Update: 2015-09-26 06:08 AM -0400


Vowels and Consonants
A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

Addenda to edited version of A Practical Sanskrit Distionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed. (reprint of 1914ed.), 1st in 2006, 2012.

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Vowels - the backbone of a language : acoustic phonetics
Vocal vowels : a demonstration with "duck calls" a
Vowel sounds : vocal cords
Abugida-Akshara system of writing : different from Alphabet-Mute-Letter system
Modification of vowel sound or syllable : {sa.ka:n-su.}
Similar vowels and dissimilar ones : {a.wN} & {a.a.wN}
The problem of "Open O" /ɔ/ : how script might have changed
  without much change in pronunciation. The solution is probably in
  the {a.wN} 'ill-matched' pairs in Bur-Myan cf. Mon-Myan
Voice quality

UKT 150925: Perhaps it's time for me to eat crow, and make a major correction
to Romabama in connection with A'thawun vowels. I still need to study more of
both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

UKT notes :
Intrinsic vowel and its pronunciation


Contents of this page

Vowels - the backbone of a language

-- UKT 130828, ..., 150814

I had realized long ago that the main difficulty in inter-transcription between Burmese (Bur-Myan) and English (Eng-Lat), is the problem of vowels. Vowels are the backbone of a language. Bur-Myan is almost non-rhotic, whereas British English is somewhat rhotic, but the American English is more rhotic. Then I ran into the highly rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.} in Skt-Dev which gives rise to more rhotic sounds than what we are used to Pal-Myan. In fact Pal-Myan does not have the highly rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.}, but has to make-do with less rhotic representation of the Ra'ric {ra.ric} sounds.

To the Westerners, differentiation into short- and long-vowels is NOT important, whereas in the Indic languages and Bur-Myan, they are of prime importance. Based on this idea of vowel duration, measured in time-duration you take to blink your eye, we can find which vowels can form {a.wuN} 'similar pairs' or beautifully matched pair, and, which when paired form {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' or ill-matched pair. The idea of pairing is the same as the modern idea of contrastive vowels and can be explained by Daniel Jones' two-dimensional vowel quadrilateral. With the inclusion of Skt-Dev, I had to explain the highly rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.} (and its sign ृ {Ri.}) by addition of lateral-rhotic dimension.

Below, I have given how the standard IPA vowel quadrilateral aka trapezium is presented, and how I have first compared the Romabama vowels to IPA based on the presentation on DJPD16-xx. I have inserted Bur-Myan vowels in approximate positions. I have also shown the tongue positions and lip shapes, and shown how IPA symbols are related to Burmese, Mon, and Sanskrit - languages covered by BEPS.


Inclusion of Skt-Dev, necessitates a three-dimensional representation to include very rhotic (common), and lateral (not so common) Skt-Dev vowels.

Realizing that it is the vowels, more so than consonants, that is responsible as to how we speak and hear, I have included Chinese from an entirely different linguistic group, and have included vowels from dialect the same language.


For the front vowels, /a/, /ɛ/, /e/, /i/, Bur-Myan has four, {a}, {:}, {}, {i}. English has only three: <a>, <e>, <i>. Instead of having two mid-vowels, they have only one, <e>. However, we should note that pronunciation-wise, there are not many English words with vowel-sound /a/, instead we find many with //. Note a & e must be written as a ligature , not separately.

Do not think that the positions taken up by the vowels, say "short /i/" represented by /ɪ/ would be same at least between dialects of American English. You will notice that in the Californian dialect, /ɪ/ is lower than /e/. Call in another language, say Chinese, and, you are in a complete mess! It is the reason why I have to confine myself to languages of BEPS. I have ventured into Mon-Myan, because both Bama (Burmese) and Mon use the same script. Though the two languages belong to different language groups, Bur-Myan to Tibeto-Burman and Mon-Myan to Austro-Asiatic group related to Dravidian languages, and mutually non-understandable in speech, Burmese and Mon can still be related through Pal-Myan meanings.

The only firm conclusion I can arrive so far is that vowels of all languages lie within the vowel quadrilateral, and that "long" vowels are further away from the center than the "short" vowels. The questions of closeness & openness, and front-ness & back-ness is a matter of differing opinions and nothing else. Graphical representation of vowels in writing (scripts) is just a guide to listening (sounds), and your judgement is a good as that of an authority. The only way to learn a language is to listen how various "native" speakers speak.

With the above background, when I came across Georgian, I am simply flabbergasted!

Georgian Alphabetic-letter 'Tan' U10D7 თ /t/,
  - cf. Myan Akshara-consonant {ta.} /ta./

Georgian Alphabetic-letter 'In' U10D8 ი  /i/,
  cf. Myan Akshara-vow {i.} /i/; vow-sign {i.}-sign changing to Georgian-vowel :

Georgian Alphabetic-letter 'An' U10D0 ა /a/~/ɑ/
  cf. Myan Akshara-vowel {a.} & {au}

You must not forget that my training is Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. I am not a linguist, nor a phonetician and I must leave it to my betters to solve the linguistic problems. I am presenting only what I have found. With my background as a Skeptical Chemist, with Robert Boyle as my model, my analysis must be very stringent.

Now, here's something that would have pleased my analytic-minded scientists of the 19th-20th centuries: How hollow plastic models of the human vocal track turn the squawk of a duck call into vowel sounds.
From: http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/vocal_vowels/vocal_vowels.html 150817
"Here is the sound source. It's really a re-packaged duck call! Notice the reed above the curved wooden surface. Air blows past the reed (from right to left) causing it to vibrate and produce a buzzing sound".
Let's listen to how ducks "speak" duck-call-mp3<)) (link chk 150924)
and you can laugh your heads off. laugh-mp3<)) (link chk 150924)

Contents of this page

Vocal vowels : a demonstration with "duck calls"

-- UKT 131002, 150817

Refer to: Source Filter Theory, General Phonetics, Louis Goldstein (louisgol@usc.edu), Ling 580, Fall 2013 . ,
http://sail.usc.edu/~lgoldste/General_Phonetics/Source_Filter/SFa.html 131002, 150817
Also to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source%E2%80%93filter_model_of_speech_production 150819

As a child, living in the country side, far away from large cities, had brought me into contact with hunters from villages. I remember playing (blowing on), bird-whistles made of baked clay from the potteries of Twent. Living with Nature has its charms, which has now been denied to the city kids who have only imitations in form of computers and internet to play with.

