Update: 2012-01-03 09:28 PM +0630

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Sanskrit English Dictionary

d-med-088b2-5.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{dya.} द्य
{dra.} द्र
{dwa.} द्व
{dwa.ya.} द्वय
{dwa-ra.} द्वार
{dwi.} द्वि
{dw} द्वे

 

UKT notes
Common Signs (Astrology) copulative (Grammar) Draupadi - the common wife of the five Pandava brothers. Drona Drupada Dvara sect in Myanmar - The Ogre Feast 

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{dya.} द्य
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UKT: Though is treated as a medial Bur-Myan can pronounce it only as a disyllable as /də.ja/, and is best transliterated as {d~ya.} or {daya.} (the latter with a mid-dot standing for schwa). -- UKT110829

द्यामुतेमां (dyaamutemaaM)
Skt: द्यामुतेमां (dyaamutemaaM) - sky - OnlineSktDict

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{dyu.}
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द्युतं (dyutaM)
Skt: द्युतं (dyutaM) - gambling - OnlineSktDict

द्युति (dyuti)
Skt: द्युति (dyuti) - gleam - OnlineSktDict

द्युतिं (dyutiM)
Skt: द्युतिं (dyutiM) - the sunshine - OnlineSktDict

द्यौ (dyau)
Skt: द्यौ (dyau) - from outer space - OnlineSktDict

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{dra.} द्र
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द्रव (drava)
Skt: द्रव (drava) - liquid - OnlineSktDict
Pal: drava  m.  liquid - UPMT-PED114
Pal: {dra.wa.} -

द्रवण (dravaNa)
Skt: द्रवण (dravaNa) - melting - OnlineSktDict

द्रवति (dravati)
Skt: द्रवति (dravati) - (1 pp) to melt - OnlineSktDict

द्रवन्ति (dravanti)
Skt: द्रवन्ति (dravanti) - glide - OnlineSktDict

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द्रवाङ्कः (dravaa NkaH)
Skt: द्रवाङ्कः (dravaa NkaH) - m.  melting point - OnlineSktDict

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द्रव्य (dravya)
Skt: द्रव्य (dravya) - money in terms of coins or jewlery - OnlineSktDict

द्रव्यमयात् (dravyamayaat.h)
Skt: द्रव्यमयात् (dravyamayaat.h) - of material possessions - OnlineSktDict

द्रव्ययज्ञाः (dravyayaGYaaH)
Skt: द्रव्ययज्ञाः (dravyayaGYaaH) - sacrificing one's possessions - OnlineSktDict

द्रव्येण (dravyeNa)
Skt: द्रव्येण (dravyeNa) - (instr.S) money or riches or wealth - OnlineSktDict

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द्रष्टा (drashhTaa)
Skt: द्रष्टा (drashhTaa) - consciousness, the 'witness,' also a statesman with insight - OnlineSktDict

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द्रष्टुं (drashhTuM)
Skt: द्रष्टुं (drashhTuM) - to be seen - OnlineSktDict

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द्रक्षयसि (drakShyasi)
Skt: द्रक्षयसि (drakShyasi) - you will see - OnlineSktDict

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द्राक्षा (draakShaa)
Skt: द्राक्षा (draakShaa) - (f) grapes - OnlineSktDict

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द्रुपदः (drupadaH) 
Skt: द्रुपदः (drupadaH) - Drupada - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Drupada

द्रुपदपुत्रेण (drupadaputreNa)
Skt: द्रुपदपुत्रेण (drupadaputreNa) - by the son of Drupada - OnlineSktDict

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द्रुम (druma)
Skt: द्रुम (druma) - tree - OnlineSktDict

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द्रेष्काण (dreshhkaaNa)
Skt: द्रेष्काण (dreshhkaaNa)
  - A Varga [astrological term], a subdivision of one third or a sign, aka Dreshkana - OnlineSktDict

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द्रोण (droNa)
Skt: द्रोण (droNa) - the teacher Drona - OnlineSktDict

द्रोणं (droNaM) 
Skt: द्रोणं (droNaM) - Drona - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Drona

द्रोणः (droNaH)
Skt: द्रोणः (droNaH) - Dronacarya - OnlineSktDict

द्रोणी (droNii)
Skt: द्रोणी (droNii) -  f. bucket - OnlineSktDict

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  द्रौपद draupadi
Skt: द्रौपद draupadi - Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draupadi 100828

See my note on Draupadi - the common wife of the five Pandava brothers.

द्रौपदेयाः (draupadeyaaH)
Skt: द्रौपदेयाः (draupadeyaaH) - the sons of Draupadi - OnlineSktDict

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{dwa.} द्व
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द्वन्द्व (dvandva)
Skt: द्वन्द्व (dvandva) - couple - OnlineSktDit
*Pal: dvanda  n. couple; m. copulative compound - UPMT-PED114
*Pal: {dwan~da.}

See my note on copulative compound - grammatical term

द्वन्द्वं (dvandvaM)
Skt: द्वन्द्वं (dvandvaM) - the pair - OnlineSktDict

द्वन्द्वः (dvandvaH)
Skt: द्वन्द्वः (dvandvaH) - the dual - OnlineSktDict

द्वन्द्वैः (dvandvaiH)
Skt: द्वन्द्वैः (dvandvaiH) - from the dualities - OnlineSktDict

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{dwa.ya.} द्वय
p089b1-2 

द्वयं (dvayaM)
Skt: द्वयं (dvayaM) - twin - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: dvaya  adj. of two kinds. n. a pair, couple - UPMT-PED114
*Pal: {dwa.ya.}

द्वादशमज्न्जरिकाभिः (dvaadashamaJNjarikaabhiH)
Skt: द्वादशमज्न्जरिकाभिः (dvaadashamaJNjarikaabhiH)
  - by the bouquet consisting of 12 flowers (12 - OnlineSktDict

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{dwa-ra.} द्वार
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द्वार (dvaara)  UKT: pronounced as / {dwa-ya.}/ in Bur-Myan
Skt: द्वार (dvaara) - n. entry - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dvāra  n. a door,
Pal: {dwa-ra.}

See in my note Dvara sect in Myanmar - the Ogre Feast.

