Update: 2017-01-19 04:37 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{au:}/ {AU:} /ɔ/ (open O) - cont
{au:ma.}/ {AU:ma.}

{au:Sa.}/ {AU:Sa.}


UKT notes :
Bur-Myan vowels compared to Skt-Dev & Eng-Lat vowels :
     - this note would be merged with text on vowels -- MC-v00-indx.htm
Sacred word ओंकार om-kra
Words where <w> is used as vowel

UKT 140108: There are two problematical back vowels in BEPS: {o}, and {AW}. Both are modals (middle pitch-registers) and rounded. They are so near each other that, none except Bur-Myan has {o} /o/. In the next para, I am giving the IPA symbols to tie up with English.

Based on contrastiveness to the front vowels, I am suggesting that {} /e/ should be paired with {o} /o/, and {} /ɛ/ with {w} /ɔ/ 'open-O' [comparable to Londale's {AW}], and the use of glyph should be avoided whenever there is a possibility of confusion.
See Bur-Myan vowels compared to Skt-Dev & Eng-Lat vowels.


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{au:ma.}/ {AU:ma.} - contd




ओमन् [ o-mn ]
- m. favour, aid.



ओमन्वत् [ man-vat ]
- a. pleasant; gracious.


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{au:Sa.}/ {AU:Sa.}


ओष [ sh-a ]
- m. burning.



ओषधि shadhi, ˚धी [ -dh ]
- f. [avasa-dhi, containing nourishment], plant, herb; medicinal herb; -g, a. born --, living among or produced from plants; (i)-pati, m. moon; (i) prastha, m. N. of a mythical city.


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ओषम् [ oshm ]
- (ac.) ad. quickly, at once.



ओष्ठ [ shtha ]
- m. [ava-stha, hanging down], upper lip, lip (a. --, f. ).



ओष्ठरुचक oṣṭharucaka [ oshtha-rukaka ]
Skt: ओष्ठरुचक [ oshtha-rukaka ] - charming lips - Mac060c3
Skt: ओष्ठरुचक oṣṭharucaka - n. lovely lips - SpkSkt



ओष्ठ्य [ oshth-ya ]
- a. labial.

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UKT notes


Burmese-Myanmar vowels compared to
Sanskrit-Devanagari and English-Latin vowels

-- UKT 120121, 120602 , 130108
Note: In spite of being on this problem since 120121 and before,
I still need input from my peers and to revise the following.

The phonemes represented by Skt-Dev ओ & औ have always been a problem in Romabama. This pair is one of the most back and the most open. Moreover, they can be pronounced with various degrees of lip rounding:


The 'flags', ो ौ, on the aksharas should be compared to the those on े {} ै {}.

The controversy is due primarily to absence of the series: creak {o.}, modal {o} /o/, emphatic {o:} in both Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat. The problem is compounded by the Two-three tone problem between IE (Indo-European) and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) linguistic groups.

The Romabama spellings given below are my suggestion and tentative: they may have to be changed with deeper understanding of the problems involved.

{o.}, {o}, {o:} and
{aw.}, {aw} : {aw.} is alternate for {aw.}

UKT 140129: The rarely used in Bur-Myan, {AU:} & {AU} pair, and Skt-Dev ओ (U+0913) o & औ  (U+0914) au, are controversial, because they are the most back and the most open. Since they can be pronounced with various degrees of lip rounding, the problem is accentuated. One way out of the problem is to rely on 3 commonly used Bur-Myan pitch-registers:

creak {au.}; modal {au}; emphatic {au:}

The modal {au} will be assigned to the corner of the vowel quadrilateral. In the following TOC, I have tentatively identified using Bur-Myan phonemics that :

#1. {aw}  =  ओ (U+0913) o =  IPA /ɔ/ 'open-O'
#2. {au} =  औ  (U+0914) au =  IPA /ɑ/ or /ɒ/
#3  the {aw} forms one series, and that the {au} forms a separate series.

As such {aw} is no longer considered to be a vowel-letter. The notation {aw} is  from
Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 ,
by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in 2 parts.
- BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 140129)
Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography --  BG1899-1-indx.htm (link chk 140129)
Origin of Myanmar akshara -- ch01-3.htm (link chk 140129)

Indiscriminate use of IAST o for ओ (U+0913), and,
au for औ (U+0914) is the source of confusion, when
Bur-Myan has to be included as is required in BEPS.

I am representing Skt-Dev ओ with {aw.}. This phoneme has been transcribed by IAST as o which does not make sense in the light of Bur-Myan {o.}, {o}, {o:}. And, therefore, I have given the Romabama transcription as {aw.}. My transcription has been hotly contested by my good friend U Tun Tint of the MLC. From the common pronunciation, the phoneme {aw.} seems to corresponds to the emphatic of the Bur-Myan series: 

creak {au.},  modal {au},  emphatic {au:}

It should be emphasised that each member of the full-set of modals of Bur-Myan vowels: /a/, /ɛ/, /e/, /i/, /u/, /o/, /ɑ/ (represented in Romabama as:

Front vowels (lip spread)               -    Back vowels (lip spread or lip round)
IPA /a/ - {a.}, {a}, {a:}    -   IPA /ɑ/ - {au.}, {au}, {au:}
IPA /ɛ/ - {.}, {}, {:}   -   IPA /ɔ/ - {.}, {w}, {:} :
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - {aw.}, {aw}, {aw:}
IPA /e/ - {.}, {}, {:} -   IPA /o/ - {o.}, {o}, {o:} 
IPA /i/ -  {i.}, {i}, {i:}            -   IPA /u/ - {u.}, {u}, {u:}

The terms "short vowels" and "long vowels" do not apply to Bur-Myan. From this it follows that the terms {a.wuN} 'similar pairs' and {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar pairs' do not apply to Bur-Myan.