My father, U Tun Pe, at that time was fond of sports hunting, He went into the forests of Di-saing at the mouth of Toe River to hunt moderately large game animals. The tropical rain forest was dense, and was the habitat of leopards, but not tigers. The streams were the home of crocodiles. Snakes? There were plenty. They did not bother us - show them the proper respect. And like all creatures including the humans, they didn't want to be bothered. They warned you when you were encroaching on their territory. They are more humane than the human-terrorist!

My father was then the Public Health Inspector of both Kungyangon North and South townships - probably the largest in the Hanthawaddy district. Public-health-wise, the village headmen had to report to him. He spent almost half of every month touring the villages by country boat and bullock cart. On day-trips, I, a child under 6, used to accompany him.

My father owned a double-barrel gun, licensed by the Deputy Commissioner ICS U Kyaw Khaing. He was my father's classmate at Insein Govt. High School. The British-Burma administrators at that time, just at the end of Saya San rebellion, were very strict in issuing gun-licenses, but U Kyaw Khaing had allowed his friend the highest number of cartridges that he could use each month.

My father on his hunting trips, had to employ the local professional hunters who were mostly Buddhist Karens. Through them I came to know people who could make animal calls just with their bare hands.

The most prominent example of such a person in history was Nga Zin, the sharp-shooting hunter of Pagan period, who by making such a sweet bird-call that the rebellious Raman fleeing down the Irrawaddy river, opened the window of his cabin on the raft. While Raman was looking for the bird, the hunter shot him in the eye (most likely with a cross-bow), and killed him on the spot. That was the end of the Mon rebellion in which King Sawlu (king from 1078 to 1084), the son of King Anawrahta, was executed by Raman. Raman was the son of the Mon wet-nurse {no.htain:} of Prince Sawlu. Raman was Sawlu's breast-feeding mate and play-mate. What a shame: Raman killing his closest friend and sovereign.

There is a question nagging me after I started learning Mon-Myan the spoken language which is mutually not understandable to Bur-Myan speakers. Was King Anawrahta's household completely bilingual in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. Why did King Anawrahta had a Mon wet-nurse instead of a Burman for his infant son Prince Sawlu? Was Anawrahta himself, a half-Mon half-Burman? What was the ethnicity of Anawrahta's father King Kunzaw {kwum:hsau} 'a tax-collector'? - a Mon in the employ of King Taungthugyi {taung-u-kri:}. Why did both Kunzaw and his mother became ma'nes {nt} - protector spirits - after their deaths. It is inconceivable that they died in sorrow - a condition of mental state at the time of death. They must have died with extreme love and attachment - another mental state - to their immediate family. Kunzaw became the Lord with the White Umbrella {hti:hpru-hsaung: nt} (#09/37*), and his mother the {hti:hpru-hsaung: m-tau} (#10/37*) during the reign of their progeny King Anawrahta.

* List number of {nt} in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism, by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung
-- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 150923)
and proceed to Ch.07. Thirty-seven Lords: list  - ch07-nat-list.htm / ch07-0922.htm

Now, you will have to forgive me for running away with my imaginations! I must get back to my ducks.


AH<)) EE<))     EH<)) OH<)) OO<))

The above 5 sounds are from http://sail.usc.edu/~lgoldste/General_Phonetics/Source_Filter/SFa.html 131002
Each picture shows the shape of your vocal tract when you say a different vowel. We've reproduced the plastic models next to the diagram for your convenience. Note that while the plastic models are straight, the vocal tract is bent almost 90 degrees in the middle.

You will also note that:
the tongue-tip has no role to play in the production of vowels.
the most open front vowel is AH, AH<)) - close to modal {a}
the most close front vowel is EE, EE<)) - close to modal {i}
the most open back vowel is OH, OH<)) - mistaken for modal {au}
the most close back vowel is OO, OO<)) - mistaken for modal {u}
the mid front vowel is EH, EH<)) - mistaken for modal {}
It is almost impossible to reconcile the Bur-Myan vowels with 3 pitch-registers (1 blk, 2 blk, 2 blk with emphasis), to 2 tones (1 blk & 2 blk) of Eng-Latin. Please note that I had used the terms, for Bur-Myan: 1 blk = creak, 2 blk = modal, 2 blk with emphasis = emphatic, and for Eng-Lat: 1 blk = short, 2 blk = long
Eng-Lat is missing in one front vowel and two back vowels, which makes inter-transcription between Burmese and English unreliable.
Romabama is a compromise or what the chemical engineers would call a "happy medium" which nobody likes but which has to be accepted for utility sake!

In North America, Canada and the U.S., duck hunting as a sport was quite popular when I first came to study at the Institute of Paper Chemistry. Paper making is a forest-product industry, and many of my class mates were avid duck shooters. They  showed me how they hunted ducks, and one of them had asked me to shoot just once - not at a flying duck, but at a clay-pigeon. I made a direct hit and my score was 100 percent. When offered to do a second time, I refused. That might have brought my score to 50% ! That was the one and only time I have ever fired a gun. North American old timers can make duck-whistles from wood. And now the duck whistles are made of plastic.

Contents of this page

Vowel sounds : vocal cords

- UKT 150819

Refer to: Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm (link chk 150923)
and proceed to: Alpha and Beta [former hv2.htm] - alephbeth.htm (link chk 150923)

Where in the mouth the consonants are produced can be easily seen. These places are known as Points of Articulation (POA). The most easily recognizable part in an open mouth is the Uvula 'little grape' or {lhya-hkn} (MLC MED2006-468). The moving part from which Uvula 'little grape' or {lhya-hkn} is hanging is known as the velum.

But the vowels are produced deeper in the throat in the larynx. How the vowels are produced by a living human being could not be observed directly until recently, because they are produced in the voice-box deep down the throat.

