Update: 2015-09-26 06:15 AM -0400

TIL

Vowels and Consonants
A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

MC-anci-lang.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

Addenda to edited version of A Practical Sanskrit Distionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed. (reprint of 1914ed.), 1st in 2006, 2012.

index.htm | Top
MC-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Ancient languages - changing an Abugida-akshara to an Alphabet-letter
Esoteric script of Myanmarpr, Thailand and Cambodia : the Myanmar script
Scythian and Parthian languages
Scythian Languages : Are they Tartar languages?
Parthian language : Script written from right to left
  Gautama Buddha's ruling on languages :
--------- anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyā punitum
The Dragons - honourable entities equal to Dva-gods
Georgian script - an Alphabet
  Patronages of St. George
Asoka script - an Abugida-Akshara, entirely different from Alphabet-Letter

Reference will be made quite often to :
Burmese Sketches, by Taw Sein Ko, (TSK), Rangoon, British Burma Press, 1913, p023 (pdf 036/383): with some pages missing
- downloaded SD-TIL library - BurSketch<> (link chk 150824)
See Taw Sein Ko (1864-1930) in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taw_Sein_Ko 150830
"[He] was Burma's first recorded archaeologist."
I also refer to the proceedings (in Pal-Myan & Bur-Myan) of the Sixth Theravada Buddhist Council held in Yangon in 1955. The proceedings appeared in some 60 volumes available in TIL library. One of the books is shown on the right.

 

UKT notes :
To the Bengalis, Myanmarpr is the "Brahmadesa" {brah~ma-d-a.}
-- U Taw Sein Ko.
Tagaung - the most ancient capital in northern Myanmarpr
Tartars and Tartary

 

Contents of this page

Ancient languages

-- UKT 150316, 130527, 150822

I am interested in two ancient "Indo-Iranian" languages or groups and their scripts known as the Scythian and Parthian, thanks to Bur-Myan {ta.} being found in the "Tan" თ (U10D7) of Georgian. If we were to leave the question of "migration" of {ta.} to the historians and philologists, we can see how {ta.} - a syllable with an inherent vowel of Abugida-akshara system, is changed into a mute Alphabet-letter when it lost its inherent vowel. The mute Alphabet-letter თ (U10D7) needs "something of a sort of inherent vowel" ა (U10D0) to become {ta.} again.

If inherent-vowel of Bur-Myan (akshara - pronounceable) were to be "killed" it becomes (letter - mute).

Using the change can turn Bur-Myan to Georgian თა (U10D7+U10D0): both pronounced as /ta/.

Similarly, change can bring about Bur-Myan to Georgian თი (U10D7+10D8): both pronounced as /ti/.

I feel that the term "Indo-Iranian" used to describe the languages, should be avoided as far as possible because of modern Iran's close relationship with the Islamic religion. Though the words Iran and Persia are used interchangeably to mean the same country, they are not the same. According to K.E. Eduljee, http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/iranpersia/ 150803,

"Iran is the legal name. Persia, was an ancient kingdom within Iran. Iran came to be known as Persia in the West thanks to classical Greek authors during whose time Persia was the dominant kingdom in Iran."

My study is strictly linguistic, and I maintain that my target languages BEPS must be religion neutral. I am troubled whenever I come across words like Allah, Dva, God, Jevah (YHWH), and now Ahura Mazda of the ancient Zoroastrianism religion.

noumenon  n. pl. noumena  Philosophy 1. An object that can be intuited only by the intellect and not perceived by the senses. 2. An object independent of intellectual intuition of it or of sensuous perception of it. Also Called thing-in-itself . 3. In the philosophy of Kant, an object, such as the soul, that cannot be known through perception, although its existence can be demonstrated. -- AHTD

axiom  n. 1. A self-evident or universally recognized truth; ... -- AHTD

A Geometrical Point which has x = 0, y = 0, & z = 0 unit of dimension, is an Axiom. Euclidean geometry is based on it. The usefulness of Euclidean geometry is no "proof" of the existence of the Point. Similarly, pointing out to natural phenomena as attributes of the Creator (YHVH, God, Allah), is a not a proof of Its (His, Her) existence. Since the first two founding principles of Buddhism, usually described as the "Four Noble Truths" {ic~sa l: pa:} and "Signs of Annata" {a.nt~ta. lak~hka.Na} are not based on any Axiom, I prefer to call what I accept as the First Buddhism a word reminiscent of the First Nations of Canada. It is Non-Axiomatic, in contrast to Abrahamic religions which are based on the beliefs in YHVH, God and Allah.

To explain the attributes of axiomatic entities in human terms, gender (male, female, neuter, son and daughter), and attitudes (greed, anger, sexual-depravity, pride) are introduced. The axiomatic entities are classified as, dva-dvi, god-goddess, dva-asura, and god-devil. Sexual relations both acceptable and unacceptable, and power struggles by fair-means and cheating are then added. These additions -- and they increase as ages go by -- are nothing but figments of imagination of religionists (or priests) whose endeavour instead of bringing peace and harmony to the human race has brought them distress and death. I will mention just two religions below:

The Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} have their holy books such as the "Sanskrit Vda" particularly the Rig Veda,  written in Devanagari script to promote their brand of religion as the True Religion.

So had the Ancient-Persians their Avesta Scriptures written in Cuneiform script to promote their religion - Zoroastrianism.

Zoroaster aka Zarathushtra Spitama, (fl. 1400 and 1200 BCE, or ca 1000 yrs before birth of Gautama Buddha) was the founder of Zoroastrianism. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta. In Zoroastrianism, we find the multifaceted creator, Ahura Mazda [lit. meaning: Ahura is light , & Mazda is wisdom.].
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 150728 and
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroaster 150801

Prophet Zoroaster is believed to have composed 17 hymns known as Gathas /'gɑːtəz, -tɑːz/ or Avestan: gāθās. Note the similarity of the term Gathas to {ga-hta}: take care of the final "s" which has been inserted during transcription into English. They are the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. Zoroaster exhorts his followers to pay reverence to only the ahuras or {a.u.ra.} and to rebuff the daevas or {d-wa.} and others who act "at Lie's command". This should not however be construed to reflect a view of a primordial opposition: Although the daevas would in later Zoroastrian tradition appear as malign creatures, in the Gathas the daevas are (collectively) gods that are to be rejected.
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gathas 150822

The duality {a.u.ra.} 'evil', vs. , {d-wa.} 'good' in India, can be understood from a pronunciation point view, if we remember that the Approximants of rows #6 & #7 are difficult to classify. They are thus known as {a.wag}-aksharas. Since the {a.} of one language group can easily change into {ha.} of another, {a.u.ra.} 'evil' (in India) can easily be changed into {a.u.ra.} 'good' (in Persia/Iran).
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura 150822
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daeva 150822

The original adherents of the above religions were the Indo-Europeans or Aryans, who we may differentiate as the Aryan-Vedic peoples of northern India and the Aryan-Avestan peoples of Iran.