द्वारं (dvaaraM)
Skt: द्वारं (dvaaraM) - door - OnlineSktDict

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  {dwi.} द्वि
p089b1-4

द्वि (dvi)
Skt: द्वि (dvi) - two, both - OnlineSktDict

द्विगुण (dviguNa)
Skt: द्विगुण (dviguNa) - twice - OnlineSktDict

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द्विचक्रिका (dvichakrikaa)
Skt: द्विचक्रिका (dvichakrikaa) - f.  bicyle - OnlineSktDict

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द्विज (dvija)
Skt: द्विज (dvija) - brahmin, tooth - OnlineSktDict

द्विजोत्तम (dvijottama)
Skt: द्विजोत्तम (dvijottama) - O best of the brahmanas - OnlineSktDict

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द्विप (dvipa)
Skt: द्विप (dvipa) - elephant - OnlineSktDict

द्विपाद (dvipaada)
Skt: द्विपाद (dvipaada) - two feet - OnlineSktDict

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द्विर्द्वादशा (dvirdvaadashaa)
Skt: द्विर्द्वादशा (dvirdvaadashaa) - [Astrology] 2nd and 12 house from each other - OnlineSktDict

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द्विविधा (dvividhaa)
Skt: द्विविधा (dvividhaa) - two kinds of - OnlineSktDict

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द्विषतः (dvishhataH)
Skt: द्विषतः (dvishhataH) - envious - OnlineSktDict

द्विस्वभावराशि (dvisvabhaavaraashi)
Skt: द्विस्वभावराशि (dvisvabhaavaraashi) - [Astrology] common signs - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Common Signs - astrology

 

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द्वीपः (dviipaH)
Skt: द्वीपः (dviipaH) - (m) island - OnlineSktDict

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{dw} द्वे
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द्वे (dve)
Skt: द्वे (dve) - two - OnlineSktDict

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{p089b3-2} 

द्वेश (dvesha)
Skt: द्वेश (dvesha) - hatred - OnlineSktDict

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{p089b3-3}

द्वेष (dveshha)
Skt: द्वेष (dveshha) - hatred - OnlineSktDict

द्वेषः (dveshhaH)
Skt: द्वेषः (dveshhaH) - hatred - OnlineSktDict

द्वेषौ (dveshhau)
Skt: द्वेषौ (dveshhau) - also detachment - OnlineSktDict

द्वेष्टि (dveshhTi)
Skt: द्वेष्टि (dveshhTi) - envies - OnlineSktDict

द्वेष्य (dveshhya)
Skt: द्वेष्य (dveshhya) - the envious - OnlineSktDict

द्वेष्यः (dveshhyaH)
Skt: द्वेष्यः (dveshhyaH) - hateful - OnlineSktDict

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{p089b3-4}

द्वैधाः (dvaidhaaH)
Skt: द्वैधाः (dvaidhaaH) - duality - OnlineSktDict

द्वौ (dvau)
Skt: द्वौ (dvau) - the two - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Common signs

Common Signs: Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, and Pisces, synonymous with mutable signs. -- http://en.mimi.hu/astrology/common_signs.html 110829

The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutable_sign 110829

The mutable signs are:

Gemini ♊ - between the spring and summer seasons.
Virgo ♌ - between the summer and autumn seasons.
Sagittarius ♐ - between the autumn and winter seasons.
Pisces ♓ - between the winter and spring seasons.
For more information, refer to the Astrological Signs article.

In a Byzantine scholium to Chapter 2 of the Introduction to astrology by fourth-century Hellenistic [Greek] astrologer Paulus Alexandrinus, the following clear definition can be found:

"A double-bodied zoidion [sign] is said to be between two seasons, such as Gemini between spring and summer, ending the spring and beginning the summer [...] That is to say, double-bodied as being between the two bodies of spring and summer."[1]

900 years later, when medieval Italian Guido Bonatti wrote his Liber Astronomiae, in the final years of the thirteenth century, the definition remained the same and his is more verbose:

"The moveable (cardinal) signs are so-called [...] because at the time when the Sun enters them the disposition of the air is changed [...] The common signs are so-called because when the Sun enters any of these signs it makes the time common, neither truly fixed nor truly movable, but it partakes of both, fixed and moveable. Whence part of that time it is of one [nature] and part of the other [...] when [the Sun] leaves Leo and enters Virgo, then the season is changed, and is made partly summer and partly autumnal."[2]

However, by the time William Lilly wrote Christian Astrology, in 1647, a subtle change had taken place. Lilly writes, describing Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces:

"The Signs [...] are divided into moveable, fixed and common, [...] [Common] Signs are constituted between moveable and fixed, and retain a property of nature, partaking both with the preceding and consequent Sign [...] They are called bi-corporeal or double bodied, because they represent two bodies: as Gemini (twins), Pisces (two fish)."[3]

The seasonal connection had become more tenuous, although it was doubtless still understood.

Lilly goes on to say that mutable signs are inherently "unstable, and of no resolution, and mutable, perverted, wavering [...] inconstant."[3] This is a rather dramatic overstatement, but Lilly is trying to create the most striking comparisons he can between the three classes of signs.

Modern astrology does tend to regard mutable signs as more unstable and wavering, less strong-willed, than either cardinal or fixed signs, but also more adaptable and can deal more easily with change.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Go back Common-signs-note

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copulative

copulative adj. 1. Grammar  a. Serving to connect coordinate words or clauses: a copulative conjunction. b. Serving as a copula: a copulative verb. 2. Of or relating to copulation. n. Grammar  1. A copulative word or group of words. cop'ula'tively adv.

Go back copulative-note-b

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Draupadi

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draupadi 100829

In the epic Mahābhārata, Draupadi, also known as kṛṣṇā draupadī (कृष्णा द्रौपदी; approximate pronunciation: [krɪʂɳaː d̪rəʊpəd̪iː]) is the adopted daughter of King Drupada of Panchāla and the [common] wife of the five Pandavas  [brothers]. When Yudhisthira [the first Pandava - the gambler] becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the war, Draupadi becomes his queen. She is sometimes called kṛṣṇā (Krishnaa) as also Panchali, (one from the kingdom of Panchāla). She had five sons by each of the Pandavas [husbands]: Prativindhya, Sutasoma, Shruthakeerti, Satanika, and Srutasena.

