Update: 2016-12-18 09:13 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{oad~wa.}/ {OAd~wa.} - cont

{oan}/ {OAn}/ {OAn~} 
   {oan~da.}/ {OAn~da.}
  {oan~na.}/ {OAn~na.}
  {oan~ma.}/  {OAn~ma.}

{u.pa.}/ {U.pa.} 
  {u.pa.ka.}/  {U.pa.ka.} 
  {u.pa.ga.}/ {U.pa.ga.} 
  {u.pa.Ga.}/ {U.pa.Ga.}

  {u.pa.sa.}/  {U.pa.sa.} 
  {u.pa.za.}/ {U.pa.za.} 

  {u.pa.ta.}/ {U.pa.ta.}
  {u.pa.da.}/ {U.pa.da.}


UKT notes :
UKT 150522, 161213: The Hindu religious word {On} (derived from Skt-Dev ॐ om (IE)) is not present in Theravada Buddhism of Myanmarpr written in Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur). Its equivalent in Bur-Myan is {an} or {an:} 'success or auspiciousness'. It is not related to {oan}/ {OAn}. How come {On} has a {tic-chan:ngn}?

Sanskrit prefix Upa - {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.}
Shin Upagotta - an important Myanmar-Buddhist arahant in Esoteric Buddhist practice.
Upakosa - wife of Vararuchi
Vararuchi was the rival of Panini, and they were students of Versha (Vyasha ?) . The story of Vararuchi-Upakosa and story of Mahosadha-Amara of the Buddhist Pitaka Jataka 'Birth Stories' are striking similar.

In Sutra Pitaka, there are five Nikayas 'Collections'. The fifth is Khuddaka Nikaya 'Smaller Collection'. This Khuddaka Nikaya is made up of 15 books. Jataka 'Birth Stories' is the tenth book. There are 547 birth stores -- UKT note from http://www.buddhistdoor.com/OldWeb/bdoor/archive/nutshell/teach40.htm#t402 - 140105

The Jataka stories and other similar stories from outside India were compared in a book by T.W. Rhy Davids, The Buddhist Birth Stories, ed. by Mrs. Rhys Davids, based on Prof. Fausbll's ed. of Pali text. A pdf copy of the book is available in TIL library. See Nidāna Kathā 'The story of Lineage', p.081 or pdf-p.099. The last existence when the Buddha-to-be finally became the Buddha Gautama is also included. pdf copy (download: 140105 - link chk 140105)


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{oad~wa.}/ {OAd~wa.}  - cont



उद्वेल [ ud-vela ]
= उ द ् व े ल
- a. overflowing its banks; excessive; free from (--).



उद्वेष्टन [ ud-veshtana ]
- a. having the fillet loosened.

- n. 1. A narrow strip of ribbon or similar material, often worn as a headband. 2. Also filet  a. A strip or compact piece of boneless meat or fish, especially the beef tenderloin. b. A boneless strip of meat rolled and tied, as for roasting. 3. Architecture a. A thin, flat molding used as separation between or ornamentation for larger moldings. b. A ridge between the indentations of a fluted column. 4. A narrow decorative line impressed onto the cover of a book. 5. Heraldry A narrow horizontal band placed in the lower fourth area of the chief. 6. Anatomy A loop-shaped band of fibers, such as the lemniscus. [UKT: v. tr. omitted] -- AHTD



उद्वेष्टनीय [ ud-veshtanya ]
- fp. to be unloosed.


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{oan}/ {OAn}/  {OAn~}

UKT 150522, 161213: The Hindu religious word {On} (derived from Skt-Dev ॐ om (IE)) is not present in Theravada Buddhism of Myanmarpr written in Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur). Its equivalent in Bur-Myan is {an} or {an:} 'success or auspiciousness'. It is not related to {oan}/ {OAn}. How come {On} has a {tic-chan:ngn}? 


उन्द् [ UND ]
= उ न ् द ् --> {OAn~d}
- v. उद् UD.

