Update: 2012-01-03 05:14 AM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{za} जा
{za-gRi.} जागृ
{za-ta.} जात
{za-ta} जाता
{za-ti.} जाति
{za-tu.} जातु
{za-na.} जान
{za-ni} जानी
{za-nu.} जानु
{za-n} जाने
{za-pa.} जाप
{za-ya.} जाय
{za-la.} जाल

UKT notes
Jamadagni - the seventh great sage
Jātaka जातक tales
Romabama vowel change in {ak} /k/, {ic} /ɪc/, {t} /ʌt/, {p} /ʌp/ rime series

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{za} जा

जागर्ति (jaagarti)
Skt: जागर्ति (jaagarti) - is wakeful - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: jāgarati  v. (√jāgar) to wake, watch - UPMT-PED097
*Pal: {za-ga.ra.ti.} - UHS-PMD0411

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{za-gRi.} जागृ

जागृ (jaagRi)
Skt: जागृ (jaagRi) - to stay awake - OnlineSktDict

जागृत (jaagRita)
Skt: जागृत (jaagRita) - alert - OnlineSktDict

जाग्रत (jaagrata)
Skt: जाग्रत (jaagrata) - (Vr. Imp. IIP. PI. PP) Wake up; awake; - OnlineSktDict

जाग्रतावस्था (jaagrataavasthaa)
Skt: जाग्रतावस्था (jaagrataavasthaa) - complete awareness of the state of the mind - OnlineSktDict

जाग्रति (jaagrati)
Skt: जाग्रति (jaagrati) - are awake - OnlineSktDict

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जाड्य (jaaDya) |
Skt: जाड्य (jaaDya) - laziness, inability to identify/ appreciate good qualities (here) - OnlineSktDict

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{za-ta.} जात

जात (jaata)
Skt: जात (jaata) - born, become (from jan.h, to be born, or created) - OnlineSktDict

जातं (jaataM)
Skt: जातं (jaataM) - having become - OnlineSktDict

जातः (jaataH)
Skt: जातः (jaataH) - of all beings - OnlineSktDict

जातक (jaataka)
Skt: जातक (jaataka) - nativity, literally means 'one who is born' - OnlineSktDict
Pal: jātaka  n. (√jā) birth, birth-story - UPMT-PED97
Pal: {za-ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0411

See my notes on Jātaka

जातवेदस्   jātavedas  
Skt: जातवेदस्   jātavedas   m.   fire - SpkSkt
Pal: jātaveda  m. fire - UPMT-PED097
Pal: {za-ta.w-da.} / {za-ta.b-da.} - UHS-PMD0411

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जातस्य (jaatasya)
Skt: जातस्य (jaatasya) - of one who has taken his birth - OnlineSktDict

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{za-ta} जाता

जाता (jaataa)
Skt: जाता (jaataa) - (part.fem.nom.S) is born - OnlineSktDict

जाताः (jaataaH)
Skt: जाताः (jaataaH) - born - OnlineSktDict

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{za-ti.} जाति

जाति (jaati)
Skt: जाति (jaati) - circumstances of life to which one is born - OnlineSktDict
Pal: jāti  f. (√jā)  birth, sort [printer's error?], family - UPMT-PED097
Pal: {za-ti.}
--  - UHS-PMD0411

जातिधर्माः (jaatidharmaaH)
Skt: जातिधर्माः (jaatidharmaaH) - community projects - OnlineSktDict

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{za-tu.} जातु

जातु (jaatu)
Skt: जातु (jaatu) - at any time - OnlineSktDict
Pal: jātu  adv. surely, certainly - UPMT-PED097
Pal: {za-tu.}  - UHS-PMD0413

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{za-na.} जान

जानकाराः (jaanakaaraaH)
Skt: जानकाराः (jaanakaaraaH) - knowledgeable - OnlineSktDict

जानकीवल्लभः (jaanakiivallabhaH)
Skt: जानकीवल्लभः (jaanakiivallabhaH) - the darling of jAnake (sItA) - OnlineSktDict

जानन् (jaanan.h)
Skt: जानन् (jaanan.h) - even if he knows - OnlineSktDict

जानाति (jaanaati)
Skt: जानाति (jaanaati) - knows - OnlineSktDict

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{za-ni} जानी

जानीते (jaaniite)
Skt: जानीते (jaaniite) - know - OnlineSktDict

जानीमः (jaaniimaH)
Skt: जानीमः (jaaniimaH) - know - OnlineSktDict

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{za-nu.} जानु

जानु (jaanu)
Skt: जानु (jaanu) - (n) knee - OnlineSktDict

जानुशिर्षासन (jaanushirshhaasana)
Skt: जानुशिर्षासन (jaanushirshhaasana) - the head-knee posture - OnlineSktDict