In Zoroastrianism we find the story of Creation - the Epic of Gilgamesh
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_of_Gilgamesh 150728

The script in which Gilgamesh was written is Cuneiform - the wedged shaped script. See a complete corpus of Old Persian texts with English translations.
- http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm 130915, 150728

The Achaemenian Kings left extensive cuneiform inscriptions in Old Persian dated roughly between 600 BCE and 300 BCE. They also left ruins which have been described as the most grandiose of the ancient world. While it is by no means certain that they were orthodox Zoroastrians, the majority opinion among scholars is that this is very likely. One of the strongest arguments for this is the frequent mention of Ahura Mazda in the inscriptions, which is almost certainly an innovation of Zarathushtra's. Their religion is also described by Herodotus in sufficient detail to leave little doubt that they were basically Zoroastrian.

"Ahura Mazda came to my aid."

It was thanks to Darius the Great, Darius I, (c. 550486 BCE), the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, that we have been able to decipher the cuneiform script, which had fallen into even deeper oblivion than Egyptian hieroglyphs. (Based on Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953).

I remember reading, as a young boy, "Story of Sohrab & Rustam", Grade III, Bright Story Readers, E. J. Arnold & Son, Ld., Leeds, Glasgow & Belfast, ca. 1910. It is a Persian story retold by Cecily M. Rutley. I was in grade 3. I have now found the very book I had read. It is in my collection, and I read on p.57, "You have killed me!" cried Sohrab [after Rustam who had lied about his identity to Sohrab, not knowing that the latter was his own son, and had unchivalrously plunged his sword into Sohrab]. "But it is my own doing, for I came here seeking for my father, Rustam. Now, alas! I shall never see him. But when he hears what you have done, he will surely take vengeance on you."

I learned the moral of the evil of telling lies. The characters in the story had lied their own identities with the result that the father, Rustam, ended killing his own son Sohrab. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rostam_and_Sohrab 150823

Contents of this page

Esoteric script of Myanmarpr, Thailand and Cambodia

- UKT 150831

I became exposed to Esotericism early in life at about age 3 or 4. (Timeline: 1938) The name Saya Ni, of Thoangwa village on the outskirts of the town of Kungyangon in Hanthawaddy District became a household word in the family. I had never met him. He was a professed Magus of the Left-Hand path derisively known as Black Magician {auk-lm:hsa.ra}. He was consulted by my mother to solve the family affairs of my aunt, Ma Chin {ma.hkyn:}, whose husband had taken a lesser wife according to the instruction of his father. My aunt, the younger sister of my father, with her infant son in her arms had come to our house in Kungyangon to seek the help of her sister-in-law. My aunt's father-in-law had planned to get rid of her and had made his son take a second wife. Saya Ni had a good reputation, not harming anybody with his Black magic, but solving family affairs which had come about as in the case of my aunt. Obviously, Saya Ni's magic did worked and soon my aunt's husband went against the will of his meddling father and divorced his second wife. Strange to say, the ex-second wife and my aunt became very close friends until death. My aunt's father-in-law also relented, and the whole affair ended happily. They continued living in friendship until their dying days.

Some text below from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esotericism 150825

Esotericism (or esoterism) is a "generic label for a large and complicated group of historical phenomena" which share an air de famille [family likeness]. [1]

The term derives from the Greek, either from the comparative ἐσώτερος (esteros), "inner", or from its derived adjective ἐσωτερικός (esterikos), "pertaining to the innermost". [5]

Esoteric traditions search for hidden ("esoteric") meanings and symbolism in exoterically accessible philosophical, historical, and religious texts. [2] Defining characteristics are theories of correspondences between all parts of the invisible and the visible cosmos, the conviction that nature is a living entity owing to a divine presence or life-force, the need for mediating elements (such as symbols, rituals, angels, visions) in order to access spiritual knowledge, and an experience of personal and spiritual transmutation when arriving at this knowledge. [3] [4]

Myanmar esoterism draws its strength from the power of the human voice-sound (e.g. OM ॐ of Hinduism), and the perfection of the shape of the circle. A Bur-Myan child going to school is first trained to write or draw the circle for days extending into months. It is the most basic form of the Myanmar script - the right-handed perfect circle. The starting point of the Myanmar circle is the bottom, whereas the English-Latin letter o and the numeral 0 are left-handed circles, the starting point being the top.

These circles are the Aksharas (meaning unchanging sound to script correspondence) of what are known as Instruments {yan~ta.ra:}: the term can be shortened to Yan {yn}.

Yans may appear easy to reproduce. It is not so, and printed Yans are useless. The power of the human voice-sound is provided by the Yan writer, the builder of the Instrument {yan~ta.ra:}, who must have undergone precise voice-training, such as reciting the sacred sound OM {On} ॐ , clearly and distinctly. He must have his physical body purified by abstaining from sex-act, eating meat, and taking alcohol and drugs for a specified number of days - at least 7 days, or 7x7 = 49 days to acquire the power of voice-sound. The time of building the Instrument must be in sync with positions of the luminaries (planets and fixed stars) in the sky. Then the Yan writer with his pencil or stylus always touching the substrate which may be paper, a silver or gold foil, a fragment of the alms bowl of a monk (a consecrated article), must write the akshara while reciting the specified Mantra, {mn~tn} clearly and precisely. Because of these requirements, it is only the circularly rounded script that is the most effective. Once the Yan has been produced it may be passed on to a second person. The second person will acquire the power of the human voice-sound by concentrating his mind on the Yan.

When you see the word "Esoteric Buddhism", remember to differentiate the various schools of Buddhism. Buddhism practiced in Myanmarpr, Thailand, and Cambodia, is the Theravada form, whereas that practiced in China is the Mahayana form. Esoteric Buddhism is related to Mahayana, and is supposed to be "frowned upon" by Theravada Buddhist monks. Yet we find some monks in Myanmarpr, Thailand, and Cambodia steeped in esoteric movements such as tattooing marks of esotericism.

Some monks go beyond tattooing. An extreme case did happen in Yangon a few decades ago in the case of a Buddhist monk, U Larbha, who tried to acquire the power of the {pau:ri.a-ra.}-Yan by murdering people and eating their flesh. The story of King Porithara is told in the Jataka story of the Gautama Buddha when he was born as pre-Buddha King MahaThutaThoMa.