Pal: {OAn~du.ra.} - UHS-PMD0218
  UKT from UHS: m. mouse, rat

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{oan~na.}/ {OAn~na.} 

UKT 161214: We do not find a repha, because of the extreme nasality of the coda. A close parallel of {OAn~na.} would have been {OAm~ma.} which out to be present in new p055-1.htm. However, it is not listed. And I must check with other dictionaries, including those of BHS.


उन्न [ un-na ]
= उ न ् न --> {OAn~na.}
Skt: उन्न [ un-na ] - pp. of √ud. - Mac052c1
Pal: {OAn~na.} - UHS-PMD0218
  UKT from UHS: moisten, increase



उन्नत [ un-nat ]
- pp. √nam: -tva, n. exaltation, majesty; -karana, a. with uplifted paws, rampant; -sattva-slin, a. endowed with a lofty nature.

Pal: {OAn~na.ta.} - UHS-PMD0218
  UKT from UHS: mfn. inclined to loftiness, elevation, haughtiness



उन्नति [ un-nati ]
- f. rising; heaving; elevation (above, lc.); exalted position; -mat, a. high, prominent; exalted.



उन्नमन [ un-namana ]
- n. erecting.



उन्नम्र [ un-namra ]
- a. rising: -t, f. elevation.



उन्नयन [ un-nayana ]
- n. raising; parting; inference: -paṅkti, a. the rows of whose eyes are directed upwards.



- m. N. of a king



उन्नाल [ un-nla ]
- a. having its stalk erect.



उन्निद्र [ un-nidra ]
- a. sleepless, waking; blown (flower): -t, f. sleeplessness.


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{oan~ma.}/ {OAn~ma.} 

UKT 161213: Note the mix-up of phonemes /n/ {na.}/{n} & /m/ {ma.}/{m} in going from Pal-Myan to Skt-Dev in the following entries. Many Bur-Myan speakers cannot differentiate the English words <an> and <am>, and the teachers have to emphasize that <an> ends with open lips, and <am> with lips closed. The Bur-Myan word {n} with the phoneme /ŋ/ {nga.}/{ng} is difficult to pronounce and heard unless you notice a change in the nuclear vowel preceding the coda.


उन्मत्त [ un-matta ]
- pp. (√mad) mad, frantic; intoxicated; m. thorn-apple: -ka, a. (ik) out of one's senses; mad; -darsana, a. of frantic aspect; -rpa, a. maniac-like; -vat, ad. like a maniac; -vesa, a. dressed like a maniac; -‿avanti, m. N. of a king.

उन्मत्त [ un-matta ]
= उ न ् म त ् त :
Skt: उन्मत्त [ un-matta ] - pp. (√mad) mad, frantic; intoxicated; - Mac052c1

UKT 161214: Compare with उन्न {OAn~na.} = उ न ् न, the derivative of which {OAn~na.ta.} in Pal-Myan (UHS-PMD0218) means 'inclined to loftiness, elevation, haughtiness



उन्मथन [ un-mathana ]
- n. shaking; shooting down.



उन्मद [ un-mad-a ]
- a. drunk; furious; mad, wild; -ana, a. enamoured; -ishnu, a. mad.



उन्मनस् [ un-manas ]
- a. agitated, confused; eager to (inf.); -ka, id.: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



उन्मनाय [ un-manya ]
- den. . become agitated.



उन्मयूख [ un-maykha ]
- a. radiant, brilliant.



उन्मर्दन [ un-mrdana ]
- n. unction; unguent.



उन्माथ [ un-mtha ]
- m. shaking.



उन्माद [ un-md-a ]
- m. madness; -i-t, f. madness; -in, a. mad, insane: -, f. N. of a princess.

उन्माद [ un-md-a ]
Skt: उन्माद [ un-md-a ] - m. madness; - Mac052c1
Pal: {OAn~ma-da.} - UHS-PMD0243
  UKT from UHS: m. madness


उन्मदन unmadana
= उ न ् म द न
- adj. inflamed with love - SpkSkt

UKT 161214: The story of Ummadantī  {OAm~ma.dn~ti} (sp to be checked), the maiden whose beauty made  everyone who saw her became mad with infatuation is told in the Ummadantī Jātaka. J.v.209ff.
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/u/ummadantii.htm 161214



उन्मार्ग [ un-mrga ]
= उ न ् म ा र ् ग
- m. wrong road; evil course: -gmin, a., -yta, pp., -vartin, a., -vritti, a. following evil courses.

