen Gandhari's pregnancy continued for an unusually long period of time, she beat her womb in frustration, at the envy of Kunti [see UKT note], the queen of Pandu who had given birth to Yudhisthira, the eldest Pandava [ -- the gambler]. Due to actions of Gandhari, a hardened mass of grey-colored flesh produced from her womb. Gandhari was very shocked and upset. She worshiped Vyasa, the great sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons, to redeem his words.

Vyasa divides the flesh ball into one hundred and one equal pieces, and puts them in pots of ghee, which are sealed and buried into the earth for one year. At the end of the year, the first pot is opened, and Duryodhana emerges.

Literally, Duryodhana means "hard to conquer". His chariot bore a flag depicting a hooded cobra.

Duryodhana's body is said to be made out of lightning, and he is extremely powerful. He is revered by his younger brothers, especially Dushasana. Learning martial skills from his gurus, Kripa, Drona and Balarama, he was extremely powerful with the mace.


At the martial exhibition where the Kaurava and Pandava princes demonstrate their skills before their elders, their guru Drona and the people of the kingdom, a great and effulgent warrior, Karna appears and challenges Arjuna, who is considered by Drona to be the best of the warrior princes. But Karna is humiliated when Kripa asks him to ascertain his caste, as it would be inappropriate for unequals to compete.

Duryodhana immediately defends Karna, and makes him king of Anga so that he is regarded as Arjuna's equal. Karna pledges his allegiance and friendship to Duryodhana, as Duryodhana had rescued him from the source of continuing humiliation and hardship for him. Neither of them know that Karna is in fact Kunti's oldest son born to Surya.

UKT: Karna was the "unknown" eldest brother of the Pandavas, a secret held by their common mother Kunti. The secret was revealed belatedly by the mother Kunti to son Karna only when the Kurukshetra War was about to be fought. Karna sorrowfully had to fight his younger brothers. The younger brothers were not told this secret by Kunti until the third Pandava, Arjuna, had killed Karna.

A very intense bond of friendship develops between the two, and Duryodhana becomes very close to Karna. It is held that if there was one good quality in Duryodhana, it was his deep affection for his friend Karna.

In the Kurukshetra War, Karna is Duryodhana's greatest hope for victory. He earnestly believes that Karna is superior to Arjuna, and will inevitably destroy him and his four brothers. While devoted to Duryodhana, Karna knows that even though his skills are better than Arjuna's, he is incapable of killing Arjuna as he is protected by Lord Krishna. When Karna is killed, Duryodhana mourns his death intensely.

Evil tendencies and schemes

Although loved by all his family, Duryodhana and most of his brothers are seen as inferior to the Pandavas in their adherence to virtue and duty, and respect of elders. Duryodhana is mentored by his maternal uncle Shakuni, who desires the elevation of his sister's children at the expense of the Pandavas. Shakuni masterminds most of Duryodhana's plots to humiliate and kill the Pandavas.

Duryodhana's hatred for the Pandava brothers stems from his sincere belief that he being the eldest brother is the heir apparent to the throne of Hastinapura. His father, in spite of being the eldest son, had to renounce the throne in favor of Pandu because of his blindness. Duryodhana deeply believed that what was rightfully his was being given away to his elder cousin Yudhisthira which was nepotism. He also bore a deep hatred of Bhima [the second Pandava], who dominates the Kauravas in sport and skill, with his immense physical power and strength.

Duryodhana attempts to murder Bhima by feeding him a poisoned feast, but Bhima survives due to his immense physical capacity and blessings from celestial Nagas [See UKT note]. Duryodhana then participates in a plot by Shakuni involving an architect Purochana who built an inflammable house by incorporating lac, animal fat, hay and various other fuels into the walls and set it on fire when the Pandavas were staying in it during a visit to participate in festive celebrations at Varnavata. However, Purochana is himself killed in the fire, and the Pandavas manage to escape thanks to a brilliant counter-scheme by Vidura.

Usurping the kingdom

When the princes come of age, Yudhisthira is given half the kingdom and made king of Indraprastha, so as to avoid a clash with the Kaurava princes over the whole Kuru kingdom. Duryodhana becomes the prince regent of Hastinapura, and owing to the age and blindness of his father, he accumulates much control and influence, managing the state affairs himself with a coterie of his advisors that include his uncle Shakuni, brother Dushasana and friend Karna.