The organ that is responsible for vowel-sound production in the larynx are the vocal-folds in the sound-box. They the source of human-speech. They have been termed vocal-cords, and people have misunderstood them to be like cords or strings of a guitar. A guitar-string vibrates and produces a sound - a mechanical sound, but a human vocal-folds vibrate and produce human speech.

Animations downloaded from: 
- http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page5a.htm recent 150820
Right: quiet breathing Left: speaking
During normal breathing the glottal area is more open (about 1 sq-cm) while during phonation the area is much reduced (0.05 to 0.1 sq-cm.). During speaking (phonation), the movements are more complex. The terms used are: 

abduct v. tr. 2. Physiology To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb.
adduct v. tr. Physiology 1. To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb.

Until the invention of the Video Laryngoscope, there was no way to see where the vowels were produced in a living person. I came to know about it only after I have studied the Principles of Phonetics and Phonology -- still an ongoing topic for me. See my presentation, HUMAN VOICE
- HV-indx.htm (link chk 150923),
and proceed to How sound is produced and heard [former hv6.htm]
- snd-hear.htm (link chk 150923).

Yet it is possible that the ancient Eastern phoneticians, like Panini, might have studied the vowels in speech by placing their sensitive fingers around the throat to feel the vibrations while their human subject - most probably the investigator himself - had been speaking.

It is said that the "vowel sound is a free-flowing sound" which can be either laminar flow (voiceless or vl.), or turbulent (voiced or vd.) within one "puff" of air coming out of the glottis.

Bur-Myan and most of the languages have only voiced basic vowels, but there are some languages which have voiceless vowels (Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel 071230).

What has been touted as voiceless Bur-Myan vowels in
http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter12/burmese.html 150819
are not basic vowels, but vowels of monosyllabic medials, which are present in Bur-Myan. Skt-Dev does not have these sounds. Since the Western phoneticians had started their study of the sound systems of India and Burma - Burma at that time-period in history was considered by the Westerners to be just a province of India - they must have had come to wrong perceptions.

UKT 150923: It is interesting to note that when the British-India participated in the Olympic Games at one time, there was a weight-lifter from Burma, U Zaw Waik by name. He hailed from Natsingoan village in North Kungyangon township. U Zaw Waik was in the team. It was said that he had to parade at the opening ceremony wearing an Indian turban ! What an insult to the proud Burmese of my father's generation. I am sorry I can no longer check the facts I was told.

The examples of Bur-Myan cited are the {ha.hto:}-sounds: {mha.}, {nha}, {ha} and {ngha:}. I have shown the basic akshara in red, and medial-former in green. This very example, which my wife and I ran into in 2002, had baffled us for many days, because the website had shown only the IPA transliterations which are not at all informative to Bur-Myan like us. It is for this reason that I have to develop Romabama first into a transliteration and now into a transcription.

After leaving the glottis, the signal carrying air puff has to travel upwards along the pharynx which opens into the mouth (oral) cavity and slightly further up into the nose (nasal) cavity. The flow can be modified by placing restrictions to the path, as in the flow of water in a concertina-like plastic-piping system. The restrictions can be "valves" and/or "weirs". The modification is also brought about by changes in the "shape" and/or "length" of the pipe. Never compare the vocal system to a system of rigid metal pipes with trap-door-like valves.

See Mechanical model of speech production
- http://www.haskins.yale.edu/featured/heads/simulacra/riesz.html 150819
UKT 150819: Though a wrong model because of the rigid structure, it could still reproduce "human like" sound with a good operator. The functions of parts are explained in the article.

The air from the lungs passes through the glottis where the vocal folds (not like strings: the term "vocal cords" is wrong) are. They are situated just below where the tract of pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus. Air coming past the vocal folds are in little puffs.

It should be noted that as with all valves used in fluid flow, the soft palate can be completely open or tightly shut, or somewhere in between. We should always remember that there is a pronunciation difference between rapid speech (used by common people) as opposed to careful speech (as used by lawyers, politicians and public speakers).  The nasal/oral opposition concerns not only the consonants but vowels as well.

John Laver (1980, p.70) writes:
  "The physiology of the velopharyngeal system has been the subject of research by many workers, though largely from other disciplines than general phonetics. The facts about the action of the groups of muscles that serve to open and close the velum are reasonably well established. ... We are thus obliged to accept that different speakers may achieve auditorily (and perhaps articulatorily) similar results by physiologically different means. This is very likely to be true not only of the velopharyngeal mechanism, but of the entire speech apparatus. ... It is to be stressed that the velum does not move like a hinged trap door -- as is so often claimed in various books. In reality, the palate represents the anterior portion of the complex velopharyngeal valve, which functions mainly as a circular sphincter. " -- The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality by John Laver, Univ. of Edinburgh, Cambridge Univ. Press. 1980, p70-75, part of the book available in http://www.ling.mq.edu.au/ling/units/sph302/papers/laver_1980_nasal.pdf 071029

As the inset figure illustrates, the  opening & closing of the vocal folds produces vibrations. These vibrations give rise to patterns of compression and rarefaction of the air around in the form of a longitudinal wave.

This is what we called a sound wave. And thus the vocal folds are the source of speech.

The vibrations can be represented in the form a waveform with in two dimensions of time (vertical) and intensity (horizontal). As the puff of air passes through the vocal tract which acts as a resonant filter, certain frequencies are damped and others intensified, the waveform is changed. The inset figure is the waveform of a continuous speech with many syllables.

To hear what the buzzing of the vocal folds in continuous speech sounds like before it enters the vocal tract, click
excitation - exit-mp3<)) (link chk 150924)
To hear the filtering action of the vocal tract, click
vocal tract filter - filter-mp3<)) (link chk 150924)
To hear the resultant speech, click
speech - speech-mp3<)) (link chk 150924)

A syllable has its own wave form, e.g. a syllable with /iː/ (long - 2 blk). You can see how an Australian English speaker would pronounce a word h_d with the /iː/ nuclear vowel. The onset  consonant h is quite different from the coda d . The nuclear vowel i is the most prominent. - from: -http://clas.mq.edu.au/speech/acoustics/waveforms/speech_waveforms.html 150819

In the production of human speech-sounds, there are two ways in which air can flow, depending on the position of the soft palate (velum). The soft palate acts like a valve which can completely shut off or open the nasal resonators, or stay in half way positions. However, because of the involvement of more than one pair of muscles in lowering and raising the velum, the action is far more complex than opening or closing a mechanical valve.