उन्मार्ग [ un-mrga ]
Skt: उन्मार्ग [ un-mrga ] - m. wrong road; evil course: - Mac052c1
Pal: {OAm~mag~ga.} - UHS-PMD0242
  UKT from UHS: m. wrong course, wrong road, tunnel, dark tunnel



उन्मिषित [ un-mishita ]
- (pp.) n. opening the eyes.



उन्मुख [ un-mukha ]
- a. () having the face upturned; upward; looking up towards; longing for; expecting; ready for, about to (--): -m, ad. upwards; -t, f. desire, expectancy: -darsana, n. upward gaze.



उन्मूर्धन् [ un-mrdhan ]
- a. hvg. the head raised.



- i.p. be uprooted; cs. unmlaya , uproot; exterminate, destroy; dethrone. sam , cs. uproot; destroy



उन्मूलन [ un-mlana ]
- n. uprooting; extermination.



उन्मेष [ un-mesha ]
- m. opening the eyes; quivering (of lightning); opening (of a bud); appearance.



उन्मोचन [ un-mokana ]
- n. unloosening; abandonment.



उन्मोटन [ un-motana ]
- n. breaking off.

( end of old p052-1.htm )

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/ {u.pa.}


उप [ pa ]
- vb. px. up, hither (esp. with verbs of motion); nl. px. about, near (= approximation); ad. moreover, further; prp. to, towards, near (ac., lc.); *under, less than (ac.); on, in; *above, more than (lc.); with, according to (in.).

UKT 140106: It has been my hypothesis that humans tend to use contrastive sounds to convey contrastive meanings. We must note that they are not antonyms. The sounds can be vowel as well as consonant sounds. I plan to use this hypothesis to study the controversial back vowels, vowel-O /o/ & vowel-Open-O /ɔ/ in BEPS languages. See my note on Back vowels -- MC-v09-indx.htm . As the first case, we will take the case of {u.pa.} & {a.pa.}, and words derived from them. See my note on Sanskrit prefix upa {U.pa.}
उप pa
- nd. (a preposition or prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) towards, near to (opposed to apa, away), by the side of, with, together with, under, down (e.g. upa-√gam, to go near, undergo - MW p194-195 , and apa
अप pa
- ind. (as a prefix to nouns and verbs, expresses) away, off, back (opposed to pa, nu, sam, pra)
down (opposed to ud) - MW


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{u.pa.ka.}/  {U.pa.ka.} 


उपकक्ष [ upa-kaksh ]
- a. reaching to the shoulder; -kantha, n. neighbourhood; -kanishthik, f. (sc. aṅguli) next to the little= third finger; -kany-puram, ad. near the harem.



उपकरण [ upa-karana ]
- n. doing a service or favour; accessory; implement, instrument; furniture; contribution; means; aid; supplementary treatise; ()-vat, a. supplied with means; -kri, make a tool of; -bh, become a tool of; -ya, fp. to whom a service is to be done or is done: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



- m. (tri) befriender, benefactor



उपकान्तम् [ upa-kntam ]
- ad. near her lover.



उपकार [ upa-kr-a ]
- m. friendly service, kindness; benefit; favour; -aka, a. (ik) doing friendly service; helpful, useful; conducive; auxiliary; -in, a. id.; -i-tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -a‿apakra, m. du. benefit and injury; -ya, fp. who is benefited: -y, f. royal tent.



उपकुर्वाण [ upa-kurvna ]
- pr. pt. of √kri; m. pupil who on concluding his Vedic studies with his teacher becomes a householder; -ka, m. id.



उपकूल [ upa-kla ]
- a. situated or growing on the bank: -tas, -m, ad. near the bank.



उपकृति [ upa-kriti ]
- f. benefit, friendly service; -mat, a. benefiting (--).



- f. N. Vararuki's wife

See my note on Upakosa - wife of Vararuchi.
Vararuchi was the rival of Panini, and the student of Versha (Vyasha ?)