Birth

King Drupada of Panchala had been defeated by the Pandava prince Arjuna [the third Pandava - the archer] on behalf of Drona, who subsequently took half his kingdom to humiliate him. To gain revenge on Drona, he performed a fire-sacrifice (yaja) to obtain a means of besting him. Draupadi emerged, as a beautiful dark skinned young woman, together with her siblings Dhrishtadyumna and Shikhandi from the sacrificial fire. She was named kŗşņā, for her dark complexion, though she is better known as draupadi, daughter of Drupada.

Polyandry: Marriage to the five Pandava brothers at the same time

Drupada intended that Arjuna alone win the hand of his daughter. Upon hearing of the Pandavas' supposed death at Varanavata he set up a swayamvara for Draupadi intending to bring Arjuna out into the open. The princes vying for Draupadi's hand had to shoot five arrows at a revolving target, while looking only at its reflection in a bowl. Drupada was confident that Arjuna alone could accomplish this task. Arriving with his brothers disguised as Brahmins (priests), Arjuna successfully tackled the target, which other kings and prince were unable to accomplish.

While in exile, Kunti, mother of the Pandavas often advised her sons that they share everything they have (or obtain through Bhiksha (i.e. alms) equally amongst themselves. Upon returning home with Draupadi, on purpose, Arjuna addresses his mother first "Look mother, I have brought Bhiksha (alms)!". Kunti, unmindful of what Arjuna was referring to, unassumingly asked her son to share whatever it is with his brothers. Thus, in order to obey their mother's order [however absurd it may be] all five accepted Draupadi as their [common] wife, without taking her consent.

When Krishna visits the family, he explains to Draupadi that her unique position as the wife of five brothers results from a certain incident in her previous birth. She had in that lifetime prayed to Shiva to grant her a husband with five desired qualities. Shiva, pleased with her devotion, tells her that it is very difficult to get a husband with all five qualities that she desired. But she sticks to her ground and asks for the same. Then Lord Shiva grants her wish saying that she would get the same in her next birth. Hence she gets married to five brothers each who represents a given quality.

None of Draupadi's children survive the end of the epic [the Kurukshetra War aka Mahābhārata War]. Parikshita, grandson of Subhadra and Arjuna, is the sole Pandava descendent who survives, at the end of Mahābhārata.

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The attempted stripping

This key incident is often considered to mark a definitive moment in the story of Mahābhārata. It is the one of the driving reasons that ultimately led to the Mahābhārata war, though it cannot be considered the central or the most important one.

Yudhishthira and his four brothers were the rulers of Indraprastha under the sovereignty of King Dhritarashtra. Dhritarashtras son Duryodhana who resided in the capital of the empire Hastinapura was always jealous of his cousins and the wealth they had acquired by building Indraprastha. To take revenge on the Pandavas, his uncle Shakuni came up with a plan and together with his brothers, his friend Karna and maternal uncle Shakuni, he conspired to call the Pandavas at Hastinapura and win their kingdoms in a game of gambling. Shakuni was skilled at winning by unfair means. The idea was that Shakuni would play against Yudhishthira [the first Pandava - the gambler] and win at the gambling table what was impossible to win at the battlefield.

As the game proceeded, Yudhishthira lost all his wealth and kingdom one by one. Having lost all material wealth, he went on to put his brothers at stake one by one and lost them too. Ultimately he put himself at stake, and lost again. All the Pandavas were now the servants of Kauravas. But for the Shakuni, the humiliation of Pandavas was not complete. He prods Yudhishthira that he has not lost everything yet; Yudhishthira still has Draupadi with him and if he wishes he can win everything back by putting Draupadi at stake. Yudhishthira walks into the trap and to the horror of everybody present, puts Draupadi as a bet for the next round. But Bhishma and Drona oppose this move recalling that a queen being a woman cannot be put at stake. However Yudhishthira [the first Pandava - the gambler] ignores their call and puts her at stake much to the ire of Bhishma, who in his frustration breaks his chair. Shakuni wins. Duryodhana commands his younger brother Dushasana to forcefully bring her into the forum. Dushasana barges into the living quarters of Draupadi, who was "clad in one piece of attire"[1]. Dushasana grabs her by the hair and brings her into the court dragging her by the hair.

Now in an emotional appeal to the elders present in the forum, Draupadi repeatedly questions the legality of the right of Yudhishthira [the first Pandava - husband of Draupadi] to place her at stake when he himself had lost his freedom and as a consequence did not possess any property in the first place. Everybody remains dumbfounded. Bhishma, the patriarch of the Kaurava family and a formidable warrior, has only this explanation to offer to Draupadi - The course of morality is subtle and even the illustrious wise in this world fail to always understand it. Duryodhana now commands the Pandavas to strip themselves in the manner of dasa [the slave?]. They obey by stripping off their upper garments.

Then Kauravas demand the same from Draupadi who refuses. Then to the horror of everybody present, Dushasana tries to strip Draupadi of her sari. Seeing her husbands unable or unwilling to help her, Draupadi prays to Krishna to protect her. A miracle occurs henceforward, which is popularly attributed to Krishna but in Vyasa's Mahabharata, Draupadi's saviour is named as Dharma (who could be just morality, the god Dharma, Krishna as the Lord of Dharma, or even Vidura or Yudhishthira, or even a logical paradox of Draupadi's question - did Yudhishthira have the right to stake her when he had already lost himself). As Dushasana unwraps layers and layers of her sari, her sari keeps getting extended. Bhima is furious at Dushasana and says, "I Bhim, Pandu's son vows until I will tear open Dushasana's chest and drink his blood I will not show my face to my ancestors." Finally, a tired Dushasana backs off without being able to strip Draupadi.

Duryodhana repeatedly challenges Yudhishthiras four [younger Pandava] brothers to disassociate themselves from Yudhishthiras authority and take their wife back. No one dares to denounce their loyalty to their eldest brother. In order to provoke the Pandavas further, Duryodhana bares and pats his thigh looking into Draupadis eyes, implying that she should sit on his thigh. In rage Bhima vows in front of the entire assembly that one day he will break that very thigh of Duryodhan in battle.