In producing the nasal sounds, (with nasal consonants /ŋ, ɲ, ɳ, n, m/; <ng, --, --, n, m> or {nga., a., Na., na., ma.}), the soft-palate is lowered opening the nasal resonator. I have now determined that Bur-Myan {a.}/ {} is not a nasal, but an approximant with no nasal sound similar to {ya.}/ {y}. The air then flows through both the nasal channels (nose: there are two) and the oral channel (mouth). In the production of oral sounds (with oral consonants such as /k, t, p/ <k, t, p> or  {ka. ta. pa.} and {hka. hta. hpa.}), the soft-palate is raised shutting off the nasal resonator, and air flows only through the mouth.

Contents of this page

Abugida-Akshara system of writing :
different from Alphabet-Mute-Letter system

-- UKT 130828, ... , 150820

Editing a dictionary on Indic & Myanmar languages is a mess until one keep in mind that the medium of presentation to the public is English is written modified Latin. Other west European languages also write in other forms of modified Latin. However the basic Latin is the same. For instance when we have to differentiate English from French and Spanish, we write English-Latin (Eng-Lat), French-Latin and Spanish-Latin. The speech of Rome is written in Latin, and so we should say "Latinization" in stead of "Romanization".

Eng-Lat is an Alphabet, or to be specific Alphabet-Mute-Letter writing system. There is no correspondence between speech and script in Eng-Lat.

Other languages in BEPS - Bur-Myan, Pal-Myan, & Skt-Dev - are written in Abugidas or Abugida-Sonant-Letter. Because the Letter is pronounceable, we say it is a syllable The aim of these writing systems are to have a one-to-one correspondence between speech and script. Moreover this one-to-one correspondence must never change. Because of this unchanging or ever-lasting nature, both the basic element in speech and script are known as Akshara. Thus Abugida should be specified as Abugida-Akshara. We use other languages such as Mon-Myan and Bangla-Bengali to test the effectiveness of Romabama. 

Mon-Myan is of interest because, there can be two types of intrinsic-vowels for consonants. See more of intrinsic vowels in
- MC-in-vow.htm (link chk 150924)

Velar {ka.} row #1 - online-Mon-row1<)) (all links checked 150920
Palatal {sa.} row #2 - online-Mon-row2<))
Dental {ta.} row #4 - online-Mon-row4<))
Labial {pa.} row #5 - online-Mon-row5<))

Bangla-Bengali is of interest because it has split vowels just as in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. See more of split vowels in - MC-syllab.htm (link chk 150924)

Since the aim of abugidas is a one-to-one correspondence between speech and script, using ordinary Eng-Lat for transcription usually brought in misunderstandings and confusion. Because of this transliteration is mainly used instead of transcription. However when readers pronounce according to transliteration many native words became misunderstood or have their meanings changed. So the first step is write English in modified Latin script such as IPA to bring on one-to-one correspondence. TIL uses Eng-IPA-Latin (or Eng-IPA) in BEPS work to compare Sanskrit words to Pali. 

The two writing systems, the Abugida (for Burmese, Pali, & Sanskrit) and the Alphabet (for English), are entirely different. The basic unit of script in Abugida is the syllable, where the consonant and vowel characters, are specified as Aksharas. The basic consonants have an inherent-vowel which is never specified. At present this inherent vowel is taken to have the the pronunciation /ə/. For transliteration and transcription to common English the intrinsic vowel is marked as <a> /a/. However, it never given as a glyph in Myanmar and Devanagari. Only a faint circle is given in Devanagari, and only a short horizontal line in Myanmar, e.g. the intrinsic vowel of {pa.} is not given, but "marks" to indicate the changes of the sound are given:

{a.} , {a} आ 
{pa.} , {pa} पा , {pi.} पि , {pi} पी , {pu.} पु , {pu} पू .

For representing Skt-Dev, see Unicode 4.0, ch09 - Unicode<> (link chk 150908)

These marks are known as vowel-signs, which I sometimes shorten to vow-signs. The vowel-signs are used to modify consonants. When we need vowels as independent characters, we use vowel-aksharas (or vowel-letters).

The basic unit of script in an Alphabet is the Letter without an inherent vowel. Thus the consonant {pa.} is pronounceable, whereas p is not.

Since you will come across more of the difference between Abugida and Alphabet in
Comparison of Skt-Dev, Eng-IPALatin, and Bur-Myan vowels - MC-BEPS-vow.htm (link chk 150820)
I will conclude this section with a modern sample of writing Myanmar script written on a leaf of Talipot palm,  Corypha umbraculifera. The characters are scratched on the leaf using a steel stylus. The marks are made more visible by rubbing in lamp-black into the scratches. The lamp-black is in the form of a paste in crude petroleum oil. The leaf becomes yellow because of the oil, but over time turns brown.

Writing on palm leaves with a stylus is still practiced in Myanmarpr by astronomers-astrologers for each person giving the exact time of date, day and time of birth based on the Myanmar luni-solar calendar. Since, the date depends on a particular luni-solar calendar, which has seen changes during the long history of the country, the positions of the planets, and the asterisms are calculated and recorded. Do not forget that the Western calendar has been changed within our living memory, and changes to the dates of birth of historical persons, and historical events have to be specified in BC or AD. Similarly, the time-keeping devises have been changed and so when recording the "hour, minute, and second" of birth, the time-keeping system must be specified. The Western historians are only now beginning to realize the utility of such a system for keeping track of historical events which could be checked by modern day astronomy.

Contents of this page

Modification of vowel sound or syllable

Modifications can occur to the vowel sound or syllable. The modification at the beginning of the sound is the onset consonant, and if it is at the end it is the coda consonant. This definition is important in the transcription of Burmese-Myanmar into Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}.