I met a material witness, David by name, a Southern Indian, who worked as a laboratory assistant in the Chemistry Dept. of Rangoon Arts and Science University (RASU) in the 1970's. After my transfer from Mandalay Arts and Science University (MASU) to RASU, Professor U Aung Khin the then Head of the Dept. told me about David. I was the second man after U Aung Khin, and he had felt that I should know about David. I interviewed David in person and he told me about the human bones and flesh kept pickled in U Larbha's monastery. David was a boarder at the monastery and although he saw the jars of pickle he did not know anything about the murders and dismemberment of the bodies. He described to me how the bones had been sucked clean of the marrow. U Larbha was found out just before he ate his final meal of human flesh and bone marrow. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to be hanged until death and confined to the death-row in the Insein Jail. None of the jailers would dare go near him let alone carry out the hanging. U Larbha died sometime later due to natural or unnatural causes. For Esoteric Buddhism see: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Buddhist_Philosophy/Esoteric_Buddhism 150831

Examples of esoteric religious movements and philosophies include Alchemy, Christian mysticism, [6] Gnosticism, Hermetism, Kabbalah, Magic, Neoplatonism, Swedenborgianism, and the Theosophist movement associated with Madame Helena Blavatsky.

See: books on Theosophy by H. P. Blavastsky,
#1. The Secret Doctrine - http://www.sanctusgermanus.net/ebooks/THE%20SECRET%20DOCTRINE.pdf 150827
Downloaded pdf book in TIL SD-library - Blavatsky-Secret-Doc-pdf<> (link chk 150827)
#2. Isis Unveiled - http://www.anthroweb.info/fileadmin/pdfs/Isis_Unveiled.pdf 150827
Download pdf book in TIL SD-library - Blavatsky-Isis-Unveil-pdf<> (link chk 150827)

Now see Yantra in Thailand - http://thaimedicinezone.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/thai-yan.pdf 150731
- downloaded pdf in TIL SD-library Thai-Yan<> (link chk 150824)
and compare with Bur-Myan Magic-Square in
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 1508026)
and proceed to 05. Cult of Magus - ch05-magus.htm (link chk 1508026)
and Cult of Runes - part of ch05-magus.htm (link chk 150826)

Look for the circularly rounded Myanmar script in the Yantras {yn~ta.ra:} 'instruments' (shortened in Thai to {yn}) in Thailand and Cambodia. The equivalent of Yan {yn} in Bur-Myan is { n:}/{ing:}). And, decide if the circularly scripts has been around for hundreds of years or not, and not only confined to Myanmarpr.

From Cambodia, thru Myanmarpr to Georgia in the faraway Tartary, to the borders of Europe, you can find the Myanmar script. Finding elements of Myanmar script in Georgia suggests that the circularly rounded script has been around not only for hundred of years, but for thousands of years. You can extend your destination further to England based on the story of St. George and the Dragon. However, the journey of the circularly rounded script ends in the country of Georgian. The marks are now the upright cross of St. George which incidentally is the + {ka.} /ka/ akshara of the Asokan script.

Some Yans have human-like figures known as Figure-Yans {roap-pon n:}. There are two kinds of Yan in Myanmar esoterism, which because they come under the umbrella of Buddhism, are known as Esoteric Buddhism. The two kinds are: {sa.ma.} and { n:}. The {sa.ma.} are more powerful and are used for self-purification. The { n:} is the more general term and are used for self-protection, but some are used for nefarious reasons to harm and subjugate others.

The inset shows the {i.kra:mn: sa.ma.} 'Recording Angel of Buddhism'. Do not confuse Buddhist Sakra with Hindu Indra. See TSK-Burmese-sketches, p038-039, and Childers' A Dictionary of the Pali Language (First ed. 1874), p419. Both copies are in TIL libraries. Myanmar Buddhists regard him as a  {a.na-gaam Bo:tau} who has overcome Sex-as-defilement. It is in sharp contrast to Hindu Indra, the Heavenly King, still enjoying sex pleasures, including illicit sex, and other 'royal tricks' which we usually see in human despots. Sakka Inn gives the owner the power of good-over-evil, not only for self protection but to help others. The owner must imitate the heavenly {i.kra:mn:} in his life for the Yan to be effective.

Some Yans, {sa.ma.} and { n:}, are in the form Squares and Triangles. The Sacred ideograph, the Swastika, is of the Square-form.

These sacred ideographs are found in the ruins of Indus-Sarasvati River basin civilization (my estimate: 2000-4000 yrs before the birth of Gautama Buddha). In some Swastika, you can see a circularly round shape in each of the segments which may be a circularly rounded akshara.

The Flying Cross Swastika shown above is in the form a square, the basis form of a square Yan. You can also have a Flying Bola the basic form of a triangular Yan. Though I have seen pictures of the Square-Yan, the Swastika, in the artefacts of the Indus-Sarasvati civilizations I have not come across any of the Triangular-Yans.

Above, I have given the two forms used at present in Myanmarpr. To me they describe the stages of a man's (or woman's) perfection. The starting point is {sa.} with the imperfection of the "feelings" such as "greed" and "anger" which you can overcome by various self-disciplines. The {sa.}-imperfections are not only present in adult humans, they are present even in very young children. They are present in sentient animals such as cats and dogs around us. They can be described as animal feelings which were supposed to be imperfections of the "heart" by the ancients. "Greed" and "anger" are accompanied by pounding hearts.

When you have overcome your {sa.} imperfections, you are still left with the "sexual" imperfections - the dent is on the bottom. With more self-discipline you can overcome this stage. But then you are left with the imperfections of "ideas" - the dent is at the top. These you can also overcome with more self-discipline when you become the "perfect human being" - no more dents, a perfect circle.

Do not think that all Yans are used for good purposes. It is true that some Yans are used for healing. But others are used for  power and control over others. A nefarious Yan is the one having power over women - to have sex. Such a Yan can make a woman lost control of herself and would submit herself to a man and could be raped. If you are curious look for the Love Horse Yan which shows a horse having sexual-intercourse with a human-female. I am showing only the top part of the Horse Yan.

In many of these Thai Yans you can see the circularly rounded script - the Myanmar script. If you can read Pali-Myan, you can even get the meaning of some words.

 

 

David Bliss the author of Yantra in Thailand pdf, Thai-Yan<> (link chk 150824), from which some Yans are taken writes: 
" A Yan includes four aspects: geometry, sacred script, holy text and the medium from which it is fashioned. First, I will discuss the geometry of a Yan. Yan are created using various designs, shapes and symbols. Some utilize squares and triangles, representing the four elements and the Buddhist trinity respectively. Some use circles, which can represent the Sun, Moon, or an astrological chart. Other symbols might include Bodhi leaves, wheels or various animals. These images have specific meanings, which are associated with the function of the Yan. Also found in Yan are representations of Buddha images, different gods or prominent Thai figures. These include revered monks and former kings. Magic squares also figure prominently in most Yan. This subject is pertinent to the understanding of Yan but is too complex to further elaborate upon here. I strongly encourage the reader to research this more thoroughly on his/her own. These geometrical patterns lay the groundwork for what the Yan will become.

"The sacred script used to compose the Yan is the next aspect I will discuss. Most Yan in Thailand employ a form of Khmer script similar to that used in Cambodia today. Cambodians have a long-standing reputation in Thailand for being well versed in the magical arts. It is also widely accepted that Khmer [UKT: related to Mon-Myan] is an ancient language and therefore holds status as being a highly magical script. Other languages often associated in Yan are Lanna, a Northern Thai region, Burmese, and sometimes Indian scripts. The inherent power of the script being used is of utmost importance and so more mundane languages, which holds less magic, are rarely employed."