Finally, the blind monarch Dhritarashtra's conscience is stirred, in part fearing the wrath of Pandavas against his sons. He intervenes and asks Draupadi to wish for whatever she desires. Draupadi asks her husbands the Pandavas to be freed from bondage. Dhritarashtra grants her wish and also restores to Pandavas all they lost in the game of dice. Free from the bondage Bhima immediately proposes to his brothers to slay all Kauravas present then and there itself. Yudhishthira and Arjuna prevent him from taking any rash action. After many words of reconciliation between Pandavas and Dhritarashtra, Pandavas withdraw to their kingdom along with Draupadi and their entourage.

Shakuni, Karna and Duryodhana later convince Dhritarashtra to invite Pandavas for a new game of dice, with modified rules. It was following the defeat in this new game that Pandavas were sent into exile for 12 years.

However, not pledging her, given that the other Pandava brothers had already been pledged and lost, would also not have resolved the dilemma Yudhishthira faced. That the elders like Bhishma, Drona, and Dhritarashtra remained silent spectators of the entire episode adds valuable insight to their personalities too. Vidura [the minister ?] was the only one who objected to the whole thing but he did not have the authority to stop it.

Devotion to Krishna

Krishna treats Draupadi as his sister. He protects her whenever she asks him for help as a sister. As per The Garuda Purana Draupadi is the incarnation of Bharati-Devi, The Consort of Lord Vayu. As per Narada and Vayu Puranas, Draupadi was composite Avatar of Goddesses Shyamala (wife of Dharma), Bharati (Wife of Vayu), Sachi (wife of Indra), Usha (wife of Ashwinis) and hence married their earthly counterparts in the form of the five Pandavas. Enraged at a jest by Parvati, Shyamala, Sachi and Usha, Brahma cursed them to human birth. Parvati thought of the solution wherein they will be born as one woman, Draupadi and hence share the earthly body for a smaller period of time. They requested Bharati to be with them in their human birth. Draupadi's characteristic fight against injustice reflects Parvati or her Shakti, Kali inhabiting Draupadi's mortal flesh at times. At other times, Draupadi was docile and even waited to be rescued (as in case of Jayadratha and Jatasura) showing the qualities of other goddesses like Sachi and Usha. Other times, she showed astuteness in hiding their true identity and asking Vayu putra Bhima to kill the evil Keechaka like Goddess Bharati would. Draupadi was also avatar of Goddess Shree or Wealth who was joint wife to five Indras, aka Five Pandavas. She was to be born several times for imprisoning the Indras. First time was as Vedavati who cursed Ravana (who is another goddess Avatar Swaha, wife to Agni). She then came again as Maya-Sita especially to take revenge from Ravana while Agni hid the real Sita. Third one was partial either Damyanti (whose husband Nala was equivalent to Dharma, Vayu, Indra just like the Pandavas) and her daughter Nalayani. She married Sage Mudgala. The fifth avatar was Draupadi herself. So we find in Draupadi, a composite avatar of Kali, Parvati, Sachi, Shyamala, Usha, Bharati, Shree, Swaha, the eight goddesses.

Krishna calls Draupadi His sister. He helps Draupadi because she prayed with utmost devotion. When Krishna had cut His finger on the Sudarshan Chakra, she bound it with her Sari, this act being the origin of Rakhi. Another story of the origin of Rakhi is Sachi tying a thread to Indra. Also, Krishna is the one who opposes her marriage to Karna and promotes her marriage to Arjuna.

Draupadi is regarded by most Hindus as the exemplification of bhakti to God. She shows utmost faith in Lord Krishna. And He protects her.

Polyandry

The marriage of Draupadi with five Pandava men, i.e., polyandry, was not regarded without censure by the society spoken of in the epic. The Indo-Aryan texts almost never mention or allow polyandry, although polygamy was common among men of higher social ranks. Her marriage to five men was controversial. Incidentally, this was a very common practise among people those time as Lord Krishna himself was married to more than 10000 women (although all these women were incarnation of rishi and saints and sages who wanted to see Lord Rama in the Sat-Yug ) .

Draupadī's polyandrous marriage seems to have been a historic event; otherwise the author of the Mahābhārata, who is at his wit's end to justify it, would have quietly kept silence about it. ... The Mahābhārata proceeds to give several fantastic reasons in justification of Draupadī's marriage; only one of them may be given by way of illustration. Draupadī got five husbands in this life because in one of her previous existences she had five times uttered the prayer to God, 'Give me a husband' (Mbh 1:213). [See also Mbh 1:206:2,27; 1:210:29 for contemporary cultural responses to polyandry.][2]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Go back Draupadi-note-b

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Drona

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drona 100826

In the epic Mahābhārata, Drona (Skt: द्रोण, droṇa) or Dronacharya (Skt: द्रोणाचार्य, droṇāchārya) was the royal guru to Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a master of advanced military arts, including the devastras. Arjuna was his favorite student. Drona's love for Arjuna was second only to his love for his son Ashwatthama. He was considered to be a partial incarnation of Brihaspathi.[1]

Birth and early life

Dronacharya was born a Bharadwaja brahmin, in a place considered to be modern day Dehradun. Drona implies that he was not gestated in a womb, but outside the human body in a droon (vessel).

The story of Dronacharya's birth is recounted dramatically in Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXI.[2] Bharadwaja went with his companions to the Ganga to perform his ablutions. There he beheld a beautiful apsara named Ghritachi who had come to bathe. The sage was overcome by desire, causing him to produce a reproductive fluid. Bharadwaja captured the fluid in a vessel called a drona, and Dronacharya himself sprang from the fluid thus preserved. Drona would later boast that he had sprung from Bharadwaja without ever having been in a womb.

Dronacharya spent his youth in poverty, but studied religion and military arts such as archery which he was known to have expertised together with the then prince of Panchala, Drupada. Drupada and Dronacharya became close friends and Drupada, in his childish playfullness, promised to give Dronacharya half his kingdom upon ascending the throne of Panchala.