In Romabama we are faced with the problem to represent the 3 pitch-registers of Bur-Myan with two tones (short vowels of duration 1 eye-blink and long vowels of duration 2 blk) of Eng-Latin, and we run smack into what I had termed the Two-three tone problem. However inclusion of Mon-Myan has solved this problem, e.g.:

{a:.} (1/2 blk), {a.} (1 blk), {a} (2 blk), {a:} (2 blk with emphasis)

Mon-Myan has {a:.} (1/2 blk), {a.} (1 blk), {a} (2 blk),
Eng-Lat has {a.} (1 blk), {a} (2 blk), and
Bur-Myan has {a.} (1 blk), {a} (2 blk),  {a:} (2 blk with emphasis).
Bur-Myan also has {aa.} which is equiv to Mon-Myan {a:.} (1/2 blk).

UKT 150925 : CAUTION: What English ESL has termed "short vowels" and "long vowels" are misnomers, as they have nothing to do with time-duration. See also in this folder Short Vowels // - ESL-aeiou<> (link chk 150920)
and listen to - ESL-aeiou<)) (link chk 150917)
and identify:
 <a> // in <cat> /kt/  ---- {kakt}
 <e> /e/ in <bed> /bed/ ----- {bd} (cf {hkt} 'era')
 <i> /ɪ/ in <pig> /pɪg/ -------- {pig
 <o> /ɒ/ in <dog> /dɒg/ (US) /dɑːg/  - {daug}
 <u> /ʌ/ in <bus> /bʌs/ ------ {bS
A more complete list will be found in
Section 1. English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm (link chk 150920)
and go to Vowels - EPG-vow.htm (link chk 150920)
My usual approach is to study Short Vowels by taking Vowel-Coda , VC (or V), together. Never forget that the Canonical structure of Eng-Lat syllable is CVC, and that of Bur-Myan is CV

Before proceeding further, it should be noted that the line between vowels and consonants, in terms of sonority, cannot be clearly drawn; a continuum exists between the two extremes. This is because, the modification can be very slight or very drastic. From the point of view of Bur-Myan, we will come to see that among the well-defined vowels there are two divisions: the free and checked vowels. Vowels can also be divided into tense (long) and lax (short) vowels. Similarly, among the well-defined consonants, there are two major divisions: the obstruents and the sonorants. This division is best shown by sonority scale.

There are also intermediate instances, such as the semi-vowels (e.g. <y> and {ya.}) and the (frictionless) spirants. Now, what are Bur-Myan {sa.}/ {c} (r2c1) and {a.}/ {} (r6c5) (usually transcribed as {tha.}/{a.}? And, Skt-Dev स (U0938) pronounced as /s/ which I have found to be equal to Bur-Myan {a.} /θ/. Are they spirants or sibilants, or something else? Finally, what are श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ and ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/? . These two have now been incorporated into BEPS as {sha.}/ {sh} and {Sa.}/ {S}.

Whenever we come across Eng-Latin <p, t, k>, we must be careful about the pronunciation of /p/, /t/, and /k/. English pronunciation of the individual grapheme is of two kinds which are called allophones. For example, the letter <p> with the  pronunciation /p/ (broad transcription) has two allophones represented in narrow transcription: [p] in <spin> corresponding to {pa.} sound, and [pʰ] in <pin> corresponding to {hpa.} sound.

The allophones [p t k] correspond to {pa. ta. ka.}, and [pʰ tʰ  kʰ] to {hpa. hta. hka.} . Allophones {pa. ta. ka.} are known to TIL as tenuis consonants and are in column c1 of akshara matrix, and {hpa. hta. hka.} as voiceless consonants and are in c2 . The voiced consonants in c3 are {ba. da. ga.}, and deep-H or glottal consonants in c4 are {Ba. Da. Ga.}. Do not use "aspirate" for c2 and c4. To us they are phonemes in their own right and do not have aspirated sounds. We usually list our phonemes starting from interior of the mouth and proceed to outer parts. Our order is velar-to-labial, but the Westerners list theirs in order labial-to-velar. See IPA consonantal table. However, because I am using Eng-Lat as a means of communication, I have to follow their order:

  r5c3  r4c3  r1c3   r5c4  r4c4  r1c4
r5c1  r4c1  r1c1   r5c2  r4c2  r1c2

The above 12 are the aksharas and letters of plosive-stop consonants we need most for inter-transcription between Bur-Myan and Eng-Latin. If I were to arrange the order of above:

  r1c1  r1c2  r1c3  r1c4
  r4c1  c4c2  r4c3  r4c4
   r5c1  r5c2  r5c3  r5c4

Eng-Latin has only two nasals, <m> /m/ & <n> /n/, and the nasal /ŋ/ in words like <king> /kɪŋ/. If we are to include these 3 as well:

  r1c1  r1c2  r1c3  r1c4  r1c5
  r4c1  c4c2  r4c3  r4c4  r4c5
   r5c1  r5c2  r5c3  r5c4  r5c5

In many English words, <g> is not pronounced, in which case <ng> (perhaps best represented as <ng>) behaves exactly like Bur-Myan {nga.}. Remember, <ng> is a digraph, and the "g" is generally not pronounced: <singer> /sɪŋ.əʳ/ (US) /sɪŋ.ɚ / vs. <finger> /fɪŋ.g|əʳ/ (US) /fɪŋ.g|ɚ /. In these two words, <ng> is pronounced differently.

To render <ing> into Romabama, we can look as an illustration into <kin> /kɪn/ (DJPD16-300), vs., <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300). The approximate Bur-Myan pronunciations of the words are, respectively, {king} & {king:}. Now compare them to {kn} and {kn}. All we need to do is to change the Romabama spelling of {king} --> {kn}, which can be further changed into {kin}. Using this gimmick we can escape the problem of silent g . There is no confusion between {kn}/{kin} and {kn} or {kn}.

Remember the role of <n> in three different words. <n> means differently: it must be taken together with the preceding vowel. Even if the diacritical marks are lost, there is no confusion.

