Update: 2016-12-27 08:04 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p053.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv2pp-indx.htm

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{u.pa.da.}/ {U.pa.da.} - cont
  p053c1
{u.pa.Da.}/ {U.pa.Da.}
{u.pa.na.}/ {U.pa.na.}

{u.pa.pa.}/ {U.pa.pa.}
  p053c2
{u.pa.ba.}/ {U.pa.ba.}
{u.pa.Ba.}/ {U.pa.Ba.}
{u.pa.ma.}/ {U.pa.ma.}

{u.pa.ya.}/ {U.pa.ya.}
{u.pa.ra.}/ {U.pa.ra.}
  p053c3
{u.pa.la.}/ {U.pa.la.} 
{u.pa.wa.}/ {U.pa.wa.}

Orphan
उपवास upavasa [ upa-vs-a ]
= m. fasting; -aka, n. id.; -in, a. fasting.

 

UKT notes :
Purana :   {pu.raaN: kym:}
Upanishad : {U.pa.ni.a}

 

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/ {u.pa.da.} - cont

p053c1

p053c1-b00

उपद्रव [ upa-drava ]
- m. mischance, accident; adversity, distress; mischief, evil; infirmity; symptom (of disease).

 

p053c1-b01

[ups-drashtri ]
- m. spectator, witness

 

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/ {u.pa.Da.}/ {U.pa.Da.} 

p053c1-b02

उपधर्म [ upa-dharma ]
- m. subordinate duty.

 

p053c1-b03

उपधा [ upa-dh ]
- f. fraud; intrigue; moral test; penultimate or preceding letter (gr.); ()-na, a. putting on; n. placing upon; cushion, pillow; -nya, n. cushion; -yin, a. making a pillow of (--).

 

p053c1-b04

उपधि [ upa-dh ]
- m. addition; fraud; part of wheel between nave and felly.

 

p053c1-b05

उपधेनु [ upa-dhenu ]
- ad. near the cows.

 

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{u.pa.na.}/ {U.pa.na.}

p053c1-b06

उपनय [ upa-naya ]
- m. bringing, supplying; application; introduction: -na, n. id.; initiation of a pupil; investiture; offering.

 

p053c1-b07

उपनायन [ upa-nyana ]
- n. investiture.

 

p053c1-b08

उपनिक्षेप [ upa-nikshepa ]
- m. deposit.

 

p053c1-b09

[upa-nidhtri ]
- a. setting down

 

p053c1-b10

उपनिधि [ upa-nidhi ]
- m. (sealed) deposit.

 

p053c1-b11

उपनिपात [ upa-nipt-a ]
- m. entrance; sudden appearance; sudden attack; -in, a. falling upon (--).

 

p053c1-b12

[upa-niband-dhri]
- m. composer, editor; -tva , m. abst. ɴ.

 

p053c1-b13

उपनिबन्ध [ upa-nibandha ]
- m. engagement, oath: -na, n. description.

 

p053c1-b14

उपनिमन्त्रण [ upa-nimantrana ]
- n. invitation.

 

p053c1-b15

उपनिषद् [ upa-ni-shd ]
- f. [sitting down beside], secret or esoteric doctrine; N. of a class of works treating of the secret meaning of the Vda.

उपनिषद्  upaniṣad 
= उ प न ि ष द ् --> {U.pa.ni.Sd}
BHS: upaniṣad - f. upaniṣā , also written śā , , sad (= Pali upanisā , in mgs. 1 and 2; on relation to Skt. upaniṣd, see Schayer, RO 3.57 (1926), magic correspondence ; Renou, in C. Kunhan Raja Presentation Volume, mettre en regard, confronter ), ... -- FE-BHS138c1
Pal: {U.pa.ni.a} - UHS-PMD0226

  UKT from UHS: f. meaning to the root in steps, powerful description, secret instruction.