But Duryodhana remains jealous of Yudhisthira, owing to Indraprastha's prosperity and fame exceeding Hastinapura's. When Yudhisthira performs the Rajasuya sacrifice that makes him emperor of the World, Duryodhana is unable to contain his anger, which is intensified when Yudhisthira's queen Draupadi arrogantly taunts him, and his father's blindness, when he slips into a pool of water in the court.

The dice plot, and Draupadi's humiliation

Knowing that an all-out war with the Pandavas may not lead to definitive success, Shakuni devises a scheme to rob Yudhisthira of his kingdom and wealth by defeating him in a game of dice, which Shakuni is an expert at and Yudhisthira a complete novice. Unable to resist the challenge, Yudhisthira gambles away his entire kingdom, his wealth, his four brothers and even his wife, in a series of gambits to retrieve one by staking another.

UKT: Draupadi was married to all the five Pandava brothers at the same time. This shows that polyandry under certain conditions was allowed in northern India at one time.

Karna encourages Duryodhana's brother Dushasana to drag Draupadi [who earlier had publically insulted Karna calling him the son of a chariot driver] into the court and disrobe her, as she is Duryodhana's property after Yudhisthira had gambled everything away to him. Dushasana attempts to strip Draupadi, who is mystically protected by Krishna, who makes her sari inexhaustible. Dushasana exhausts all his might, pulling the sari which never finishes.

Nevertheless, due to this action Bhima [UKT: the second Pandava brother and one of the husbands of Draupadi ] swears that at the end of the exile, he would break Duryodhana's thigh (as Duryodhana asked Draupadi to sit on his thigh).

The first time, the king Dhritarashtra and Vidura make Duryodhana re-establish Yudhisthira. But then the plot is repeated, and for this game of dice Shakuni sets the condition that upon losing, Yudhisthira and his brothers must spend thirteen years in exile in the forest before they may reclaim their kingdom. The thirteenth year must be passed incognito, or else the term of exile would be repeated.

World emperor

During the exile, Duryodhana attempts to humiliate Yudhisthira by flashing his wealth and prowess in their forest of exile. He is however caught in a conflict with the Gandharva king Chitrasena, who captures him. Yudhisthira asks Arjuna and Bhima to rescue Duryodhana, who is humiliated. Setting his mind to die, Duryodhana pledges to fast unto death.

During his fast, Duryodhana is mystically taken to a gathering of powerful Daitya and Danava beings, who inform him that he was born as a result of their tapasya, and his mission was to destroy the purpose of the Devas and Krishna upon earth. The demonic beings assure him that powerful demons had been incarnated as his allies, making his defeat impossible. Encouraged, Duryodhana returns to Hastinapura.

Karna now embarks upon a worldwide military campaign to subjugate kings and impose Duryodhana's imperial authority over them. Bringing tribute and allegiance from all the world's kings, Karna helps Duryodhana perform the Vaishnava sacrifice to please Vishnu, and crowns himself World emperor, as Yudhisthira did with the Rajasuya.

The Kurukshetra War

At the end of the exile term, Duryodhana refuses to return Yudhisthira's kingdom, despite the counsel of Bhishma, Drona, Vidura and even Krishna, whom he attempted to arrest. Although Dhritarashtra criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana, and not Yudhishitra remain Emperor.

Making war inevitable, Duryodhana gathers support from powerful kings and armies. The most legendary warriors - Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa, Ashwathama, Shalya, even though most of them were critical of him - are forced to fight for Duryodhana. He ends up amassing a larger army than his rivals.

In the war, Duryodhana repeatedly eggs on the invincible Bhishma and Drona to forward his cause, even though his main hope is Karna. He asks Drona to capture Yudhisthira alive, so that he may blackmail the Pandavas into surrender, or force Yudhisthira to gamble again. He also participates in the brutal and unethical killing of Arjuna's son Abhimanyu.

But he is repeatedly frustrated when the Pandavas succeed in downing the two Kuru legends, and is emotionally distraught when Arjuna slays over one million Kuru soldiers in one day and kills Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu to avenge Abhimanyu. And all along, Bhima is steadily slaying his brothers, increasing his misery and bringing him closer to defeat.

It is said that, Duryodhana never shed a single tear for any of his real brothers who were killed in the battlefield, but when his beloved friend Karna was slain, he was inconsolable.

Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna is felled by Arjuna in cheating as Karna was attcked by Arjuna when he was defenseless and removing the wheel of his chariot. He cools his body by entering a lake, all hope of winning lost, yet he prepares for his final battle; for a death befitting a warrior on the battle field and hoping to reunite with his friends and relations in the afterlife. He re-emerges from the lake after Ashwathama and Kripa counsel him to face his destiny with courage.

The fight with Bhima

Krishna visits Gandhari to express condolences for her lost sons. Overcome by the pain of losing her sons, she curses Krishna that his family and folk will also be destroyed, just as her children were in the war that he (Krishna) could have averted.

When Duryodhana faces the Pandava brothers and Krishna alone, Yudhisthira makes him an offer that he may pick any of the Pandava brothers to fight against one-to-one with a weapon of his choice, and that if he defeats that Pandava, Duryodhana shall be deemed the victor of the war.

Duryodhana picks his archnemesis Bhima over the other Pandava brothers whom he could have effortlessly overwhelmed with his skill at fighting with the mace, to ensure a fair fight. Both possessed exceptional physical strength and had been trained by Balarama in mace fighting and wrestling to equal degrees of prowess. After a long and brutal battle stretching many days, Duryodhana begins to exhaust Bhima. (It may be noted that Bhima had been blessed with strength equivalent of 70 elephants by drinking the magical Sudha-rasa that his maternal great grandfather had given him. Thus although otherwise equally matched, in this battle, Duryodhana with his long practice at Bheema iron statute had an edge over Bhima's physical strength).

At this point, Krishna, observing the fight, calls out to Bhima and signals him by repeatedly clapping his own thigh with his hand. To others it would appear like applauding the fight, but as Krishna intended, Bhima was reminded of an oath he had taken after the game of dice to crush Duryodhana's groin as retribution for insults to Draupadi. Bhima viciously attacks Duryodhana with a mace and strikes his groin, and Duryodhana finally falls in battle, mortally wounded.

Although Duryodhana bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist according to the rules of mace-fighting, Krishna points out to the dying prince that his insults of Draupadi, murder plots and cheating against the Pandavas and the unethical killing of Abhimanyu too had neither complied with dharma nor with the rules laid down for the war. It was useless thus, for Duryodhana to hope that moral grounds and values would come to his rescue, after he had dishonored them throughout his life.

Duryodhana cries out, "I have no interest in becoming a king now, I have lost all interests in this world which is fake and temporary. I shall spend the rest of my (after) life in heaven in the company of my friends, relatives and well wishers. You people defeated us by cheating and trickery, otherwise the likes of Bhishma, Drona, Karna amongst others were unconquerable. The victory which you obtained is not true victory and your names will bare black stains in the future. I have always been a good son, loyal friend, caring brother, generous prince, and terrible enemy. I thank everyone who laid his life down for me"

It was each Kaurava's aim to protect Duryodhana till his last breath and so every one had vowed that they will fight for him till the end of their lives, so when Duryodhana died, it was after all those who had protected him. Duryodhana was always going to be the last person to die.

Krishna said "Yes, these men truly were invincible, while fought against fairly, but I had to uphold dharma."


The moderate view of Hindu scholars is that Duryodhana was a powerful and capable king who governed his subjects fairly, but was devious and wicked in his plots against his cousins.

His refusal to accept Yudishtir as Crown Prince, stemmed from the fact that he never acknowledged the sons of Kunti & Madri as the sons of Pandu. To him, the tales relating to Kunti's boon was all eyewash. Duryodhana never accepted the fact that Dhritarastra was a regent following the death of Pandu, and that Yudishtir was the only one eligible for Kingship.

Bhim's unrestrained, brutal beatings during childhood left psychological scars on him, and the rift was further fueled by the Kuru elders' partiality towards the Pandavas. Vidura, their uncle, in particular, promoted the interests of the Pandavas due to the legalities of their claim to the throne. While Duryodhana did endorse the idea of the dice game in order to usurp the Pandavas' kingdom, Yudishthira is equally to blame, for his impulsive gambling instincts.

While decrying the means of discrimination employed by Dronacharya, he likened Karna to the Sun, stressing that the Sun's identity arises only out of its power to illuminate the world. He went one-step further to accord Karna place among the royals, by crowning him the King of Anga and standing by him whenever anyone pointed a finger at his lower-birth.