Note: David Bliss, tevijjo@gmail.com, is a graduate of the Swedish Institute of Massage Therapy and a practitioner of Thai Medicine. He was trained in the traditional method of oral transmission under various teachers. His primary mentor of over three years, is Phra Ajahn Sukit of Wat Dhammapadip.

CAUTION: Do not get involved with Esotericism just for fun sake. They can affect your mind to the point of insanity. For those bent on serious study, I advice you to read Madame Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine - http://www.sanctusgermanus.net/ebooks/THE%20SECRET%20DOCTRINE.pdf 150827
Downloaded pdf book in TIL SD-library - Blavatsky-Secret-Doc-pdf<> (link chk 150827).

Contents of this page

The Scythian and Parthian languages

Now let's go back to Scythian and Parthian languages. First the Scythian language group in which we find the Georgian language. Please note I do not maintain that Georgian belongs to the Scythian group of languages. Because of its circularly rounded script which has a close relation in Myanmar script, both Georgian and Myanmar might have belonged to a much older group probably linked to the unknown script of Indus-Sarasvati valley.

I base my conjecture on the presence of upright cross (e.g. the Cross of Saint George) which with the addition of "arms" could be made to turn either right-hand or left-hand in the form of Swastikas which can give rise to Bur-Myan {ing:} - Tantra, Mantra {mn~tn}, Yantra group of magico-language symbols. For "Tantra, Mantra, and Yantra (Skt-Dev यन्त्र = य न ् त ् र) see
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra 150731

Swastika, Six-faced dice, Dragon, Tantra, Mantra, and Yantra (Bur-Myan: { n:}, Thai: Yan {yn}/ {yn~ta.ra:}, the elements of esoteric beliefs present in the northern Hemisphere (particularly Myanmarpr, Thailand, Cambodia, Indian subcontinent, Georgia, and Wales) should be studied to find the origin and the use of circularly rounded script of Myanmarpr. Just to dismiss the rounded-ness of the Myanmar-script as due it being written on palm leaves is a non-starter.

If I remember correctly, it was U Taw Sein Ko who had put forward this view. I have been going through his Burmese Sketches, Rangoon, British Burma Press, 1913. See the downloaded copy in TIL SD-library
- BurSketch<> (link chk 150824)

In chapter 02, Philology (p025-040), U Taw Sein Ko writes on Origin and Developments of the Burmese Alphabet (p025-027) and the rest up to page 40 on related subjects. Though he gives some words in Chinese characters, he does not give any in either Bur-Myan or Skt-Dev in tables for comparison. He probably must have dismissed them for serious study just as scratches made on palm leaves. However, he does give Bur-Myan words in chapter 01, Ethnology , Whence did the Burmese come? , he gives many Burmese words in Bur-Myan script.

Contents of this page

Scythian Languages : the Tartar languages

UKT 150804

What are the Sythian Languages? Though Georgia is within the linguistic area of Scythian languages, is Georgian a Scythian language? Finally, are the Scythian languages, the language of the Tartars of Tartary?

U Taw Sein Ko writes in Burmese Sketches, Rangoon, British Burma Press, 1913, p023 (pdf 036/383)
- downloaded SD-TIL library - BurSketch<> (link chk 150824)

"Reference has been made above to the incursion into India, in the 2nd century B. C, of the Scythian or Tartar tribes, it is remarkable that some of the Tartar customs should have prevailed in Burma. The coincidence cannot be ascribed to mere accident, or to the common mechanism of the human mind, but must be due to the heritage of the race. A universal custom, which extended for a thousand years over the whole Tartary, was for the son to take over his deceased father's wives (with the exception of his own natural mother), and for younger brothers to take over the widows of their elder brothers. This custom lasted among the members of the Burmese Royal Family for about 2,000 years from the 5th century B.C. to the 15th century A.D. The left side was the most honorable, and officials were appointed in pairs, one for the Left and the other for the Right. The heir to the throne was called the Eastern Prince."

U Taw Sein Ko's translation is definitely wrong. The word is "House-Front Prince" {ain-rh.min:} - not "Eastern Prince" {a.rh.min:}. Yet, he gives in his Elementary Handbook of the Burmese Language, Rangoon, 1898, "crown prince" as {ain-rh.min:} . See TIL SD-Library Elem-Bur<> (link chk 150902)

He gives an interesting info in pages iii to iv of the above book: "Burma is known to the people of Bengal as Brahmodesh, which is the Bengali form of the Pli designation " Brahmadesa " {brah~ma-d-a.}, or the region or country of Brahma, the Creator of the Hindu Triad . Now b and m are interchangeable in the Indo-Chinese languages, and Brahm, became Mrahm ; and the letter h being, by assimilation, changed into m the word Mrahm assumed the form Mramm. Now, r and y are interchangeable, so we get the form Myamm."

From the way he wrote, I am inclined not to take him seriously, and his remark on "it is remarkable that some of the Tartar customs should have prevailed in Burma" must be taken with caution. However we must note that U Taw Sein Ko's contribution to Myanmarpr is unparalleled.

From Wikipedia: -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scythian_languages 150731

The Scythian languages (/ˈsɪθiən/ or /ˈsɪiən/) are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia. ... Alexander Lubotsky summarizes the known linguistic landscape as follows: [2]
See downloaded pdf in TIL-SD library - Scythian<> (link chk 150824)

"Unfortunately, we know next to nothing about the Scythian of that period [Old Iranian] we have only a couple of personal and tribal names in Greek and Persian sources at our disposal and cannot even determine with any degree of certainty whether it was a single language."

See Section on Georgian script below. Can it be that Georgian and Myanmar scripts are related through Scythian languages instead of Parthian group?

Contents of this page

Parthian language : script written from right to left

- UKT 150902

I had always thought, before studying languages, that Arabic and Urdu are the only scripts which are written from right to left. Then I came to know of more right-to-left scripts. Parthian, which may also be called Persian language, is one such language.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_language 150731

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient North-western Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Persia Iran. Parthian was the language of state of the Arsacid Parthian Empire (248 BC 224 AD) [UKT: post-Buddha's birth], as well as of its eponymous branches of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania.

eponym  n. 1. A person whose name is or is thought to be the source of the name of something, such as a city, country, or era. For example, Romulus is the eponym of Rome. 2. Medicine A name of a drug, structure, or disease based on or derived from the name of a person. -- AHTD

Parthian had a huge lexical and vocabulary impact on Armenian.

From: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/parthian.htm 150731

Written from right to left in horizontal lines.
Only some vowels are indicated and the letters used to represent them have multiple pronunciations.
The letters marked in red were used to write loan words from Aramaic.