UKT 140210, 161219: Upanishads are the works of Brahmin-Poannas who claimed themselves to be the chosen mouth-piece of the MahaBrahma the Creator which itself is an Axiomatic entity - similar the Euclidian Geometric Point x=0, y=0, z=0 - whose truth is "self evident" and need no verification. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_geometry 161219

They are Theists or upholders of Atta Principle. Prince-rishi Siddartha following their teachings nearly died of starvation, because of which he propounded the Anatta Principle  which is non-Axiomatic just as modern Science is. The First Principle of Buddhism is therefore a natural law not bounded by Space-Time. Buddhists are not Atheists.
See my note on Upanishad उपनिषद् 

 

p053c1-b16

उपनिष्क्रमण [ upa-nish-kramana ]
- n. going out to anything; open space.

 

p053c1-b17

उपनेतव्य [ upa-ne-tavya ]
- fp. to be brought; -tri, m., -tr, f. bringer; preceptor.

 

p053c1-b18

उपन्यसन [ upa-nyas-ana ]
- n. adduction of a topic; preaching; -ta, pp. (√2. as) intimation, remark.

 

p053c1-b19

उपन्यास [ upa-nysa ]
- a. procuring; m. adjunction; procurement; incidental mention, intimation; statement, declaration; discussion; kind of alliance or peace: -m, ad. while alleging (--).

 

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{u.pa.pa.}/ {U.pa.pa.}

p053c1-b20

उपपति [ upa-pat ]
- m. paramour, adulterer.

 

p053c1-b21

उपपत्ति [ upa-patti ]
- f. coming about, occurrence, appearance; success; resultance, demonstration, establishment, proof; suitableness: -pari-tyakta, pp. unfounded; -yukta, pp. proved.

 

p053c1-b22

उपपद [ upa-pada ]
- n. secondary word accompanying another (gr.).

 

p053c1-b23

उपपन्न [ upa-panna ]
- pp. √pad.

 

p053c1-b24

उपपात [ upa-pta ]
- m. chance, accident.

 

p053c1-b25

उपपातक [ upa-pta-ka ]
- n. minor crime; -kin, a. guilty of a lesser offence.

 

p053c1-b26

उपपातिन् [ upapt-in ]
- a. befalling (--).

 

p053c1-b27

उपपादक [ upa-pda-ka ]
- a. effecting, bringing about; -na, a. bringing forward; n. procurement; appearance; demonstration.

 

p053c1-b28

उपपाप [ upa-ppa ]
- n. minor crime.

 

p053c1-b29

उपपार्श्व [ upa-prsva ]
- m. shoulder-blade.

 

p053c1-b30

उपपीडन [ upa-pdana ]
- n. tormenting; pang.

 

p053c1-b31

उपपुराण [ upa-purna ]
- n. secondary Purna.

See my note on Purana

 

p053c1-b32

उपपूर्व [ upa-prva ]
- a. preceded by = compounded with prva.

 

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p053c2

p053c2-b00

उपपौरक [ upa-paura-ka ]
- m. ad. near a suburban grove.

 

p053c2-b01

उपप्रदान [ upa-pradna ]
- n. donation, gift.

 

p053c2-b02

उपप्रलोभन [ upa-pralobhana ]
- n. seduction, allurement.

 

p053c2-b03

उपप्रेक्षण [ upa-prekshana ]
- n. overlooking.

 

p053c2-b04

उपप्रैष [ upa-praisha ]
- m. ritual invitation.

 

p053c2-b05

उपप्लव [ upa-plav-a ]
- m. disaster, misfortune, visitation; portent; eclipse; -in, a. assailed by calamity; eclipsed.

 

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{u.pa.ba.}/ {U.pa.ba.} 

p053c2-b06

उपबन्ध [ upa-bandha ]
- m. connexion; employment (of a word); kind of sitting posture.

 

p053c2-b07

उपबृंहिन् [ upa-brimhin ]
- a. confirming, furthering.

 

p053c2-b08

उपब्द [ up-abd ]
- m. noise, clatter; -abdhi, m. id.: -mt, a. noisy.