While he is condemned for attempting to humiliate Draupadi out of pride and blatant disregard for traditions. Moreover, his hatred for Draupadi and Pandavas was fuelled further by her mocking his father's blindness.

Like Ravana, Duryodhana was powerful and glorious, and well-versed in religious knowledge, but failed to adhere to those values in practical life.

In Kumaon region of Uttranchal, several beautifully carved temples are dedicated to Duryodhana and he is worshipped as a minor deity. The mountain tribes of Kumaon fought along with Duryodhana armies in the Mahābhārata war; he was venerated as a capable and generous administrator.

In media

In the Mahābhārata television series of the late 1980s in India, Duryodhana's character is played by Punjabi actor Puneet Issar.

In Peter Brook's filmed version of the epic (1989), Duryodhana is played by Greek actor Georges Corraface. [UKT: I had the good fortune to watch Peter Brook's film on TV in Canada back in the 1980s.]

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A problem of grapheme shape:

Kālī {ka-li} or , and Kali {ka.li.}

Notice that there are two words which became confused in English transcriptions: Kali {ka.li.} and Kālī {ka-li}. Kali is an Asura whereas, Kālī is the Mother-goddess on the side of the Devas. You will notice that the grapheme form I have used for Kālī {ka-li} is in {mauk-hkya.} for {ka} instead of the usual form {ka} with {waik-hkya.} {ka-li}. This is to avoid confusion with {Na.} for {ka}. - UKT100818

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Kunti: virginity and non-sexual conception

- by UKT

To the Buddhist Myanmar, the idea of Mary, a virgin giving birth to Jesus Christ is incomprehensible. This has been my personal experience and my father's. Jesus was conceived by the "blessing" of God even before Mary was married to Joseph by whom she later had children. And because of this Mary is also known as Virgin Mary or The Virgin. Here we find the same case with Kunti, who before she was married to Pandu, had called upon the Sun-god Suriya {u.ri.ya.} to bless her with a child. That child was Karna - the non-Pandava. That would have made Kunti the Virgin Kunti. Though she later married Pandu, because Pandu had been "cursed" not to have a sexual relation with a woman, Kunti must have remained a virgin. The Pandavas were born to her at her calling upon various gods to bless her with sons. Thus, though the Pandavas were "legally" the sons of Pandu they were not his natural sons. How strange for a Theravada Buddhist like me! And in fact, the Burmese-Buddhist Law in Myanmar would not allow any proxy marriages - a marriage must be consummated. Period.

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The Celestial (non-human) Nagas of Myanmar


The "celetial Nagas" are the {na.ga:) of Burmese-Myanmar. They are related to snakes. They are unlike the Chinese or the Japanese kind - which to us look like lizards. They were worshipped in Myanmar since the Pyu period which probably extended back into history to the days before the birth of the Buddha. In the story of King Duttabaung of the Pyus, he was served by Naga youths (in human forms probably) and had the use of a ship covered with Naga scales which propel the boat. In fact to the present day we find a grapheme, r4c5 {na.} [in fact the shortened form {na.}-short looks more like a snake] in the likeness of a naga. Anawratha banished the worship in the 11 century AD.
   The idea of a boat propelled by Naga scales (or electrically conducting metal plates with alternating charges) is not far off from reality. This is the reverse principle of an AC electric motor.

See Cult of Naga - ch07-cult-naga.htm in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism by Dr. Htin Aung - folk-indx.htm in CD 1 of MYANMAR, the land, the akshara, and its peoples series.

Letter to Zin
King Duttabaung of the Pyus was supposed to have a boat crewed by Naga youths probably in human form. The boat was covered by Naga scales which propelled it in the salt water of the sea. Could the Naga scales be conducting metal plates with alternating charges? Is this the principle of an AC electric motor in reverse? I remember reading about something like this: electric propulsion of boats in sea water. Can you check the idea? I am going to quote you in my work!
HpHp 100816

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The role of killed-r in change of Sanskrit into Pali

- by UKT 100815

I have been perplexed for a long time with the Bur-Myan pronunciation of the word for the chief "spiritual/philosophical" opponent of the "human" Buddha - the Man-Nat {mar nt} -  n. 1. Mara : the archangel of evil. 2. [fig.] the person who upsets the apple-cart (fig.) - MED359 . MLC gives its pronunciation as /man na'/.