UKT 150731: You'll notice that there is no circularly rounded glyphs in the Parthian language.

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Gautama Buddha's ruling on languages

UKT 150901

Prince Siddhārtha {aid~Dt~hta. mn:a:}
  of the clan Gautama {gau-ta.ma.} (females: {gau-ta.mi} -->
--> Rishi Siddhārtha {aid~Dt~hta. ra..}
--> Gautama Buddha {gau-ta.ma. boad~Da.}
UKT 150825: In Myanmarpr and Thailand, a Rishi can easily be recognized by his robes which is almost the same as those of monk, and by the shape of the "hat". I haven't come across any pix of such a "rishi hat" in India. It is probable that Rishi Siddhārtha {aid~Dt~hta. ra..} did not wear such a hat.

Since Gautama Buddha, (c. 563 or 480 - c. 483 or 400 BCE) and Darius the Great were of the same time-period, Prince Siddhārtha Gautama {aid~Dt~hta. mn:a:} (the name of Buddha before he became enlightened), and his early teachers would have known the basic ideas of Zoroastrianism. He would have known that beliefs in Axiomatic religions with their Creator (Ahura-Mazda, Allah, God, and YHVH) could not bring him the peace of mind he had been seeking.

What Siddhārtha Gautama Rishi {aid~Dt~hta. ra..} (after he left the palace and became a recluse) finally discovered was a Scientific Principle (in the modern sense), that is beyond the restrictions of Time and Space: the Principle of Suffering, the Principle of Attachment, and the Principle of Cessation. As the Fourth Principle, he formulated the Eight faceted mode of living known as the Eight-fold Noble Path, by which a human of intelligence could arrived at various levels of Enlightenment: Sotapanna {au:ta-pn}, Sakadagami {a-ka.da-gaam}, Anāgāmi {a.na-gaam}, and Arahat {ra.hn~ta}. Gautama Buddha would also have known the existence of various scripts, the various spoken languages with their own vowel systems, and their 'dictionary' meaning and various levels of understanding beneath the dictionary meaning. He would have known that no language (including Sanskrit) could be the ideal language, and that what it matters is the deeper meanings which every human being could understand. He ruled that:

anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyā punitum

In the ruling is the crucial word {ni.roat~ti.} which means:

{ni.roat~ti.} (PMDict-495)  nirutti  (Sk. nirukti ) (PTSDict-370) in Pali means:
- one of the Vedāngas, explanation of words, grammatical analysis, etymological interpretation, pronunciation, dialect, way of speaking, expression. - UKT2004
  Pal-Myan: {ni.roat~ti.} - - UHS-PMD0540

We should note here that {ni.roat~ti.} does not necessarily means the pronunciations - the human sounds articulated in the human mouth. Different individuals, and even the same individual at different time-periods pronounces a word differently. For example listen to how a Hindi speaker pronounce the word {ni.roat~ti.} nirukti निरुक्ति<)), from: https://www.howtopronounce.com/hindi/निरुक्ति/ 150712 . He sounds {ni.roak-t} to me.

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The Dragons

Maung Pauk Kyeing, Georgia, Cross of St. George in the Union Jack

- UKT 150825

Look into U Taw Sein Ko's Burmese Sketches, chapter 06, Superstition and Folklore, p146,
for the story of Maung Pauk Kyeing - BurSketch<> (link chk 150824)

Also refer to Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 150825)
by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, Religious Affairs Dept. Press, Rangoon, 1981,
and proceed to Cult of Naga - ch07-cult-naga.htm (link chk 150825)

Maung Pauk Kyeing {maung-pauk-kyeing:} of Tagaung {ta.kaung:}, St. George the patron saint of the country of Georgia, and St. George the patron saint of the country of England all have to do with the story of the Killer of an Evil Dragon. You can even include the Scandinavian story of Siegfried. See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nibelungenlied 150805

As told by U Taw Sein Ko, Maung Pauk Kyeing's story ended happily for everyone after he got rid of the bad Naga. He is a well-known character in legendary Burmese history, as Thado'naga'naing {a.hto:na.ga:nen}. He was the ninth of the 2nd dynasty of Skya Kings {ak~ka. a-ki-wn mn:} supposed to have reigned at Tagaung.

We can summarized that all the "dragons" in the above stories are evil ones. Except in the story of Maung Pauk Kyeing, the "dragons" have legs and their modern relatives are lizards. However, to the Buddhists there are definitely "good dragons" who do not have legs. They are related to modern snakes. To distinguish the two, we will say that the evil ones are lizards with legs and wings and the good ones "Naga" or "Nags" who have no legs and no wings. Do not think that flying lizards and snakes are just myths. They do exist. Watch a video by National Geographic Soc. (inset pix: lizard with outstretched wings still landing on the trunk of a tree) 
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLbkVanjHVU 150829
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPGNbb5Y2a0 150829

The mythical Naga do not need wings to fly through the air, and they do not need legs to travel on ground and through the earth. Of course they can travel under water. Nagas, because of their fiery nature live under water or inside cold moist earth.

Nagas are staunch supporters of the Buddhist religion. I will refer to them as Buddhist-Nagas. People in Myanmarpr love and respect them so much that you can its likeness imbedded in the Myanmar-akshara matrix in cell row#2 and column#5 as {na.}-short form. See the Naga stories listed in Pal-Myan spoken at the Sixth Buddhist Council below:
#1 Naga of the Muchalinda Lake {mu.sa.lain~da. wut~htu.} protecting Gautama Buddha.
#2 Greater Jataka Birth story #06 {Bu-ri.dt zaat} in which Buddha-to-be was born as a Naga.
#3 A Naga who assumed human-form to became a {ra.hn:}. See Non-human Naga story {ti.ric~hsa-na.ga.ta. wut~htu. }. Buddha himself asked him to leave the Order, when his fellow-monks found out that he was not human and became afraid. It is not exactly an expulsion from the Order. It is not like the Catholic ex-communication: it was just an expulsion of an all-human-male society. Buddha told him that could still practice Buddhism as a lay person. This story is an important one in the Viniya-rules: from that day onwards a person on entering the Order is asked if he is really human or not.

The Myanmar Dragons {na.ga:} are mythical creatures not to be classified as animals. They were devout disciples of Gautama Buddha. Of course there are bad individuals among them, and human heroes like Maung Pauk Kyeing and St. George (probably 2 separate individuals) kill them. The living relatives are the Burmese pythons which are free and some have found sanctuary in pagodas.

It appears that Nagas were more trustworthy than humans or dvas because: "The [Mahayana] Lotus Sūtra ... ... a discourse delivered by the Buddha toward the end of his life ... ... was written down [UKT: what script?] during the life of the Buddha and stored for five hundred years in a nāga-realm. After this, they were reintroduced into the human realm at the time of the Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir." See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 150830

Contents of this page

Georgian script - an Alphabet

- UKT 150801

How can it be possible to find a circularly rounded script so far away on the borders of Europe. It has been proposed by the first archeologist U Taw Sein Ko of Myanmarpr that the roundness of the Myanmar script sic Burmese language is due to its being written on palm leaves, then we have to explain the relationship of Georgian to Myanmar.