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{u.pa.Ba.}/ {U.pa.Ba.} 

p053c2-b09

उपभङ्ग [ upa-bhaṅga ]
- m. line (of a stanza).

 

p053c2-b10

उपभाषा [ upa-bhsh ]
- f. subordinate provincial dialect.

 

p053c2-b11

उपभुक्तधन [ upa-bhukta-dhana ]
- a. having enjoyed his wealth; m. N. of a merchant.

 

p053c2-b12

उपभृत् [ upa-bhrt ]
- f. wooden sacrificial cup.

 

p053c2-b13

उपभोक्तव्य [ upa-bhoktavya ]
- fp. to be enjoyed.

 

p053c2-b14

उपभोग [ upa-bhog-a ]
- m. enjoyment, use; eating: -vat, a. affording enjoyment; -in, a. enjoying, using (--); -ya, fp. to be enjoyed or used; n. object of enjoyment.

 

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{u.pa.ma.}/ {U.pa.ma.} 

p053c2-b15

उपम [ upa-m ] --> {U.pa.ma.}
- spv. uppermost, highest; most exalted or excellent; nearest, next; first; last.

 

p053c2-b16

उपमन्त्रिन् [ upa-mantrn ]
- a. encouraging.

 

p053c2-b17

उपमन्यु [ upa-many ]
- a. zealous; m. N.

 

p053c2-b18

उपमर्द [ upa-marda ]
- m. violent pressure; injury; destruction: -ka, a. destroying; -na, n. doing an injury; offence.

 

p053c2-b19

उपमा [ upa-m ]
- f. comparison; likeness; image; simile: -- a, a. like; ()-na, n. comparison; likeness, resemblance; analogy; object with which anything is compared; -- a. like, comparable to; -‿artha, m. purport of an image: in. figuratively; -vyatireka, m. kind of simile.

p053c2-b20

उपमिति [ upa-miti ]
- f. similarity; analogical inference, induction; -meya, fp. comparable with (in., --); n. object compared (opp. to upamna): -‿upam, f. reciprocal simile.

( end of old p053-1.htm )

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{u.pa.ya.}/ {U.pa.ya.}

UKT 140113, 161219: The entries with prefix {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.} are pronounced with close back vowel sounds. Their contrastive sounds, are those of open front vowels, {a.pa.} . We should expect exactly the opposite meanings in them. We immediately notice that there are more of {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.} words compared to those with {a.pa.}.

 

p053c2-b21

[upa-yantri ]
- m. husband; -yama , m. marrying a wife; -ymana , a. supporting; n. marrying a wife

 

p053c2-b22

उपयाचन [ upa-yk-ana ]
- n. solicitation; -ita, (pp.) n. prayer, request.

 

p053c2-b23

उपयान [ upa-yna ]
- n. approach, arrival.

 

p053c2-b24

उपयायिन् [ upa-yyin ]
- a. approaching.

 

p053c2-b25

उपयोक्तव्य [ upa-yoktavya ]
- fp. to be enjoyed.

 

p053c2-b26

उपयोग [ upa-yog-a ]
- m. application, employment; use, utility; enjoyment; acquirement; -in, a. applicable, serviceable, suitable; --, employing, using.

 

p053c2-b27

उपयोज्य [ upa-yogya ]
- fp. to be employed; applicable.

 

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{u.pa.ra.}

p053c2-b28

उपर [ pa-ra ]
- cpv. lower; later; nearer; m. the nether stone (on which Soma is pounded).

 

p053c2-b29

उपरति [ upa-rati ]
- f. cessation; quiescence; death; -rama, m. cessation; relinquishment; decease: -na, n. cessation from (ab.), -tva, n. quiescence.

 

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p053c3

p053c3-b01

उपराग [ upa-rga ]
- m. coloration; eclipse, darkness; influence: -vat, a. eclipsed (by Rhu).