There are several background points I have to point out first. First, there are two philosophical views. Simply put, whether to stay in the Samsara {n~a.ra.} (MED505) enjoying the material benefits living an 'eternal' immortal life -- the philosophy of Atta {t~ta.} (MED626). Or, since the idea of 'eternal immortal life' is just an "unproven" hypothesis, it may even be possible that there is no 'eternal immortal life' albeit very long and easily mistaken as 'eternal'. In what you see, historically, logically, metaphysically, it is always the 'change' or 'impermanence' -- the philosophy of Anatta {a.nt~ta.} (UHS-PMD0050) . 

UKT: Please note that I am not here discussing Anatta philosophy. For an introduction to such discussion please refer to works like Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatta 100815
   "In Buddhism, anattā (Pāli) or anātman (Skt: अनात्मन्) refers to the notion of "not-self". In the early texts, the Buddha commonly uses the word in the context of teaching that all things perceived by the senses (including the mental sense) are not really "I" or "mine", and for this reason one should not cling to them.
   "In the same vein, the Pali suttas (and parallel āgamas, both referred to collectively below as the nikayas), categorize the phenomena experienced by a being into five groups ("khandhas") that serve as the objects of clinging, and the basis for a sense of self. In the Nikayas, the Buddha repeatedly emphasizes not only that the five khandhas of living being "not-self", that is, not "I" or "mine", but that clinging to them as if they were "what I am", or were "mine", gives rise to unhappiness.
   "According to the early texts, while on the path, one should develop oneself in healthy and liberating ways, only letting go of the attempt to improve the self as it becomes unnecessary."

Second, though Man-Nat {mar nt} is sometimes equated to the Christian 'Devil', he is not a resident of the nether world. He lives on the highest Deva 'heavens' - {nt pr}, much higher than that of the {i.kra:} (MED495) himself, and therefore much more powerful than {i.kra:}. Incidentally, {i.kra:} is Buddhist, whereas his counterpart Indra {n~da} in Hinduism (MED628), is much meaner even stooping down to such lowly tactics to sending Aspira 'celestial dancing girls' to destroy the 'magical powers' of human hermits so that the human would not become more powerful than he. See the story of Sakuntala in Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara 100212 - excerpt given below:

"A story type or theme appearing over and over again in the Mahabharata is that of an Apsara sent to distract a sage or spiritual master from his ascetic practices. One story embodying this theme is that recounted by the epic heroine Shakuntala to explain her own parentage.[3] Once upon a time, the sage Viswamitra generated such intense energy by means of his asceticism that Indra himself became fearful. Deciding that the sage would have to be distracted from his penances, he sent the Apsara Menaka to work her charms. Menaka trembled at the thought of angering such a powerful ascetic, but she obeyed the god's order. As she approached Viswamitra, the wind god Vayu tore away her garments. Seeing her thus disrobed, the sage abandoned himself to lust. Nymph and sage engaged in sex for some time, during which Viswamitra's asceticism was put on hold. As a consequence, Menaka gave birth to a daughter, whom she abandoned on the banks of a river. That daughter was Shakuntala herself, the narrator of the story."

Third, although Buddha was human in flesh and blood, Man-Nat {mar nt} is not. Buddha had human opponents who even tried to assassinate him, Man-Nat {mar nt} was not one of them. He holds that one should be happy to live in the Samsara {n~a.ra.}, instead of quitting it as the Buddha had done. The Buddha should stop 'enticing' humans to leave the Samsara {n~a.ra.}. Now that the Buddha had the knowledge to do so, he should leave by dying. The Buddha refused to do so and imparted his knowledge to his followers: male-monks, female-monks, male lay-disciples, and female lay-disciples, and through them to others who already had sufficient basic knowledge to do so. Finally, at the age 80, Buddha 'died' and left Man-Nat {mar nt} happy. Because Man-Nat {mar nt} had opposed him, the Buddha had called Man-Nat {mar nt} the Evil One. Thus, "evil" is not in the Christian sense!

Now, let's come back to the pronunciation of the word Man-Nat {mar nt}. MLC has given the pronunciation as /man na'/ - changing the "killed r" to killed {na.} of the first syllable - /n/ coming from the second syllable. This change is also found in many words involving the killed-r when going from Sanskrit to Pali. The killed-r takes on the character of the onset of the second syllable.

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