{kn} --> {kin}
{kn} --> {kun}
{kn} --> {kan}

This is the aim of Romabama: even if the diacritical marks are lost, Romabama transcription must still give a one-to-one correspondence to Bur-Myan spelling.

IPA arranges the oral plosives in the order p --> k, whereas in the aksharas including Devanagari, the usual way is k --> p. I am following the akshara way. Below is an expansion of IPA consonants:


Contents of this page

Similar vowels and dissimilar ones
{a.wN} & {a.a.wN}

UKT 150925: Perhaps it's time for me to eat crow, and make a major correction
to Romabama in connection with A'thawun vowels. I still need to study more of
both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

- UKT 130828, ...150926

I have state above that based on this idea of vowel duration, measured in time-duration you take to blink your eye, we can find which vowels can form {a.wuN} 'similar pairs' or beautifully matched pair, and, which when paired form  {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' or ill-matched pair.

Vowels at the corners of the vowel quadrilateral, /a/, /i/, /u/, are long vowels of duration 2 blks. They have short counterparts with duration 1 blk which are nearer to the center. They are the ones which form {a.wuN} 'similar or matched pairs':

{a.}, {a},
{i.}, {i}, 
{u.}, {u}.

In the vowel quadrilateral, there are four back vowels as a group, /u/, /o/, /ɔ/ & /ɑ/. The problem of relating Bur-Myan to Eng-Lat becomes worse when there is a mix up of /ɔ/ & /ɑ/.

Remember our interest is in mid-vowels: in Myanmar, for the front we have {} and {e}, and for the back {u}, {o}, {AU}/{AW}, & {au}. But, English has only one for the front, <e>, and three, <u>, <o>, <au>. Note: <au> is a digraph and is pronounced as a monophthong in Bur-Myan.

We now look for a possible solution in English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm (link chk 150926),
and proceed to Pronouncing the letters: vowels
- let-a.htm , let-e.htm , let-i.htm , let-o.htm & let-u.htm (link chk 150814).

UKT 150926:
Since my present transcriptions {}/{ei} - {e}, and, {AU}/{AW} - {au} , have called for <ei>, <e> and <au>, I will look into:

letters EI
p173. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel diagraph [ei].
  vowel-sound /eɪ/ or /aɪ/
  <eight> /eɪt/
  <height>  /haɪt/

letter E
p168. The vowel letter [e] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /e/ and a 'long' pronunciation /iː/. However, the situation is not clear cut and other pronunciations are available.
   vowel-sound: /e/ -- short pronunciation
  <bed>  /bed/
  <bedding>  /ˈbed.ɪŋ/

letters AU, AW
p41. The vowel letter combinations [au] and [aw] are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /ɔː (US) ɑː/ , e.g.:
  vowel-sound /ɔː/ (US) /ɑː/
  <sauce> /sɔːs/ (US) /sɑːs/
  <saw> /sɔː/ (US) /sɑː/

A possible help to solve our problem is in tense/lax dimension of the vowels in English. See my notes below.

Contents of this page

The problem of "Open O" /ɔ/ :

how script might have changed without much change in pronunciation

- UKT 150821, 150925

To get a fuller understanding on /ɔ/ (U0254) known as "Open-O", which could be {AU}/{AW}, I need to study Mon-Myan phonology by repeated listening to the sounds of phones in isolation, in continuous speech, and in songs. Let's listen to the vowels first paying attention to the A'thawun {a.a.wN} 'ill-matched' pairs. In Mon-Myan, the three {a.wN}-pairs are:
- { }, - {AW }, - {n a:.}  - Mon-v2<)) (link chk 150924)


You will notice that Bur-Myan needs a new phone, {}, which is usually mis-identified as {au}. We can now identify the contrastive front-back mid-vowels as {e}~ {o}, and {}~ {}.

UKT 150925: The bookmarks for contrastive vowel-pair, important for TIL editors, have been set for:
- {} as <ei3>, and {} <ou2>.
See English contrastive vowels, by P. Ladefoged in TIL SD-Library
- Ladefoged-Eng-Contra-vow<> (link chk 150926)
to know what is meant by "contrastive vowels". Ladefoged gives only h_d (onset-h & coda-d), such as
[heɪd] <hayed>, and  [haʊ] <how> .  His examples are not applicable to our problem.

Both Mon speech and Burmese speech uses the same basic Myanmar script, similar to French and English speeches using the basic Latin script. Myanmar script is unique in being the only language based on circularly rounded circles, except perhaps Georgian script : თ [Georgian Alphabetic-Letter Tan] & ი [Georgian Alphabetic-Letter In]. If we are to take that the Georgian vowel  In ი is the equivalent of Bur-Myan vowel-sign  {lon:kri:tn} which has its position changed, , the correspondence is complete between the Georgian word თი and Bur-Myan {ti.}, both pronouncing /ti/. This is perhaps how an Abugida has been changed into an Alphabet.

Mon-Myan and Bur-Myan are completely different languages. They even belong to different language groups. Mon belongs to Austro-Asiatic language group and Burmese to the Tibeto-Burman. Yet, because speakers of both languages are by religion, Theravada, they think the same way. They eat the same diet, and treat their women folk the same with what might amount to reverence. They place their mothers in place of honour, and treat their wives almost the same as themselves. To them the land they live on is their Mother-land. To them the country they live in is A'Mi Myanmarpr {a.mi.mrun-ma-pr}. - not their "Father Land".

In a way both Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan are maternalistic societies -- a trait which they probably acquired from the Pyus who had worshipped the Mother Goddess -- the Devi.
See downloaded 150816 pdf paper Bronze and Iron Age sites in Upper Myanmar: Chindwin, Samon and Pyu, by E. Moore, SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003, ISSN 1479-8484 in TIL library
- Moore-Pyu-pdf<> (link chk 150904).
Note: Papers in TIL SD-library can only be read on TIL computers for research.