Dronacharya married Kripi, the sister of Kripa, the royal teacher of the princes and other children of the kings born out of maidservants in Hastinapura. Kripi and Dronacharya had Ashwathama as a son.[3]

Guru Parasurama

Learning that Parasurama was giving away his fruits of penance to brahmanas, Dronacharya approached him. Unfortunately by the time Drona arrived, Parasurama had given away all his belongings to other brahmanas. Taking pity upon the plight of Drona, Parasurama decided to impart his knowledge of combat to Drona Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXI.[2]

Drona and Drupada

For the sake of his wife and son, Dronacharya desired freedom from poverty. Remembering the promise given by Drupada, he decided to approach him to ask for help. However, drunk with power, King Drupada refused to even recognise Dronacharya and humiliated him by calling him an inferior person.

Drupada gives Dronacharya a long and haughty explanation of why he is rejecting him. Friendship, says Drupada, is possible only between persons of equal station in life. As a child, he says, it was possible for him to be friends with Dronacharya, because at that time they were equals. But now Drupada had become a king, while Dronacharya remained a luckless indigent. Under these circumstances, friendship was impossible. However, he said he would satisfy Dronacharya if he begged for alms befitting a Brahmin rather than claiming his right as a friend. Drupada advised Dronacharya to think no more of the matter, and to be on his way. Dronacharya went away silently, but in his heart he vowed revenge Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXII..[2]

Dronacharya

Dronacharya's legend as a great teacher and warrior exceeds Hindu history by strongly influencing Indian social traditions. Drona inspires great debates about morality and dharma in the Mahābhārata epic.

The ball and the ring

(Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXIII.)[4] Drona went to Hastinapura, hoping to open a school of military arts for young princes with the help of the king Dhritarashtra. One day, he saw a number of young boys, the Kauravas and Pandavas gathered around a well. He asked them what the matter was, and Yudhisthira, the eldest, replied that their ball had fallen into the well and they did not know how to retrieve it.

Drona laughed, and mildly rebuked the princes for being helpless over such a plain problem. Yudhisthira replied that if he, a brahmin, could retrieve their ball, the king of Hastinapura would provide all the basic necessities to him for life. Drona first threw in a ring of his, collected some grass blades, and uttered mystical Vedic chants. He then threw the blades into the well one after another, like spears. The first blade stuck to the ball, and the second stuck to the first, and so on, forming a chain. Drona gently pulled the ball out with this rope of grass.

In a feat that was even more amazing to the boys, Drona then chanted Vedic mantras again and fired a grass blade into the well. It struck within the center of his floating ring and rose out of the well in a matter of moments, retrieving Drona's ring. Excited, the boys took Drona to the city and reported this incident to Bhishma, their grandfather.

Bhishma instantly realized that this was Drona, and his prowess exemplified, asked him to become the Guru of the Kuru princes, training them in advanced military arts. Drona then established his gurukul near the city, where princes from numerous kingdoms around the country came to study under him. This village came to be known as Guru-Gram (guru means teacher and gram means village), and has now developed into the city of Gurgaon.

Arjuna

Of all the Kaurava and Pandava brothers training under Drona, Arjuna emerges as the most dedicated, hard-working and most naturally talented of them all, exceeding Drona's son Ashwathama as well. Arjuna assiduously serves his teacher, who is greatly impressed by his devoted pupil.

Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXV[5] Arjuna surpasses Drona's expectations in numerous challenges. When Drona tests the princes' alertness and ability by creating an illusion of a crocodile attacking him and dragging him away, most of the princes are left dumbfounded. But Arjuna swiftly fires arrows that slay the illusionary animal, and Drona congratulates Arjuna for passing this test. As a reward, Drona gives Arjuna the super-powerful divine weapon of Brahma known as Brahmasira, but tells Arjuna not to use this irresistible weapon against any ordinary warrior. The weapon had a sharp edge surrounded below by 3 heads of Lord Brahma. In another challenge, Drona gives each prince a pot to fill with water and swiftly return. Whoever returns fastest would receive instruction in some extra special knowledge. He gives his son Ashwathama a wide-necked pot unlike the other's narrow-necked ones, hoping he will be the first to return. But Arjuna uses his knowledge of a mystical water weapon to fill his pot swiftly and returns first.

Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXIV[6] - Section CXXXV.)[5] In a great challenge, Drona sets up a wooden bird upon a tree, and from across the adjacent river, asks the princes to shoot it down by striking its eye. When prince Yudhisthira tries first, Drona asks him what he saw. Yudhisthira replies he saw Drona, his brothers, the river, the forest, the tree and the bird. Drona replies that Yudhisthira would fail and asks another prince to step forward. The others give the same reply, and Drona is disappointed with all. But when Arjuna steps forth, he tells Drona that he sees only the eye of the bird and nothing else. When Drona excitedly asks him to continue, Arjuna replies that he saw only the bird's eye. Drona asks him to shoot, and Arjuna strikes the bird down in the eye.

One day Arjuna observed that his brother Bhima was eating in the night in complete darkness. He subtely observed that he was able to eat food in dark. By practice, hands would reach one's mouth even in darkness. This striked Arjuna to practice archery in darkness. He begins training by night to use his weapons in absolute darkness, and steadily achieves a great level of skill.

Drona is greatly impressed by Arjuna's concentration, determination and drive, and promises him that he will become the most powerful warrior on earth. Drona gives Arjuna special knowledge of the devastras that no other prince possesses.

Ekalavya and Karna

(Mahābhārata, Book I: Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section XXXIV.) Ekalavya is a young prince of the Nishadha tribes, who comes to Drona for instruction. Drona cannot train him along with the Kshtriya Princes because he did not belong to the Kshatriya varna (caste). But, he grants Ekalavya a boon that whenever he meditates upon Guru Drona he will acquire the knowledge of Divine Astras. Ekalavya begins study and practice by himself, having fashioned a clay image of Drona and worshipping him. Solely by his determination, Ekalavya becomes a warrior of exceptional prowess, at par with the young Arjuna. One day, a dog barks while he is focused upon practice, and without looking, the prince fires arrows that seal up the dog's mouth while not causing any harm. The Pandava princes see this dog running, and wonder who could have done such a feat. They see Ekalavya, who announces himself as a pupil of Drona.

Arjuna is worried that his position as the best warrior in the world might by usurped. Drona sees his worry, and visits Ekalavya with the princes. Ekalavya promptly worships Drona. Drona asks Ekalavya for a dakshina, or a deed of thanks a student must give to his teacher upon the completion of his training. Drona asks for Ekalavya's right thumb, which Ekalavya unhesitatingly cuts off and hands to Drona, despite knowing that this would irreparably hamper his archery skills.