 

p053c3-b02

उपरि [ upri ]
Skt: उपरि [ upri ] - ad. above, over; up, upwards; moreover; afterwards; repeated: one above the other; always upwards; again and again; prp. above, over, beyond, upon (ac., g., ab., lc.: -- or -ad.); above (of number or rank), after (time: g. or -- ad.); concerning, on account of (g.); repeated: far above (g.). - Mac053c3
Pal: {U.pa.ri.} - UHS-PMD0229
  UKT from UHS: - ad. above, upwards, more

 

p053c3-b03

उपरिजानु [ upari-gnu ]
- ad. above the knee; -tana, a. upper; -tala, n. surface; -yna, n. going to heaven.

[upari-tala]
Skt: [upari-tala] - n. surface - Mac053c3
Pal: {U.pa.ri.ta.la.} - n. upper plane - UHS-PMD0229

 

p053c3-b04

उपरिभाग [ upari-bhga ]
- m. upper part.

 

p053c3-b05

उपरिष्टात् [ uprish-tt ]
- ad. above; afterwards, later, below (in a book); prp. over, upon (ac. or g.); after (g.); about, concerning (g.).

 

p053c3-b06

उपरिष्ठ [ upari-shtha ]
- a. standing or being above or upon (g., --).

 

p053c3-b07

उपरुदित [ upa-rudita ]
- (pp.) n. lamentation.

 

p053c3-b08

उपरुद्ध [ upa-ruddha ]
- (pp.) n. private apartment.

 

p053c3-b09

उपरूपक [ upa-rpaka ]
- n. second class drama.

 

p053c3-b10

उपरोध [ upa-rodh-a ]
- m. obstruction, obstacle, hindrance; disturbance; injury; detriment; dissension; -ana, n. siege; obstacle; -in, a. hindered or interrupted by; detrimental to, disturbing (--).

 

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{u.pa.la.}

p053c3-b11

उपल [ upala ]
- m. stone; gem.

 

p053c3-b12

उपलक्षक [ upa-laksh-aka ]
- a. expressing implicitly; perceiving, guessing; -ana, n. looking after; mark; designation; implicit or elliptical designation: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.

 

p053c3-b13

[upala-prakshin ]
- a. (n-i) working the millstone

 

p053c3-b14

उपलब्धि [ upa-labdhi ]
- f. acquisition; apprehension, perception.

 

p053c3-b15

उपलभ्य [ upa-labhya ]
- fp. obtainable; perceptible; -lambha, m. acquisition; observation; perception, feeling: -ka, a. perceiving; causing perception.

 

p053c3-b16

उपलविषम [ upala-vishama ]
- a. rough with rocks.

 

p053c3-b17

उपला [ pal ]
- f. upper (smaller) millstone.

 

p053c3-b18

उपलिप्सा upalipsa [ upa-lip-s ]
- (des.) f. desire for (--); -su, des. a. desirous to learn (ac.).

 

p053c3-b19

उपलेपन [ upa-lepana ]
- n. smearing (esp. with cow dung).

 

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{u.pa.wa.}/ {U.pa.wa.} 

p053c3-b20

उपवन [ upa-vana ]
- n. little wood, grove: -vriti, f. garden hedge.

 

p053c3-b21

उपवनम् [ upa-vanam ]
- ad. in the forest.

 

p053c3-b22

उपवर्णन [ upa-varnana ]
- n. description, exact account; panegyric.

 

p053c3-b23

उपवर्ष [ upa-varsha ]
- m. N. of a younger brother of Varsha.

 

p053c3-b24

उपवसथ [ upa-vasath ]
- m. fast on the eve of the Soma sacrifice.

 

p053c3-b25

उपवास [ upa-vs-a ]
- m. fasting; -aka, n. id.; -in, a. fasting.

 

p053c3-b26

उपवाह्य [ upa-vhya ]
- fp. to be led up; suitable for driving or riding.

 

p053c3-b27

उपविष्ट [ upa-vishta ]
- pp. (√vis) alighted; seated.

 

p053c3-b28

उपवीणय [ upa-vnaya ]
- den. P. play to (ac.) on the vn.