UKT 150918: This is a note I hate to make because it involves the Hindu religions of India. Most of the scholars in Myanmarpr, including Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, the author of Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 150918)
are under the impression that Hinduism is the religion of Hindu Trinity: Brahma (creator), Vishnu (administrator), and Shiva (the maintainer of law and order). This is the Vaishnavite Hinduism. But the dominant form Hinduism in India at present is Shaivite Hinduism, which claims that Shiva is the Omnipotent god which is comparable to YHVH, God, and Allah. In Shaivite Hinduism, Vishnu and Brahma are inferior to Shiva, and males (men) are superior to females (women). At present when a Hindu mentions "God", it is Shiva he is referring to.

We have seen an example of continuous speech, we have to know how acoustic phoneticians are studying the individual vowels produce by various human subjects -- of different age groups, of different sexes, and of different linguistic groups. Relying on a group of trained phoneticians to judge the vowels is helpful only in cursory study of a language. And you should remember that representing vowels in a diagram such as the quadrilateral of Daniel-Jones is an approximation at best.

The present-day study of vowels depends on the instrumental measurement of sound waves. A human subject is asked to "sing" a vowel and his voice-sound is recorded. From the analysis, quantities known as Formants are derived. The quantities are measured are F1, F2, and F3. Below is a comparison of vowels in F1 and F2. Again an excerpt from:
How sound is produced and heard
[former hv6.htm] - snd-hear.htm (link chk 150816).

The fig below shows that using formants differentiate the vowels of {o}, {AW}/{AU}, and {au:} would not be easy. These vowels are of interest to my friend from MLC, U Tun Tint and me, because MLC transcribes the Bur-Myan {au:} /[o]/ and {o} as /[ou]/.

 When I told him that in Romabama, the transliteration for is {o}, he said "that's how a man on the street {lm:pau-ka. lu} would do it." And he is right! It is usual for male Burmese friends of the same age to address each other using the prefix {ko} (such as how I address him -- {ko htwun: tn.}). If I were to write to him in English, I would address him as Ko Tun Tint. The explanation for how this confusion had come about is on the way the English vowels /o/ and /ɑ/ are generally pronounced. The first three formants for /o/ and /ɑ/ are quite similar, and when we pronounce {au:}/ {AU:}, foreigners might heard it as /o/. But to us, they sound as /ɑ/, and hence the Romabama transcription is {au:}.

Above, I have said to get a fuller understanding on /ɔ/ (U0254) known as "Open-O", which could be {AU}/{AW}, I need to study Mon-Myan. The only reliable way I use are the study of formants of both Bur-Myan speakers and Mon-Myan speakers. In the above figure, you can that the formants of /ɑ/ and /ɔ/ are so alike that a phonetician is bound to get confused. Since measuring formants is beyond my means at the present: all I can do is to study the Mon-Myan further.

Contents of this page

Voice quality (VQ)

Refer to Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - indx-HV.htm (link chk 150816),
and proceed to Voice quality [former hv7.htm] - voice-qual.htm (link chk 150816)

Refer also to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larynx 070909, 150820
See also The Phonetic Description of Voice quality, John Laver, Univ. of Edinburgh. Cambridge Univ. Press, First published 1980. ISBN 0 521 231 760. The html version is in TIL library.

Definition of VQ: Perceived characteristic acoustic colouring of voice, derived from a variety of laryngeal and supra-laryngeal features that are not unique to one individual but form clusters of identifiable voice types. Examples of voice types:

Whisper voice Modal voice Breathy voice Pressed voice
Creaky voice Tense voice Harsh voice Nasal voice

UKT 150820: From time to time, I came across very neat sets of papers on the internet. Though I would like to give credit to the authors concerned, I am unable to do so. I can only give the source. This section is written based on two such sources. They have been downloaded, reformatted to suit TIL requirements, and are available in the TIL library.

EGG and VQ, http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page10.htm 080107, 150821.
The whole set of these papers have been downloaded and are in TIL library. I have gone through Chapter 1, from which the following sound files are taken.

Those who have just come across this page (file) might be wondering what the little figures in blue (given below) are. They are highly stylized drawings of the muscles of the larynx used for opening and closing the glottis.

Whisper - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/whisper.wav 101030
downloaded whisper<)) (link chk 150924)
Whisper sound quality is produced through turbulences generated by the friction of the air in and above the larynx with vocal folds not vibrating. Apart from the rather seldom linguistic uses, whisper is widely used paralinquistically to signal secrecy and confidentiality.


Modal voice - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/modal.wav 101030
downloaded modal<)) (link chk 150924)
The neutral mode of phonation is modal voiced phonation. The modal phonation of a male speaker occurs at an average of 120 Hz, while for a female speaker it is approx. 220 Hz.


Breathy voice - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/breathy.wav 101030
downloaded breathy<)) (link chk 150924)
It is normally regarded as a compound phonation type (voiceless +modal). Vocal fold vibration is inefficient and, because of the incomplete closure of the glottis, a constant glottal leakage occurs which causes the production of audible friction noise. The vibration frequency is just below the value of typical modal voice.


Creaky voice - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/creak.wav 101030
downloaded creak<)) (link chk 150924)
Creak phonation (also called vocal fry) is also produced with vibrating vocal folds but at a very low frequency.


Harsh voice - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/harsh.wav 101030]
downloaded harsh<)) (link chk 150924)
It is due to the very strong tension of the vocal folds (especially medial compression and adductive tension), which results in an excessive approximation of the vocal folds. When the whole larynx is subjected to this extremely high tension, the upper larynx becomes highly constricted with the ventricular folds pressing on the upper surfaces of the vocal folds, making their vibration ineffective. Harsh phonation is therefore irregular in both cycle duration and amplitude. The characteristic frequency is above 100 Hz. A lighter degree of tension is sometimes described as a tense voice.


Falsetto - www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/falsetto.wav 101030 
downloaded falsetto<)) (link chk 150924)
[falsetto.wav does not seem to represent speech]
[UKT 150821: When a grown up tries to imitate a child's voice, for example a nat-medium imitating the voice of a household ma'nes who died as a child, MaNhL {ma.nh:l:}, the voice is described in Bur-Myan as {nt-ka.tau n}
- a nasal voice nasal<)) (link chk 150924)
It is probably what would be described as "falsetto"].