जानुनी (jaanunii)
Skt: जानुनी (jaanunii) - knees - OnlineSktDict

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{za-n} जाने

जाने (jaane)
Skt: जाने (jaane) - I know - OnlineSktDict

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{za-pa.} जाप

जाप्यसमेत (jaapyasameta)
Skt: जाप्यसमेत (jaapyasameta) - with chanting of the names of the lord - OnlineSktDict

जामदग्न्यजित् (jaamadagnyajit.h) 
Skt: जामदग्न्यजित् (jaamadagnyajit.h) - he who scored a victory over jAmadagni (ParashurAm, the son - OnlineSktDict

See in my notes on Jamadagni

जामाता (jaamaataa)
Skt: जामाता (jaamaataa) -(m) son-in-law - OnlineSktDict

जाम्बवदाश्रयः (jaambavadaashrayaH)
Skt: जाम्बवदाश्रयः (jaambavadaashrayaH) - he who gave refuge to jhambava (the bear-chieftain of - OnlineSktDict

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{za-ya.} जाय

जायते (jaayate)
Skt: जायते (jaayate) - (4 ap) to be born  - OnlineSktDict

जायन्ते (jaayante)
Skt: जायन्ते (jaayante) - develop - OnlineSktDict

जाया  jāyā
Skt: जाया (jaayaa) - wife, female companion, spouse, strii - OnlineSktDict
Pal: jāyā  f. a wife - UPMT-PED098
Pal: {za-ya.} - UHS-PMD0413

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{za-la.} जाल

जाल jāla 
Skt: जाल (jaala) - net - OnlineSktDict
Pal: jāla  f. a flame; n. a net, web, window, accumulation - UPMT-PED098
Pal: {za-la.}
-- - UHS-PMD0414

जालं (jaalaM)
Skt: जालं (jaalaM) - (n) net, network - OnlineSktDict

जालम् (jaalam.h)
Skt: जालम् (jaalam.h) - (n) net - OnlineSktDict

जाह्नवी (jaahnavii)
Skt: जाह्नवी (jaahnavii) - the River Ganges - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Jamadagni - the seventh great Rishi

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamadagni 100702

Jamadagni, (Skt: जमदग्नि) is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, i.e. the present Manvantara [1]. He was a descendant of the sage Bhrigu, one of the Prajapatis created by Brahma, the God of Creation.

Jamadagni has five children with wife Renuka, the youngest of whom was Parashurama, an Avatara of Lord Vishnu.

The following is an excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashurama 100702 :
   Parashurama (Skt: परशुराम, Paraśurāma) (also known as Parasurama, Bhṛgupati, Bhargava, Bhargava Rāma, Jamadagnya (Skt: जामदज्ञ्य़) as Jamadagni's son), a Brahmin, the sixth avatar of Vishnu, belongs to the Treta yuga, and is the son of Jamadagni and Renuka. Parashu means axe, hence his name literally means Rama-with-the-axe. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of warfare and other skills. He fought the advancing ocean back thus saving the lands of Konkan and Malabar. The coastal area of Kerala state along with the Konkan region, i.e., coastal Maharashtra and Karnataka, is also sometimes called Parashurama Kshetra (Parashurama's country). Parashurama is said to be a "warrior Brahman", the first warrior saint. His mother is descended from the Kshatriya Suryavansha clan that ruled Ayodhya and Lord Rama also belonged to.

Execution of Renuka

Renuka was such very devoted wife and the power of her chastity was manifest. Such was this power, that she used to fetch water from the river in a pot made of unbaked clay every day. The pot would hold together because of her devotion to her husband.

One day, when she was at the river, a handsome Gandharva happened to be passing by in the sky, in his chariot. Smitten with desire for this handsome youth, for merely an instant, the damage to her powers was done. The unbaked pot that she was carrying, dissolved into the river. She was no longer chaste of mind. Afraid to go back to her husband, she waited at the river bank.

Meanwhile Jamadagni, who was waiting for fresh water to begin his morning sacrifices, noticed that his wife had not yet returned from the river. By his yogic powers, he divined all that had taken place. Exceedingly angry with his wife, he called his eldest son, told him what had happened and asked him to execute his mother. Horror-stricken, his son refused to perform this deed. He then asked all of his sons, in the order of their seniority, to execute their mother. While all the elder sons refused (and so Sage Jamadagni turned them to stone), only his youngest son, Parashurama, ever-obedient and righteous, at once beheaded his mother with his axe.

Jamadagni, pleased, offered to grant two boons to Parashurama, who at once asked that his mother be restored to life and his brothers to be unturned from stone and accepted into the family again. Impressed by his son's devotion and affection for his family, Jamadagni granted this boon and many others.