 

p053c3-b29

[upa-vita],
- (pp. √vye) n. wearing of the sacred thread; sacred cord; -vitn , a. wearing the sacred thread over the left shoulder

 

p053c3-b30

उपवेशन [ upa-ves-ana ]
- n. sitting down, seat; undergoing (--); -in, a. undergoing, practising (--).

 

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UKT notes

Purana

- UKT 140111

Purna पुराण  purāṇa aka   {pu.raaN: kym:} are well known, at least in name, to every student of Bur-Myan language and literature.

{pu.raaN: kym:}
- n. the Purana, a religious and legendary compilation originating in India, traceable to Vedic times. -- MLC MED2006-258
Note: {kym:} in Bur-Myan is "treatise".

 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puranas 140111

The Puranas पुराण purāṇa "of ancient times") are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories. [UKT ]

UKT 140112: The Christian Trinity - God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, and modern-day Hindu Trimurti, are not comparable. (When we were young it was the "Holy Ghost" - now it has been changed to "Holy Spirit". )

The Abrahamic entity - YHWH, God, Allah - is unknowable: beyond our human knowledge. As such "He-She-It" is sexless in human terms. Yet in Christianity "He-She-It" has been given a masculine character - He.

On the other hand, the Trimuti of Vaishnavite Hinduism, is made up of three separate males, Mahbrahma dva (spouse = Saraswati) - the Creator, Vishnu dva (spouse = Lashmi) - the Administrator, and Siva dva (1st spouse = Sati, 2nd spouse = Parvati.) - the Destroyer (something like a policeman who destroys evil entities). Trimuti enjoy sex. In some Hindu temples, Siva is shown nude having sex with nude Parvati, in the company of other nude females. The Sole Creator of Shaivite Hinduism is also a male who is supposed to be the husband of many Mother-Goddess, the chiefs being Mother Kali - the fierce female who drinks fresh blood, and the much more gentler form Parvati.

Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu [not necessarily Vedic] religious texts alongside some Jain and Buddhist [not necessarily Theravada] religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [1] The Puranas are frequently classified according to the Trimurti (Trinity or the three aspects of the divine). [2] The Padma Purana classifies them in accordance with the three gunas or qualities as Sattva (Truth and Purity), Rajas (Dimness and Passion) and Tamas (Darkness and Ignorance). [3]

Puranas usually give prominence to a particular deity, employing an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts. They are usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another. The Puranas are available in vernacular translations and are disseminated by Brahmin scholars, who read from them and tell their stories, usually in Katha sessions (in which a traveling Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} settles for a few weeks in a temple and narrates parts of a Purana, usually with a Bhakti perspective).

Go back Purana-note-b

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Upanishad

-- UKT 140110, 161219:

The Upanishads [Pali: Pal: {U.pa.ni.a}] were the works of Atta believers, who were trying to establish the axiom as a physical reality, and when the authors happened to be Brahmin-Poannas {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, they were trying to establish themselves as the only "chosen class" of the Brahma - the Creator [ {brah~ma} (note the sp. diff. of first syllable from ), and that they were hearing the Truth from the very mouth of the Creator. To establish their importance these self-appointed mouth-pieces of the Brahma continue to write Upanishads right down to the 20th century. See the Wikipedia article given below.

It was this very idea of Permanence and Secrecy that Prince Siddhartha rejected as useless after following their doctrines for six long years.

Pix on right shows a young prince, aged (29+6). Even at age 35, the young prince was looking like an old man because of extreme yogic practice involving fasting. He lost consciousness finally, but luckily regained consciousness.

Realizing that such practices recommended by Atta believers would only bring on only death, he rejected their views, took some rice-in-milk gruel and began all over again. At this his five companion rishis left him as a failure. In the popular lore, it was a Brahma {brah~ma} [note the sp. diff. of first syllable from ] who came to remind him by tuning his harp strings: too lack - the sound was horrible, and too tight - the strings broke. 

The painting was probably done by a Bur-Myan artist. The tell-tale signs are the head dresses of the companion-rishis.