If inherent-vowel of Bur-Myan (akshara - pronounceable) were to be "killed" it becomes (letter - mute).

Using the change can turn Bur-Myan to Georgian თა (U10D7+U10D0): both pronounced as /ta/.

Similarly, change can bring about Bur-Myan to Georgian თი (U10D7+10D8): both pronounced as /ti/.

I am intrigued by the relationship between Bur-Myan and Georgian. Because of the following changes, we can say that there is a link between the two scripts:

Georgian: თ (U10D7 alphabet-letter Tan) /t/ + ა (U10D0 alphabet-letter An) /a/~/ɑ/ --> თა /ta/
Myanmar: {ta.} /ta/ + viram {a.t} 'vowel killer'  -->  {t} /t/
Myanmar to Georgian: {t} /t/ + ა (life giver or inherent vowel) --> თა /ta/

There are some similarities between Georgian and Bur-Myan sounds.

According to Rusiko Amirejibi: http://www.travlang.com/languages/georgian/GeorgianPronounce.html 150805:
"The Georgian language uses the Georgian alphabet. It is phonetic: each letter represents one sound. In Georgian, accent doesn't have semantic importance. The accent is weak. The Georgian language has 28 consonants and 5 vowels. There are no capital and small letters. Short and long vowels are not distinguished. There are no diphthongs and each vowel is individually pronounced. The difference between voiced and voiceless consonants are important.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_language 130910, 150205, 150728

Georgian (ქართული ენა, pronounced [kʰartʰuli ɛna]) is the native language of the Georgians and the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus.

Georgian is the primary language of about 4 million people in Georgia itself, and of another 500,000 abroad. It is the literary language for all regional subgroups of the Georgian ethnos, including those who speak other Kartvelian (South Caucasian) languages: Svans, Mingrelians, and the Lazs. Judaeo-Georgian is spoken by an additional 20,000 in Georgia and 65,000 elsewhere (primarily 60,000 in Israel).

UKT 150205: Take note of the last two glyphs in the road-sign /ta/. The /t/ sounds like the Bur-Myan თ {ta.}, and /a/ like {a.}. The glyph {ta.} is თ "Tan" U10D7. If you remember that /t/ is the consonant phoneme just like Eng-Lat <t> and the second the vowel /a/, you come up with the sound of Bur-Myan თ {ta.}. The teaching website http://ilanguages.org/georgian_vocabulary.php 150205, is an excellent source of sounds of many words.

Bur-Myan uses an Abugida-Akshara as the basic unit, but Georgian uses an Alphabet-letter. Georgian was probably an Abugida, but has been changed into an Alphabet under the Western influence. Bur-Myan is a phonetic script, but Georgian has become non-phonetic.

The relationship between Georgian and Myanmar scripts may be explained by the stories of Dragons and the Dragon slayers.

 

As a child learning to read and write English, I came across the story of St. George and the Dragon. What I had learnt was the St. George the patron saint of England and his Cross in the Union Jack and the British Navy flag - the White Ensign aka St. George's Ensign. It was under the Union Jack and St. George's Ensign that the British colonialists first invaded (1824-1826) and enslaved my mother-land the country of my ethnics - the country Myanmarpr.

Of course I knew the Bur-Myan story of {maung-pauk-kyeing:} the Dragon slayer of the ancient Kingdom of Tagaung in Myanmarpr. What a unhappy coincidence!

Contents of this page

Patronages of St. George

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patronages_of_Saint_George 150805

As a highly celebrated saint in both the Western and Eastern Christian churches, Saint George is connected with a large number of patronages throughout the world, and his iconography can be found on the flags and coats of arms of a number of cities and countries. [2] [3] ... ... ...

Devotions to the saint in Georgia date back to the 4th century. While not technically named after the saint (Sakartvelo is the Georgian name for the country), its English name is an early and well-attested back-derivation of Saint George. The name is reputed to be an anglicisation of Gurj, derived from the Persian word for the frightening and heroic people in that territory, and hence assumed by early medieval chroniclers to translate as George, due to the existing patronage. [7] [8]

Traces of the cult of St George predate the Norman Conquest, in 9th-century liturgy used at Durham Cathedral, in a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon martyrology, and in dedications to Saint George at Fordington, Dorset, at Thetford, Southwark and Doncaster. He received further impetus when the Crusaders returned from the Holy Land in the 12th century. At the Battle of Antioch in 1098, St George, St Demetrius and St Maurice were said to have been seen riding alongside the crusaders, and depictions of this event can be seen in a number of churches. [16] King Edward III (reigned 132777) was known for promoting the codes of knighthood and in 1348 founded the Order of the Garter. During his reign, George came to be recognised as the patron saint of the English monarchy; before this, Saint Edmund had been considered the patron saint of England, although his veneration had waned since the time of the Norman conquest, and his cult was partly eclipsed by that of Edward the Confessor. Edward dedicated the chapel at Windsor Castle to the soldier saint who represented the knightly values of chivalry which he so much admired, and the Garter ceremony takes place there every year.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Asoka script - an Abugida 

-- UKT 120901, ... , 150727

The parent of both Devanagari and Myanmar scripts is the Asokan (Brahmi) script. On the right are given the Mon-Myanmar consonantal-aksharas {ak~hka.ra}. Georgian script, curiously similar to Myanmar because of its circularly rounded script, was probably related to Asokan. I conjecture that it was turned into an Alphabet in ancient times.

Listen to Mon-Myan consonantal aksharas in TIL SND-Library
Velar {ka.} row #1 - online-Mon-row1<)) (all links checked 150920)
Palatal {sa.} row #2 - online-Mon-row2<))
Retroflex {Ta.} row #3 - online-Mon-row3<))
Dental {ta.} row #4 - online-Mon-row4<))
Labial {pa.} row #5 - online-Mon-row5<))
Approximant {ya.} row #6 - online-Mon-row6<))
Approximant {ha.} row #7 - online-Mon-row7<))

Now that my interest is in the Georgian consonantal-alphabetic letter თ 'Tan' /t/, you should note that it is not present in Asokan, but is present in Myanmar consonantal-akshara {ta.} /ta/. If this fact were to be taken at its face-value, we must explain why it is so. Can it be that Myanmar developed independently of Asokan? Can it be that Myanmar predates Asokan?

Read also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmi_script 140320 , also
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_language 130910, 150205, 150728

Gautama Buddha spoke the Magadhi the language of Magadha where he was born some 250 years before Asoka (304232 BCE). The language is now recognized as the older form of Pali-Prakrit. What was its script?