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Entries in this file

UKT 140204 :

For entries on the last two Skt-Dev vowels, ओ o & औ au, I am finding it quite difficult to find their equivalents in Pal-Myan {aw} - the only one given in UHS-PMD. Please note that I am transcribing based on Lonsdale's transcription of Bur-Myan vowels as {aw} & {au}. The glyph is not {a.ra.ric}. It is a vow-letter transcribed as {aw}, where {w} is considered to be a vowel. As a consonant, it is {wa.}. Another way out may be to use (my suggestion) is to use the medial of:

{w} /ɔ/ 'open-O' from the proposed series
creak {.}; modal {w}; emphatic {:}

based on the series:

creak {.}; modal {}; emphatic  {:}

At present, keeping in mind the Two-three tone problem take:
IPA /ɔ/ as: short-vow {aw} ; long-vow {aaw}
IPA /ɑ/ as: creak {au.}; modal {au}; emphatic {au:}

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The Sacred word

- UKT 120603, 140129 

What is the "Sacred word" ओंकार om-kra . To be unequivocal I should write the "Sacred sound". Skt-Dev Hindus traditionally write it out as ॐ OM with a Chandra-bindu 'moon-dot sign' whereas the Bur-Myan Buddhists as {ON} derived from: {U.} उ <-- {Uu.} with a {::ting}.

First, let's clarify how this word is written in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

The glyphs for the IPA /u/ in Myanmar akshara is written two ways. Remember, the difference between vowel-letters {U.} & {U}, their corresponding vowel-signs, and when written with the dummy-{a.}.

For Bur-Myan: & ; & ; &
The vow-sign for long-vowel indicates that it is a {nhic-hkaung:gning}, not {lon:kri:ting hsan-hkp}. Thus is clearly illogical. 

For Mon-Myan: & ; & ; &
The vow-sign indicates that {nhic-hkaung:gning} is used. Thus, Mon-Myan way of writing is legitimate. But does that indicate that Mon way of writing has a precedence over Bamar? No, I would have to say, because this problem stems from Mon-Myan being more akin to Skt-Dev, whereas Bur-Myan is related to Magadhi - the northern Indian way.

Speaking for {ON}, we see that is not the way of writing for short vowel in Mon-Myan. And thus, the way of writing & is illogical. It should have been & . It surely is a problem, and my Mon ancestors (U Maung Ngn and his sister Daw MMa, & Co.) should not think they were superior to my Bamar ancestors (U Yan Shin and his daughter Daw Choak & Co.). Speaking from my personal perspective, a conflict between Bamars and Mons, makes my "blood" (derived from both) boil!

The Hindu's 'Chandra bindu' has a religious significance being the sign on the head of the Maha-deva Shiva glossed as 'god'. The Hindus close their vowel sound with a /m/, whereas the Buddhist {::ting} has no religious significance. It is just a nasal producing device. The Bur-Myan let the vowel sound of {ON} slowly fade away without closing the mouth.

The following are the OM symbols in some of the languages of  peoples of Hindu faith.

ॐ (AUM) {On}
Skt: ॐ (AUM) - Primordial Sound - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ॐ { ओंकार } oṃ { oṃkāra } - phrase Om [Aum, Omkara ] - SpkSkt
Skt: aum ind. the sacred syllable of the Śūdras ( 3. au ) - MonWilliWash
Bur: {AWng:} - n. Om ; word prefacing Pali verse or mantra
   to ensure potency or success [Sans ] - MED2010-624

A website, www.orkut.com , 140129, states: "it is pertinent to note that औम् aum is prescribed as sacred syllable of the Śūdras because ओम् aum is forbidden by Holy Bhusuras to be uttered by the Śūdras ..."
UKT 140129 notes the difference in Skt-Dev spellings of औम् (for Sudras), ओम् (for betters). Transposed into Skt-Myan, we get, {aum) and  (AWm).