Only after rejecting the Atta axiom totally could he launch upon his quest for a truth or natural law that is beyond the confines of Time-Space continuum. His quest for Atta being fruitless, he arrived at his conclusion of 'negation' of Atta, or Anatta. He arrived at a natural law that "Every sentient being is not free from mental suffering" - the Principle of Dukkha (Suffering) - the First Law of Buddhism. Only after realizing the First Law, followed by two laws could he find the meaning of Nibbana - the Principle of Cessation of Suffering. Being a pragmatist, he further gave eight modes of living this physical life to realize Nibbana. Only then could he claim that he had realized the ultimate knowledge and had become a Buddha.

As a personal note I must add that on one occasion in about 1998, during a visit to my old home in 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon, I had fasted (no food - not even fruit juice or glucose solution: I was drinking only water) continually for 72 hours. During that period, I reflected on the attributes of Buddhist Dhamma - one being "akali kau" which I understood as "beyond the restraints of Time".

As a material scientist, I hold that a scientific law, such as the Principle of Conservation of Matter-Energy" is beyond the restraint of Time. I then started to analyze the Four Noble Truths as scientific laws without bringing in the Pali language which I knew only as a second-hand or maybe more hands-me-down translations and elaborations. Then I realized that the Four Noble Truths are scientific laws. Then I looked into the question of Atta again as a physical reality. I then realized that Atta itself is nothing but an axiom, and I had no choice but accept the Doctrine of Anatta as a scientific concept.

Back in Canada, I tried my approach on my Canadian friends: hard-nose scientists and engineers from many lands. They were nominal Christians (Anglicans, Baptists, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Mormons), Hindus, Buddhists, and even a Wicca-nist (so-called "Witch" by Christians). None would reject my views, but none would call herself or himself a Buddhist!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upanishads 140110

The Upanishads उपनिषद् upaniṣad [Pali: Pal: {U.pa.ni.a}] are a collection of Vedic texts [1] which contain the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism [Mahayana?] and Jainism. [1] [note 1] [note 2] They are also known as Vedanta ("the end of the Veda"). [UKT ]

UKT 140110: Contrary to what is written here, the Vedantas are more useful to the modern man than the Rig Veda. The Rig Veda is nothing but a collection of hymns directed to Devas and Asuras who were just figment imagination of the common peoples of the ancient days. And how could one gauge the importance the innumerable deities.

One method would be to count the number of hymns directed to each one. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140110, gives:
Number of hymns: Indra - 289, Agni - 218, Soma - 123
Brhaspati (Mahabrahma ?) - 8, Vishnu - 6, Savitr (Sun or Siva?) - 11 / Rudra (Siva?) - 5

It came as a surprise to me to find that Indra (the King), Agni (the Messenger who could report lies about you), and Soma (restful sleep and tranquility) were the most important, and those that are now treated as the Hindu Trinity - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Siva - were just minor gods. The Asuras had not been demonized and were also worshipped. As such the Rig Veda (or the knowledge of the hymns) had probably been not manipulated too much. The Upanishads, on the other hand been the works of new and newer authors who were trying to portray their deities as more important than the ancient Vedic ones. 

The Upanishads are considered by Hindus to contain revealed truths (Sruti) concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the character and form of human salvation (moksha). The Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas [3] and have been passed down in oral tradition.

More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads. The mukhya Upanishads all predate the Common Era, possibly from the Pre-Buddhist period (6th century BCE) [4] [5] down to the Maurya period. [5] The remainder of the Muktika canon was mostly composed during medieval Hinduism, and new Upanishads continued being composed in the early modern and modern era, [6] down to at least the 20th century.

With the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra (known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi), [7] the mukhya Upanishads provide a foundation for the several later schools of Vedanta, among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism. [note 3] [note 4] [note 5]

With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Schopenhauer praised the Upanishads. The 19th century transcendentalists, like Emerson and Thoreau, noted similarities between the doctrine of Upanishads and those of Plato and Kant. [11] [12]

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