UKT 140628: See Franklin Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary , Vol. 1, 1885-1963 (FE-BHS)
- BHS-indx.htm (link chk 150814)
and proceed to:
Languages used in early Buddhism - i01early.htm
An 'original language' of Buddhism - i02original.htm
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit -- i03BHS.htm

It is accepted that the earliest script (in well-formed sentences) found in the Indian subcontinent was the script on Asoka pillars [Edgerton uses the terms: Aśoka's inscriptions , Aśokan , and Aśokan dialects . ] which is now dubbed the Brahmi script. When one Mughal king asked the Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} to decipher the script on the Asoka pillars, they could not. This shows that it was not their script, and I must object to the name the "Brahmi". I prefer to call it "Asoka" or " Asokan".

UKT 140701: I have lost the reference to the Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} failing to decipher the Asokan script. The most interesting to me at present is: 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmic_family_of_scripts 140701
The Wikipedia authors of the above article are still ignorant of the "split" vowels which gives a wrong rendering of Bur-Myan."

The script was deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep, an archaeologist, philologist, and official of the British East India Company.

 

A legitimate question to be asked here is whether there was a script older than the Asokan script. Working on Skt-Dev for many years has convinced me that there was one. I arrive at this notion from the looks of r3 (retroflex) & r4 (dental) in the 5x5 matrix of Asokan and Myanmar scripts.


Compare with Georgian Alphabetic consonant Tan თ (U10D7) /t/,
and Georgian Alphabetic vowel In ი (U10D8) /i/ . See how Bur-Myan vowel-sign /i/  may be changed to Georgian vowel ი  /i/.

A simple transpositioning of r3c3 and r4c4 would show the central glyph, a full circle, faced by 2 semicircles. My work on the Runes or {ing:} has led me to the speculation that the perfectly rounded circle was the basis of the "magic spells". I am working on the "far-fetched" hypothesis that the circle was meant to represent "whole" and "perfect". Since Myanmar akshara uses such glyphs, I am guessing that there was an older script, to write magic spells, and that both Asokan and Myanmar were derived from it.

Now that I have mentioned Runes or {ing:}, I should also mention Yantra {yan~ta.ra:}, Mantra {mn~tn}, and Mandala of the Tantra faith. The tantra {tn~tra.} (see {tn~ta} - UHS-PMD-0432 'woven' . UHS gives Skt-Myan as {tn~tra.}). The meaning implied is "systematic presentation". See also F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, p248 & p284 for words connected to tantra .

UKT 150831: During work on BEPS, I realized that
  1. Bur-Myan is non-rhotic and Skt-Dev is highly rhotic: Pal-Myan and Eng-Lat is in between.
  2. Bur-Myan phonology allows {ya.pn.}-sound and {ra.ric}-sound to be the same.
  3. Pal-Myan does not allow the viram {a.t} to be explicitly shown, and hides it as either a vertical conjunct {paaHT.hsn.} or horizontal conjunct {paaHT.tw:}. Do not say Pali has no {a.t}: it is just not shown explicitly.
  4. Skt-Dev & its equivalent Skt-Myan, and Bur-Myan allow both {a.t} to be shown explicitly.
  5. Medial sounds (monosyllabic) are confined to Bur-Myan. Skt-Dev has no medials: it has only (disyllabic conjuncts)
Because of the above considerations, tantra should not be spelled as {tn~tra.}, but only as {tn-t~ra.}.

Simply put, a yantra is an "instrument" which has the overall two-dimensional shape as in an {ing:}, or three-dimensional square pyramid shape. According to Madhu Khanna, an Indian historian of religion and noted Tantric scholar:

"Mantras, the Sanskrit syllables inscribed on yantras, are essentially "thought forms" representing divinities or cosmic powers, which exert their influence by means of sound-vibrations."
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra 130909

In Tantra, the geometric symbols have meanings:

Circle = Energy of the element water : r3c2 Asoka-akshara
Square = Energy of the element earth : r5c3 Asoka-akshara
Upward-facing Triangle = Energy of the element fire; energy
Downward-facing Triangle = Energy of the element water; knowledge
Diagonal line = Energy of the element air
Horizontal line = Energy of the element water
Vertical line = Energy of the element fire
[ Cross of horizontal & vertical lines = Combined energy of water and fire: r1c1 Asoka-akshara]
[ Bola of lines within upward-facing triangle = Energy of element fire; energy: r4c1 Asoka-akshara]
Point = Energy of the element ether

A look into the Asoka aksharas suggests that many are based on circle, half-circles, square, open-triangle, cross and bola. Asoka aksharas, like their Myanmar cousins based on circles, are probably the remnants of a much older secret ideographic script used for construction of {ing:} and yantra {yan~ta.ra:}.

UKT 1301008: As a boy, I was interested in flying weapons which are now available as toys: the disc or circle, semi-circle, cross of 2 sticks, and a bola of 3 sticks.

"The bola, or boleadora is a primitive hunting tool that was originally used by the Chinese, Eskimos and South American Indians. Bolas are a throwing device made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, designed to capture animals by entangling their appendages (legs, wings)." -- http://www.flight-toys.com/bolas.htm 131008.

The esoteric (or tantra) reasoning goes like this. If a rune master {ing:waiz~za} by means of his secret knowledge could transfer the potencies of the aksharas by proper incantation during inscribing, he could use his {ing:} as an instrument or  {yan~ta.ra:}. If you go by this reasoning you will see that the only script for writing an {ing:} is a script based on perfectly rounded circles, and Myanmar akshara is the only one suitable for such a purpose. Because of this I contend that the Myanmar script was based on a very ancient script probably going back to the Harappan culture.

The reader should remember that I am a down to earth material scientist who "hates" speculations whether they be made by others or by me. I am giving my suggestions just to arouse the curiosity of epigraphists to look into the matter.

To my critics who say I am making too much of comparing Asokan script to Myanmar script on the basis of shapes of the graphemes, I must say, I am aware of the fact that we can find circular rounded graphemes in other scripts. e.g. Georgian script.

UKT 150713: Eventually I will have to look into Asokan script to compare it to Myanmar script. The Asokan uses very simple shapes. This idea of using very simple shapes is also the very basic idea of Myanmar script.
See: A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhing kic~s:} (in Bur-Myan),
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm (link chk 150903)
  - see the downloaded pdf attached to this file - PEG-Mason<> (link chk 150903)
I will also have to come up with a Lakkwak for writing the script - to be named Roma-Magadhi. Then, I will be looking into Pal-Maga - Pali-Prakrit speech in Magadha script. The insets are vowels (vowel-letter and vow-sign) sculpted after Mazard's Version of Mason's Pali Grammar- PEG-MasonEM<> (link chk 150713).
You will note the variation in vowel-sign of /u/.
  - the downloaded pdf of Mazard's Version shows both Bur-Myan script, and Lanka script.

The vowels of any language are more complex than the consonants because they have their origin way down in the throat. The sounds are dependent on the movements of the hyoid bone in the voice box. This bone, alone in the human body, is not attached to any other rigid bony structure. The hyoid is suspended by a large number of muscles attached to other rigid structures.