Drona similarly rejects Karna, as he does not belong to the ksatriya caste. Humiliated, Karna vows to exact revenge. He obtains the knowledge of weapons and military arts from Parasurama, by appearing as a brahmin, and challenges Arjuna in the martial exhibition. Thus, Drona inadvertently laid the foundation for Karna's great rivalry with Arjuna.

Revenge upon Drupada

On completing their training, Drona asked the Kauravas to bring Drupada bound in chains. Duryodhana appoints Vikarna, the best warrior among the Kauravas, as the army commander. Then he, Dushasana, Sudarshana, Vikarna and the remaining Kauravas attack Panchala with the Hastinapur army. They fail to defeat the Panchala army, whereupon Drona sent Arjuna and his brothers for the task. The five Pandavas attacked Panchala without an army. Arjuna captures Drupada as ordered. Drona takes half of Drupada's kingdom, thus becoming his equal. He forgave Drupada for his misdeeds, but Drupada desired revenge. He performed a yagna to have a son who would slay Drona and a daughter who would marry Arjuna. His wish was fulfilled and thus was born Dhristadyumna, the slayer of Drona, and Draupadi, the consort of the Pandavas.

Drona in the war

Drona strongly condemns the wicked prince Duryodhana and his brothers for their abusive treatment of the Pandavas, and for usurping their kingdom by sending them into exile. But being a servant of Hastinapura, Drona is bound by duty to fight for the Kauravas, and thus against his favorite Pandavas.

Drona is one of the most powerful and destructive warriors in the Kurukshetra War. He is an invincible warrior, whom no person on earth can defeat. He single-handedly slays hundreds of thousands of Pandava soldiers with his powerful armory of weapons and incredible skill. After the fall of Bhishma, he becomes the Chief Commander of the Kuru Army.

Drona had been the preceptor of most kings involved in the war, on both sides.

Abhimanyu's killing

On the 13th day of battle, the Kauravas challenge the Pandavas to break a wheel shaped battle formation known as the Chakra Vyuha (see Wars of Hindu Mythology). Drona as commander forms this strategy as he knows that only Arjuna and Krishna know how to penetrate it. He asks the king of the Samshaptaka army to distract Arjuna and Krishna into another part of the battlefield, allowing the main Kuru army to surge through the Pandava ranks.

Arjuna's young son Abhimanyu is able to penetrate the formation, however, he is trapped when Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu holds the Pandava warriors following him at bay. Abhimanyu does not know how to get out of the Chakra Vyuha, but goes upon an all-out attack on the Kuru army, killing tens of thousands of warriors single-handedly. He even holds Karna and Drona himself at bay. Amazed at his prowess and courage, he is likened by the Kurus as his father's equal in greatness.

With his army facing decimation, Drona asks Karna, Dushasana and others to simultaneously attack Abhimanyu, to strike down his horses, his charioteer and to disable his chariot from different angles. Left without support, Abhimanyu begins fighting from the ground, whereupon all the Kuru warriors simultaneously attack him. Exhausted after his long, prodigious feats, Abhimanyu is weakened, grabs one of the wheels of his chariot and blocks all the attacks, but eventually he is killed by the simultaneous stabbing of seven swords.

All this was an extreme violation of the rules of war, whereby a lone warrior may not be attacked by more than one, and not at all if he is disabled or without chariot. This devious murder of his son enrages Arjuna, who swears to kill Jayadratha, whom he sees as responsible for his son's death. If he failed to do so the next day, he would step into fire and commit suicide.

Drona lines up the entire Kuru army, with an entire akshohini (over a hundred thousand soldiers) in front of Arjuna to thwart his mission. But Arjuna exhibits his full prowess, and before the end of the day slays more than a hundred thousand warriors single-handedly. With the help of Krishna, he slays Jayadratha in the nick of time. On the whole, Arjuna devastates a large portion of the Kuru army dramatically in just one day of fighting.

Yudhisthira's capture and Drona's death

In the war, Yudhisthira was targeted by Drona to get captured. For this plan to be successful, Duryodhana invited King Bhagadatta who was a son of the asura Narakasur in order to fight against the Pandavas. Bhagadatta was the king of Prajokiyatsa which is nothing but Burma in modern times. As Krishna had killed Narakasur, Bhagadatta agreed to join the Kauravas. But, in spite of Bhagadatta's support, Drona failed to capture Yudhistra alive. The Kuru commander and preceptor is however killing hundreds and thousands of Pandava warriors and thus advancing Duryodhana's cause.

On the 15th day of the Mahābhārata war, Drona got instigated by King Dhritarastra's remarks of being a traitor. He used the Brahmadanda against the Pandavas. Brahmadanda was a spiritual divine weapon that contained the powers of seven greatest sages of Hinduism (saptarishis). But, Drona did not impart this knowledge neither to Arjuna nor Ashwattamma. Thus, he proves to be unconquerable on the 15th day of war.

Observing this, Krishna devises a plan to bring down the invincible Drona. Krishna knew that it was not possible to defeat Drona when he has bow and arrow in his hands. Krishna also knew that Drona loved his son Ashwatamma very dearly. So, Krishna suggests to Yudistra and other Pandava brothers that, if Drona is convinced that his son was killed in the battle field, then Drona gets dejected to such an extent that he will lay down all his arms on the ground and it will be easier to kill Dhrona. But, the problem was Ashwatamma was a chiranjeevi and it was not possible for anyone to kill Ashwatamma. In order to find a way out, Krishna suggested Bhima [the second Pandava brother] to kill an elephant by name Ashwatamma and claim to Drona that he has killed Drona's son Ashwatamma. Following this plan, Bhima located and killed an elephant named Ashwatthama. He then loudly proclaims that he had slain Ashwatthama in order to make Drona think that his son was dead. Drona however, did not believe Bhima's words and approached Yudhisthira. Drona knew that Yudistra's firm adherence to Dharma and that he will never ever utter a lie. When Drona approaches Yudhisthira and questions him as to whether his son was truly slain in the battle by Bhima, then, Yudhisthira responds with the cryptic Sanskrit phrase "Ashwatthama hathaha iti, narova kunjarova" (Skt: "अश्वत्थामा हतः इति, नरोवा कुंजरोवा..." meaning 'Ashwatthama is dead. But, I am not aware whether it was a human being or an elephant'). Krishna also knew that it was not possible for Yudhisthira to outright lie. Thus on his instructions, other warriors blow trumpets and conches, raising a tumultuous noise in such a way that Drona only heard that "Ashwatama is dead". He could not hear the later part of Yudishtra's reply. Thus Drona believes that his son Ashwatamma was dead. Drona also knew that if Ashwattamma is dead then his soul must be in heaven. So, out of grief Drona descends from his chariot, laid down his arms and sat in meditation by closing his eyes. Drona's soul goes to heaven in order to see whether Ashwatamma's soul was in heaven. In the mean time, Drupada's son Dhristadyumna took this opportunity and beheads the unarmed Drona who was not aware of the whole proceedings on Earth. This was albeit an act of cowardice on Dhristadyumna's part.