The frequency of vibrations in falsetto phonation is noticeably higher than in modal voice. The vocal folds are stretched longitudinally, thus becoming relatively thin. Consequently, the vibrating mass is smaller and the generated tone higher. The adduction of the folds is high and the medial compression is also strong. The glottis often remains slightly open, resulting in low subglottal pressure (due to constant glottal leakage) and the generation of the audible friction noise component.

Not all phonation types are mutually exclusive, on the contrary, some of them work together to modify phonation. Only modal and falsetto are incompatible because they use the structure of the larynx differently.

Voice quality is an effect of vocal tract anatomy, laryngeal anatomy and vocal habits.

This is illustrated in the following examples.  The characteristic sound of the voice is brought about by the mode of vibration of the vocal cords and folds.

Differences in the degree and manner of glottal closure distinguish modal voice, breathy voice and whispery voice.  The quality of the voice depends on the degree of tension in the larynx and pharynx, and on the vertical displacement of the larynx: a raised larynx produces a thin tense voice, and a lowered larynx a booming voice.

Perceptual importance: In English, apart from distinguishing voiced and voiceless sounds, voice quality does not make linguistic contrasts, but conveys information about the speaker. In some languages such as Gujerati [an Indian language that is of interest to me because of its Pali connection, and Jainism a contemporary of the Buddhism] and Mazatec differences in voice quality or pitch trajectory [The term " pitch" can mean many things. The term "pitch trajectory" is no better.] are used to convey linguistic meanings. Languages and dialects have characteristic voice qualities; personal voice quality enables a listener to recognize a particular individual.  Furthermore, the quality of someone's voice also conveys emotions and attitudes.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Intrinsic vowel and its pronunciation

- UKT 150907

What is the intrinsic vowel aka inherent vowel present in a consonantal character in Abugida-Akshara system? What is its pronunciation in different languages of BEPS? How is it to be represented in transliteration and transcription?

From Principles of Script, Ch 9.1 Devanagari, The Unicode Standard 4.0 , 2003
Downloaded pdf in TIL SD-Library - Unicode4<> (link chk 150908)

Consonant Letters. Each consonant letter represents a single consonantal sound but also has the peculiarity of having an inherent vowel, generally the short vowel /a/ in Devanagari and the other Indic scripts. Thus U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA  represents not just /k/ but also /ka/. In the presence of a dependent vowel, however, the inherent vowel associated with a consonant letter is overridden by the dependent vowel.

Virama (Halant). Devanagari employs a sign known in Sanskrit as the virama [which I commonly shorten to viram ] or vowel omission sign. In Hindi it is called hal or halant, and that term is used in referring to the virama or to a consonant with its vowel suppressed by the virama; the terms are used interchangeably in this section.

The virama sign, U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA , nominally serves to cancel (or kill) the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is applied. When a consonant has lost its inherent vowel by the application of virama, it is known as a dead consonant; in contrast, a live consonant is one that retains its inherent vowel or is written with an explicit dependent vowel sign. In the Unicode Standard, a dead consonant is defined as a sequence consisting of a consonant letter followed by a virama. The default rendering for a dead consonant is to position the virama as a combining mark bound to the consonant letterform.

Go back intrinsic-vow-note-b

Contents of this page

Tense/lax dimension

To get some more help from English, I have looked into tense/lax dimension of the vowels in English, /i/ (tense) & /ɪ/ (lax), and, /o/ (lax) & /ɔ/ (tense). They are very hard to tell apart. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_diagram 150115. Looking further, I got more examples from J. Eulenberg/ A. Farhad, Spring Semester 2011,  https://msu.edu/course/asc/232/Charts/Tense-Lax_Vowels.html 150815 .
This website listed:

tense: i , e , u , o , ɔ , ɑ , ɝ
lax: -- ɪ , ɛ , , ʊ , ʌ , ɚ , ə

The msu.edu website gives also

The Test
Only tense vowels can occur in a word-final stressed open syllable in English.
  Mnemonics :
"We may view Ma Shaw's fur coat." (All tense vowels)
"Big Ben had cooked the butter." (all lax vowels)
  Mnemonics IPA - my (UKT's) rendition from DJPD16 - 150815
"wiː meɪ vjuː mɑː ʃɔː fɝː koʊt" (All tense vowels)
"bɪg ben həd kʊked iː 'bʌt|.ɚ" (All lax vowels)

In my early days of the study of Phonetics, articles like the above on tense/lax had misguided me because unlike the other features of vowel quality, tenseness is only applicable to the few languages that have this opposition (mainly Germanic languages, e.g. English), whereas the vowels of the other languages (e.g. Spanish) cannot be described with respect to tenseness in any meaningful way. In discourse about the English language, "tense and lax" are often used interchangeably with "long and short", respectively, because the features are concomitant in the common varieties of English. This cannot be applied to all English dialects or other languages. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel#Tenseness.2Fchecked_vowels_vs._free_vowels 150114

Based on "tense and lax" being interchangeably used with "long and short" in English, we may say all BEPS languages have this dimension with the further observation that "short" varieties are closer to the center of the vowel quadrilateral.

Because of the mix up of terms such as tense/lax and long/short, I am using the duration of the vowel measured in time you take to blink your eye. As an illustration consider the registers of /a/ to /i/ :

1/2 blk ----------- 1 blk ----- 2 blk --- 2 blk + emphasis
{a:.}/ {aa.}  {a.} --- {a} --- {a:}
{.}/ {.}   {}     {}
{.} ----------- {} -------------- {:}
{i.} ------------- {i} ---------------- {i:}

{pi.} ------------ {pi} --------------- {pi:}

The above are all free vowels. The checked vowels are those where the checking is done by killed-consonants. An example of checked vowel :

Unlike Pal-Myan, killing of Nya'gyi is allowed in Bur-Myan. Below is vowel {a.} checked Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}.
{.}  {}  {:}

Below is the case of intrinsic-vowel of {pa.} checked by killed akshara of {sa.}/ {c}  which is the tenuis-voiceless of the Palatals:

{sa.} + viram --> {c}
{pic} found in words similar to <pit> /pɪt/

Go back tense-lax-dimension-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file