Since the movements of the muscles are dependent on hearing the movements of the hyoid become dependent on the way a linguistic group vocalize their vowels which indirectly is dependent on the ethnicity of the speakers. I am noting that by listening carefully on how an individual articulate his or her vowels, you can make a guess as to the person's ethnicity.

It is noteworthy that the Asokan script and the Myanmar script share at least 33% commonality. If we are to take the circularly rounded scripts to be the hidden Tantric scripts used for constructing Yans and other instruments to pass on hidden messages, you might give credence to the esoteric legend about Nine Unknown Men, which include Asoka - the Emperor, who form a society for hiding methods of making very destructive weapons known to the Ancients. These weapons could be made and they are powerful enough to eliminate all life on Earth. These Nine Unknown Men are entrusted with keeping the secrets from nine Mother-goddess Kali worshippers, who sow confusion and masquerade as the true sages. Since Mother-Kali is the female principle of Deva-god Shiva , we might conclude that what the Nine Unknown Men are against are the Shaivite-Hindus (Shaivism) who indulged in animal sacrifice of water-buffaloes, goats, and chickens especially the goats.
See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Nine_Unknown 150903
- http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks09/0900641h.html 150903
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaivism 150903
- Guardian news report by Pete Pattisson in Bariyapur
dated Friday 28 November 2014 17.23 GMT
- http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/28/mass-animal-sacrifice-nepal-festival-protests-gadhimai-hindu 150903

Now stretch your imagination (which would have no scientific basis) to the legend of Prestor John which is probably linked to one of Buddhist kings of Central Asia (who became a Buddhist due to embassy sent by Emperor Asoka, and might even be a king of Georgia on the basis of the circularly rounded script.
See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prester_John 150903

From the very start you should be aware of the difference in sounds of Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech written in Devanagari script), and Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script). The word akshara is Skt-Dev, and {ak~hka.ra} is Bur-Myan. In both languages there is no differentiation of grammatical 'singular' and 'plural': the <s> appearing after "Akshara" is the addition by English-speaking writers. Notice the hissing sound when you pronounce the word akshara, and the absence of such a hissing sound in {ak~hka.ra}. I have given a rough guide for Pal-Myan readers, fully realizing that Pali and Sanskrit pronunciations are different.

Now that you have been exposed to Asokan script, you should know about Emperor Asoka (273-232 BC) or Ashok as the Indians would call him. Asoka is the Pali name which ends in a vowel.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka 150903

Asoka was an east-Indian and died a Buddhist. He was also known as Asoka the Great. It was he who adopted Buddhism (before its split into Mahayana and Theravada) as the state religion. He was instrumental in spreading Buddhism to borders of Europe in the West (to Rome and Greece) and to spreading it to the shores of the Pacific Ocean in the East. Southwards Buddhism spread to Lanka and Indonesia. H.G. Wells [the British author] wrote of Ashoka in his book The Outline of History: "Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties and graciousnesses and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines, and shines, almost alone, a star."

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Tagaung - the capital of Ancient Myanmarpr

- UKT 150828

According to tradition {mrn-ma a.sa./ta.kaung: ka.//} -- meaning "the origin of Myanmar was Tagaung", Myanmar as a kingdom and then a country had its beginnings at the time of Gautama Buddha about 500 years B.C. From Tagaung, the capital shifted to Sri Ksetra {a.r-hkt~ta.ra}, and then to Pagan. From Pagan, the capital shifted to Pinya, to Sagaing, to Ava (Innwa), to Ammarapura, and finally to Mandalay under the Burmese kings. See U Ba Than Myanmar Razawin p.32. Under the British and until now the capital is Rangoon (Yangon).

Modern historians trained by colonial British historians*, in particular Professor Luce (Christian) and U Pe Maung Tin (Christian), and their former student Dr. Than Tun (1923 - 2005) (Buddhist) of Rangoon University, dismissed the accounts given by the Burmese sources such as Glass Palace Chronicles on Tagaung and Sri Ksetra to be of little historical value because the accounts are full of mythical beings such as the King of the Nats and Nagas.

UKT 150828: You will have to forgive me for bringing in the religious affiliations of the historians, for it is a well known fact that the colonial British administrators, and those who were working for them had a strong negative outlook on the Buddhist clergy who had participated in compiling the Glass Palace Chronicles. We can be certain that others responsible for the compilation, the Brahmin Poannars and Buddhist laymen, were strong believers in Hinduism and Buddhism with strong beliefs in Nats and Nagas.

However, there is enough archaeological evidence that the accounts given in Burmese sources are built on actual events, though garnished by explanations not acceptable in modern times. The recent archaeological findings, as given by Elizabeth Moore, Bronze and Iron Age sites in Upper Myanmar: Chindwin, Samon and Pyu, SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003, ISSN 1479-8484 is in the TIL SD-Library Moore-Pyu<> (link chk 150904)

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Tartars and Tartary

- UKT 150902

Which is the correct spelling: Tartars or Tatars? "Tartars" is the spelling given by U Taw Sein Ko. Yet when I search for "Tartars" on the internet, I get "Tatars". Searching further for a solution, I came to http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=579 150902
from which I got the following:
"Tatar comes from chinese ta-ta-er, a nomadic tribe conquered by Chingiz Tartar comes from Greek/Latin Tartaros, meaning the underworld.
  When Chingiz and his successors went west, they called his men Tartars, as people from hell. Coincidentally, this was similar to Tatar, so the two are confused, and became almost interchangeable in use. Some modern scholars prefer to use Tatar to describe the "Mongols" who settled west, although in old European documents, the word "Tartar" was used."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatars 150902

The Tatars (Mongolic "Татар", Old Turkic tatar; [1] modern Volga Tatar: Татарлар, Tatarlar تاتارلار ) are a Turkic people living in Asia and Europe. Tatars were one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian plateau in the 12th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Kul Tigin monument as Otuz Tatar Bodun ('Thirty Tatar' tribe) CE. 732.

After the establishment of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars were subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. (c. 1162 1227), Under the leadership of his grandson Batu Khan, they moved westwards, driving with them many of the Turkic peoples toward the plains of Russia. The "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols and Hazaras.

Their name was used by Russians and Europeans to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule (especially in the Golden Horde). Later, it was used for any Turkic- or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. Eventually however, the name stuck onto the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely, the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks, and Cumans, and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols ( Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, Mishar Tatars) [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic-speaking peoples). [7]

The Tatars formed the Turkic-speaking population of Tartary, the lands ruled by Mongol elites from the 14th century until their conquest by the Russian Empire in the 18th to 19th centuries. During the early modern period, a distinction was made  between the European and Asian Tatar territories, by referring to Lesser Tartary and Greater Tartary, respectively.

The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region ( Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars", with their language known as the Tatar language. As of 2002 they had an estimated population close to 6 million.

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