UKT 140128: I have downloaded the pix from Internet sometime ago. I have marked under it as from "markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca, but I forgot the give the date of download, but from my notes it might be 130128 - exactly a year ago. Today, 140128, when I surf the net with the above string, I got: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markville_Secondary_School. My original download was for my work Nine Gods in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism - ch02.htm (link chk 140128)

Because of the above passage, I became curious about vedāntadeśka and  vaiṣṇavī.
Surfing the net for vedāntadeśka gives : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanta_Desika 140129.
" Vedanta Desika (Swami Desikan, Swami Vedanta Desikan, Thoopul Nigamaantha Desikan) (12691370) was a Sri Vaishnava Guru. He was a poet, devotee, philosopher and master-teacher.
   Next on vaiṣṇavī, gives: http://vedabase.net/cc/antya/3/142/ 140129.
There were other websites, I chose the "Vedabase.net" because of its content in Sanskrit. Further, on vaiṣṇavī devotee of the Lord,  Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta Antya 3.142, are two lines, their synonyms, and their translations. The website adds its purport:

prasiddhā  vaiṣṇavī  haila  parama-mahāntī
baḍa  baḍa  vaiṣṇava  tāńra  darśanete yānti

prasiddhā celebrated; vaiṣṇavī devotee of the Lord; haila became; parama-mahāntī very advanced; baḍa baḍa vaiṣṇava many recognized, highly situated devotees; tāńra her; darśanete to see; yānti used to go.

Thus the prostitute became a celebrated devotee. She became very advanced in spiritual life, and many stalwart Vaiṣṇavas would come to see her.

Stalwart, highly advanced Vaiṣṇava devotees are not interested in seeing prostitutes, but when a prostitute or any other fallen soul becomes a Vaiṣṇava, stalwart Vaiṣṇavas are interested in seeing them. Anyone can be turned into a Vaiṣṇava if he or she follows the Vaiṣṇava principles. A devotee who follows these principles is no longer on the material platform. Therefore, it is one's strict adherence to the principles that should be considered, not the country of one's birth. Many devotees join our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement from Europe and America, but one should not therefore consider them European Vaiṣṇavas or American Vaiṣṇavas. A Vaiṣṇava is a Vaiṣṇava and should therefore be given all the respect due a Vaiṣṇava.

The grapheme ओं = ओ ं   from ओंकार om-kra indicates that it is ओ + ं , i.e.

{aw:} + {::ting}.

It should be compared to Bur-Myan

{ON}, or {U.} + {tic-hkyaung:nging} + {::ting} .

Closer examination of the Hindu Skt-Dev ॐ OM shows that it is

{U.} + {weik-hkya.} + {::ting}

I have analysed this grapheme/phoneme to some extent in
http://www.tuninst.net/PED-TIL/UPMT01/an02/an02.htm#Aum-note 120603

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Words where <w> is used as vowel

-- UKT 140129

Unlike the letter <y> which is used as a vowel in common English words such as <my>, the letter <w> is rarely seen being used as a vowel. So when across Lonsdale transcribing {AW} I could not easily accept it. It is only now after studying the most back and the open vowels, I find I have no choice to accept {AW}. Still, I need to see words where <w> is used as a vowel.

From Dictionary.com - http://dictionary.reference.com/help/faq/language/t50.html 140129

<Cwm> --  (a steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain, sometimes containing a lake; a cirque) and <crwth> (an ancient Celtic musical instrument), both from the Welsh, use w as a vowel - standing for the same sound that oo stands for in boom and booth. <Crwth> is also spelled "crowd." [UKT ]

UKT 140129: Referring to my reliable source, Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary, on DJPD16-133:
<cwm> - /kʊm/, /kuːm/
I do not find the entry for <crwth> . Yet, it is enough to show how stupid I have been all these years!

However, in words like <low> and <bow>, one can make a good case that the letter w represents a vowel. Both of these words end with one or another of the diphthongs of modern English. In each case, the second part of the diphthong is represented by w. By the way, l, m, n, and r may also sometimes represent vowels; that is, in English there are vowels that are routinely represented by these letters. They show up at the ends of the words "bottle," "bottom," "button," and "butter."

UKT 140129: In the above para, we seee " m, n, ... may sometimes represent vowels; ...". Remember these two letters are the only nasals, Eng-Lat has. We have seen that in Bur-Myan, words having {na.} and {ma.} as killed consonants in the coda gives three registers:

{kn.},  {kn},  {kn:}  -- allophones of /kʌn/
{km.},  {km},  {km:} -- allophones of /kʌm/
For meanings of the above words in Bur-Myan, see MLC MED-2006 and others.

Now we can conclude that, the presence of 3 pitch-registers in a series shows that the killed consonant in the coda is a vowel. From this we can extend to approximants, {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, and {wa.}. The fricatives hissers and non-hisser are a different matter.

Now, let's refer to my another favorite:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_words_without_vowels 140129

English words without vowels are words in English either written without letters that conventionally are considered vowel letters, or spoken without vowel sounds. [UKT ]

In most languages of the world, all or nearly all lexical words have vowel sounds, and English is no exception; however, rhotic dialects of English (such as most varieties of American English) have words like nurse and word with a syllabic r sound, but these words are typically written with a vowel letter immediately prior to an r. On the other hand, there are words that are not written with an exclusively vowel letter (that is, 〈a〉 〈e〉 〈i〉 〈o〉 〈u〉), though they are pronounced with a vowel sound. [UKT ]

There also are some interjections and onomatopoeia that contain neither vowel sounds nor syllabic r and which are thus spelled with no vowel letter.

This article does not cover abbreviations, such as km or ms, nor acronyms

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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