Jamadagni was later killed by a Kshatriya king Kartavirya Arjuna, over a dispute over a divine calf named kamadhenu. However Jamadagni was restored to life by Lord Shiva, as he was among a saptarishi and his devout worshipper (as quoted in Shiva Mahapurana).

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Jātaka Tales

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jataka_tales 100202

The Jātaka Tales (जातक) also known in other languages (Malay: jetaka, Lao: ຊາດົກ sadok, Thai: ชาดก chadok, Khmer: ជាតក cietɑk) refer to a voluminous body of folklore-like literature native to India concerning the previous births (jāti) of the Buddha. The word most specifically refers to a text division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. Jataka also refers to the traditional commentary on this book.

The canonical book itself comprises 547 poems [UKT: we usually round this number to 550], arranged roughly by increasing number of verses. According to Professor von Hinber,[1] only the last 50 were intended to be intelligible by themselves, without commentary. The commentary gives stories in prose that it claims provide the context for the verses, and it is these stories that are of interest to folklorists. Alternative versions of some of the stories can be found in another book of the Pali Canon, the Cariyapitaka, and a number of individual stories can be found scattered around other books of the Canon. Many of the stories and motifs found in the Jataka such as the Rabbit in the Moon of the Śaśajtaka (Jataka Tales: no.316) [2], have been found in numerous other languages and media. Many of the stories and motifs being translations from the Pali but others are instead derived from vernacular traditions prior to the Pali compositions . Sanskrit (see for example the Jatakamala) and Tibetan Jataka stories tend to maintain the Buddhist morality of their Pali equivalents, but re-tellings of the stories in Persian and other languages sometimes contain significant amendments to suit their respective cultures.


Within the Pali tradition, there are also many apocryphal Jatakas of later composition (some dated even to the 19th century) but these are treated as a separate category of literature from the "Official" Jataka stories that have been more-or-less formally canonized from at least the 5th century as attested to in ample epigraphic and archaeological evidence, such as extant illustrations in bas relief from ancient temple walls. Some of the apocryphal Jatakas (in Pali) show direct appropriations from Hindu sources, with amendments to the plots to better reflect Buddhist morals.


In Theravada countries, several of the longer Jataka tales are still performed in dance, theatre, and formal (quasi-ritual) recitation to this day, and several are associated with particular holidays on the Lunar Calendar used by Cambodia, Thailand and Laos.


The standard Pali collection of jatakas, with canonical text embedded, has been translated by E. B. Cowell and others, originally published in six volumes by Cambridge University Press, 1895-1907; reprinted in three volumes, Pali Text Society[3], Bristol. There are also numerous translations of selections and individual stories from various languages.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Romabama vowel change

- UKT 110824

Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) is an abugida and its canonical syllable is CV [Consonant-Vowel-killed-Consonant] which is similar but not the same as in English-Latin (Eng-Lat). The canonical syllable in Eng-Lat is CVC [Consonant-Vowel-Consonant]. Eng-Latin is an alphabet, and Bur-Myan is also known as the syllabic-alphabet.

The hallmark in the abugida system is the vowel killer or virama in Skt-Dev and {a.t} in Bur-Myan. For convenience sake I have shortened the 'virama' to "viram". The viram kills the intrinsic vowel of the coda-consonant, and I have represented the "killed-consonant" as . For coming up with a correct pronunciation in Bur-Myan, the canonical syllable has to be considered as: C(V) where (V) taken together is the rime.

For forming rimes of short vowels with the c1 aksharas, {ka.}, {sa.}/{ca.}, {ta.}, {pa.}, we use the viram to arrive at: 

{ak} /k/
{ic} /ɪc/
{t} /ʌt/
{p} /ʌp/

Differentiate the sounds (IPA symbols) of the following Bur-Myan words or syllables, and note how Romabama differentiates them:

{zak} /zk/ 'neck'
{zic} /zɪc/ - no meaning in Bur-Myan
{zt} /zʌt/ - no meaning in Bur-Myan
{zp} /zʌp/ - no meaning in Bur-Myan

The process of forming rimes with killed consonants can also be looked at as the "process of checking the vowel sound with the consonant". Thus, the above is the formation of syllables with onset {za.}. The inherent short vowel of {za.} is checked by c1 consonants. There are also instances of long vowels being checked by consonants. An example is {zaat}, where the long vowel sound of {za}/{zaa} is checked by killed {ta.}.

{zaat} /za:t/ 'story' - related to {za-ta.ka.}
{t}/{iit} /zɪt/ [rhyming with {hkt} 'era'] - no meaning in Bur-Myan
  [Romabama may have to change this vowel!]

Note how careless transcriptions such as zak for {zak} /zk/ and zat for {zt} /zʌt/ would be misleading.

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