Dhrona's soul which went to heaven could not find Ashwatamma's soul in Heaven. So, Drona's soul returned to Earth but it could not get into its body as Drona's head was separated from his body. In this way, Drona gets killed in the Mahabharata war. His death greatly aggrieved and enraged Arjuna [the third Pandava], who had immense affection towards his teacher and had hoped to capture him alive rather than killing Drona.

Modern assessment

Drona was often without doubt, partial towards Arjuna. Any great teacher would feel enthralled if his protg so excels as Arjuna did, thus, so was Drona. Drona was somewhat parallel to Bhishma both in martial prowess, and in his unwavering commitment to fighting for the kingdom of Hastinapura irrespective of who the ruler was and whether or not the cause was just.

Lord Krishna was critical of Drona for remaining a mute spectator and not having protested the humiliation of Draupadi by Dushasana and Duryodhana following the fateful game of dice. He is also criticized for his pride and conceit, siding with evil despite knowing of and acknowledging the righteousness of the Pandava cause. However, he was compelled to side with the Kauravas because he was indebted to their royal household, which had provided him and his family with shelter, wealth and an occupation.

It may also be concluded that he was responsible for the devious murder of Abhimanyu, as it was he who had suggested simultaneously attacking and disabling the tired, outnumbered and trapped warrior. He also acted unfairly, when he demands as Guru Dakshina, the right thumb of Ekalaiva who self taught himself with Drona as his "Manaseega Guru" (Guru in mind). However, he remains a revered figure in Hindu history, and a pillar of the Indian tradition of respecting one's teacher as an equal not only of parents, but even of God.

The Government of India annually awards the Dronacharya Award for excellence in sports tutelage to the best sports teachers and coaches in India.[7]

It is believed that the city of Gurgaon (literally - "Village of the Guru") was founded as "Guru Gram" by Drona on land given to him by Dhritarashtra, the king of Hastinapur in recognition of his teachings of martial arts to the princes, and the 'Dronacharya Tank', still exists within the Gurgaon city, along with a village called Gurgaon.[8]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Drupada

From Wikipedia stub: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drupada 100826

Drupada (द्रुपद), also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahābhārata. He is king of the land of Panchala.

In his youth he studies with, and becomes a friend of Drona. Drona makes him promise to share all his fortunes with him. Later, when Drupada becomes king of Panchaladesa, Drona reminds him of his promise and asks for wealth. Drupada mocks Drona for taking a promise made in their irresponsible days of youth. Deeply angered, Drona becomes the teacher of the Kuru princes of Hastinapura. After their education is complete, Drona asks them to defeat Drupada. In a surprise attack, Arjuna, the Pandava [the third brother], disarms Drupada and forces him to surrender a part of his kingdom.

Drupada is father to the reborn Amba, who in her next reincarnation took birth as a man called Shikhandi. Because Sikhandi remembered his previous birth as a woman he was sometimes known as Shikhandini.

In his quest to gain revenge on Drona, Drupada, with the aid of the devas, fathers Draupadi and Dhrishtadyumna, the latter finally killing Drona. Draupadi gets married to Arjuna and finally the pandavs . Drupada himself is killed by Drona during the great Mahābhārata war.

UKT: Draupadi literally means 'the daughter of Drupada'. She was the common wife of all five Pandava brothers giving rise to my observation that the Ancient Indian society was not only very open but very tolerant where both bigamy and polyandry were accepted. - UKT110829

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Dvara sect in Myanmar
The Ogre feast {Bi-lu: sa:}

From: Bibhuti Baruah, Sects in Theravada in Buddhist sects and sectarianism , p136-137 http://books.google.com/books?id=s1PZAMD13SMC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=Dvara+Buddhist+sect+in+Myanmar&source=bl&ots=mqXoWaeYPt&sig=0wXjOu9Q6stMn6ZjQYEcBHEkb7U&hl=en&ei=gg13TJ2_NYqqvQO-9L22Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Sects in Theravada

The sectarian differences within Theravada Buddhism have no particular significance either for organizational responsibility or for beliefs -- they reflect historical origins and minor variations in practices. While in Mahayana Buddhism the various sects reflect different rituals, philosophies, and scriptures, in Theravada there is unity throughout Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia based on the Pail Tipitaka and commentaries which are accepted in the same way by all Buddhists.

In Ceylon the Sangha is divided into three sects -- Siamese, Amarapura, and Ramanya -- named after the countries from which their ordination was introduced to Ceylon. The Siamese sect was started in 2297 B.E. (A.D. 1753), when the king of Ceylon brought a delegation of ten Bhikkhus from Ayuthia in Thailand, and over three thousand people were ordained at Kandy. That sect is sometimes called the Upali-vamsa since the leader of the Thai Bhikkhus was Phra Upali. The Amarapura sect was founded when a group of novices went to Amarapura in Burma and after receiving higher ordination there returned to establish the Amarapura sect in Ceylon in 2345 B.E. (A.D. 1801). The Ramanya sect was founded a few years later by seven novices who went to Ramanya country of southern Burma [Lower Burma?] and returned to establish a new center for ordination in Ceylon.

Although all three sects accepts the same of discipline, the Amarapura sect is stricter in practice than the Siamese sect, and the Ramanya sect, in appearance is the strictest of all. All these sects are practically alike except for a new minor details regarding the use of robes and umbrellas. One division of the Siamese sect requires its members to cover only the left shoulder when they are in the temple premises or when they go out from the monastery. They members of one branch of the Ramanya sect do not use the ordination umbrella used by Bhikkus of the Amarapura sect and by the other branch of the Ramanya, but they use a special umbrella made of palmyra leaves. The Siamese sect ordains only the people who belong to the highest level of society, called Govi-gama, while the other two sects do not regard caste distinction as a rule. But all monks are hospitably received in all monasteries, regardless of their sect affiliation.

In Burma, in the reign of King Dhammaceti in the twenty first century after the Buddha (fifteenth century A.D.) the five existing sects -- one from Cambodia and four from Ceylon -- were combined by the king in one sect which received its higher ordination from Ceylon. In modern times there are three sects in Burma -- Sudhamma, Swedjin, and Dvara. . The Swedjin sect is some what stricter than the Sudhamma, and the Dvara  sect follows the strictest discipline of all. The Dvaras never use umbrellas; instead they use a large fan made of palmyra leaf. Apart from this there is no important difference between these sects.

In Thailand there are two sects, the Maha Nikaya (Great Sect) and Dhammayuttika Nikaya (Sect of the Followers of the Dhamma). The Dhammyuttikas are a reform sect, about a century old, smaller and more strict; they will not touch money, are not permitted to prepare their own food and to go where liquor is served, ride on trolleys, or wear shoes, but they may carry an umbrella. The members of the Maha Nikaya are more lax in these matters. Both sects follow the 227 rules of the Vinaya Pitaka but have slight differences in their every day life. The monks of the Maha Nikaya confess twice a day, morning and evening, while the monks of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya make their confession only when they feel guilty of a [{p136end}] transgression of the rules. Maha Nikaya monks recite the Patimokkha at the fortnightly service in a close room while the Dhammayuttikas chant and confess publicly.

In Cambodia there is no sect distinction worth mentioning. In times past both Tantrayana and Mahayana have been found in some of the Theravada countries, but today the Buddhism of Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia is almost exclusively Theravada, based on the Pali Canon. The only Mahayana deity that has entered the worship of ordinary Buddhists in Theravada countries is Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. In Ceylon he is known as Natha-deva and mistaken by the majority for the Buddha yet to come, Bodhisattva Maitreya . The figure of Avalokitesvara usually is found in the shrine room near the Buddha image.

The Bhikkhus in Theravada countries spend their time in the observance of the discipline of the Vinaya Pitaka, in study of the Tipitaka and the commentaries, in meditation in teaching novices and laymen, and in various forms of service to the community. The members of the Sangha bend all their energies toward following the path to Enlightenment which was taught by the Buddha.

Images and shrines

In the self-discipline of the monk, in the following of the Dhamma, the most important activity is meditation, ...

UKT: the rest not copied.

 

The Ogre Feast

UKT personal note - 100828

I will always remember the word Dvara {dwa-ra.} or as pronounced in Bur-Myan as / {dwa-ya.}/ in connection with the cholera epidemic of 1906 (approx date) in lower Burma mentioned in the Police Journal of that date as mentioned by my father U Tun Pe, a Public Health worker who had worked as an Public Health Inspector (PHI) at one time.

Note: Cholera [pronounced as /{kau-l-ra}/] is caused by a coliform bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Spelling of the disease can be mistaken for another disease - the chorea - a nervous disorder. - UKT 10828

My father's remark is about the Burmese belief in ogres {Bi-lu:}. The fatal bowel disorder, which can be described as a virulent diarrhea, can kill a victim overnight. This epidemic, my father had said was described by those opposed to the Dvara Sect {dwa-ra.} / {dwa-ya.}/ Buddhist sect as "the Ogre Feast" {Bi-lu:sa:}. According to the opponents of this sect, the head of this sect had become an ogre at his death and ate up many who had come to attend his funeral. Because the deceased monk was highly learned, many including those who did not share his views, had come to his funeral held in a small village known as Ywagale in Okkan township in Tharawaddy District. When my father had heard about this incident he was still a child and became very much alarmed of ogres roaming at night to eat people.

Note: a monk's funeral may be held a long time after his actual death. In the meantime, the body would be embalmed and kept in special crypt sometime for a couple of years. The funeral, culminating in cremation, is held for a couple of days. It is usually a carnival attended by many. - UKT

My father had said that the outbreak of the epidemic was traced to the attendees drinking water from natural pools known as {hton:} which was carrying the bacteria.

{hton:} - n. 2. large pool formed by inflow of water from rivers. - MED2010-205

Though I have tried to trace the Police Journals published by the British-colonial administration, I am unable to get a single copy. My father had said, this unfortunate incident was the cause of a Public Health Act, giving full authority to the PHI of the area to oversee all the public gatherings. The PHI had the full authority, which cannot be overruled by the District Commissioner himself, even to terminate an on going festival immediately. [facts need to be rechecked]

The inset figure shows a {nt Bi-lu:}. Missing is his {n-lyak} which he would be holding in his right hand.

Now about the word {Bi-lu:}. According to the popular beliefs, there are two kinds which are very different in way of life, appearance, mode of dress, and the weapon carried. The first kind is the {nt Bi-lu:} who are in fact the Asuras - they do not eat people. I have actually met a medium who claimed that the particular {nt Bi-lu:} he was in contact with, was well advanced on the Path - an {a.na-gaam} . [See UHS-PMD0055]. The opponent of Rama, Rravina (sp?) described in Bur-Myan as {dt-a-gi.ri.} (sp?) is a {nt Bi-lu:}. His weapon is the royal two edged dagger known as {n-lyak}. The kind that eat people, and the one to be feared, is the {ka.ton: Bi-lu:} 'bald ogre'. His weapon is the {ting:poat} 'mace' or 'cudgel'. The bald ogre are the kind 'reared' by sorcerers and witches under lemon-grass bushes or ground orchids and nurtured by fresh blood (animal blood or preferably human) regularly. The owner-sorcerer can use the ogre to do his work. But if he were to forget to feed his servant, he would be 'eaten' by the {Bi-lu:}. Anyone, even you, can rear a {Bi-lu:} to guard your house and your landed property. But unless you are properly trained in white magic, your servant will come and get you at your death to join their ranks! - UKT100827

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