उपक्रम [ upa-kram-a ]
- m. approach; application, treatment; beginning; design, scheme; first project of a work; means, expedient; -anya, fp. to be begun; -krnta, (pp.) n. beginning; -krmya, fp. to be treated (disease).



उपक्रिया [ upa-kriy ]
- f. service, favour.



उपक्रीडा [ upa-krd ]
- f. playground.



उपक्रोश [ upa-krosa ]
- m. blame, reproach; -na, n. censure, abuse.



उपक्षय [ upa-kshaya ]
- m. decrease, waste; disappearance.



उपक्षेप [ upa-kshepa ]
- m. mention, intimation; -na, n. id.


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उपग [ upa-ga ]
a. betaking oneself to, situated in, standing on, furnished with (--); -gata, (pp.) n. receipt; -gati, f. approach; -gantavya, fp. to be submitted to; -gama, m. approach, arrival; accession or commencement of (--): -na, n. resorting to (--); -gamya, fp. accessible.



उपगान [ upa-gna ]
- n. accompanying chant.



उपगामिन् [ upa-gmin ]
- a. approaching; appearing.



उपगिरि [ upa-giri ]
- m. country bordering on mountains.





उपगूढ [ upa-gdha ]
- (pp.) n. embrace, hug

BHS: - n. of an alakṣaṇaka (q.v.) Buddha - FE-BHS-134c2

See my note on importance of
Shin Upagotta in esoteric Myanmar-Buddhist practice. The video is about the Upagotta festival in Shwkyin when the image of the saint on a floating monastery is floated down the Shwkying creek at the end of Thi'tinkyut .
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FR0MBx2QK0 140109



उपग्रह [ upa-graha ]
- m. treaty or peace bought by the cession of everything.



उपग्रामम् [ upa-grmam ]
- ad. near the village.


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उपघात [ upa-ghta ]
- m. blow; injury, damage; infringement; -ka, a. injuring, hurting; in fringing.



उपघोषण [ upa-ghoshana ]
- n. proclaiming.



उपघ्न [ upa-ghna ]
- m. support.


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उपचय [ upa-kaya ]
- m. accumulation; increase; growth; welfare: -m kri, promote the welfare of, assist (g.); -‿vaha, a. advantageous.


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उपचर [ upa-kar-a ]
- a. approaching; -ana, n. approaching; -itavya, fp. to be treated; to be honoured; -ya, fp. to be treated; -y, f. attendance.



उपचार [ upa-kr ]
- m. behaviour; conduct, practice; proficiency; procedure with (g.); attendance, service; courtesy, (polite) attention, compliment; homage; ornament; ceremony; complimentary garland; (medical) treatment; idiom; figurative term; -ka, courtesy (-- a., f. ik); -kriy, f. polite attention; -pada, n. complimentary word, empty flattery; -paribhrashta, pp. devoid of civility, discourteous; -vat, a. decorated, adorned.



उपचारिन् [ upakr-in ]
- a. serving, attending (ac.); -ya, fp. to be courted.



उपचितबलि [ upa-kita-bali ]
- a. covered with offerings; -vapus, a. whose bulk is increased; -kiti, f. accumulation, store; increase, augmentation; gain.



उपचूडन [ upa-kdana ]
- n. singeing (also- klana).



उपच्छन्दन [ upa-kkhandana ]
- n. persuasion.


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उपज [ upa-g ]
- a. belonging to (g.); proceeding from (--).



उपजप्य [ upa-gapya ]
- fp. to be gained over.



उपजल्पिन् [ upa-galpin ]
- a. advising.



उपजातकोप [ upa-gta-kopa ]
- a. with anger aroused, provoked; -krodha, a. with wrath aroused, enraged; -visvsa, a. with confidence engendered, confiding.



उपजाप [ upa-gpa ]
- m. whispering to, gaining over; -ka, a. inciting, stirring up (g.).



उपजिगमिषु [ upa-gigamishu ]
- des. a. intending to go to (ac.).



उपजिह्वा [ upa-gihv ]
- f. uvula.



उपजीवक [ upa-gv-aka ]
- a. living by (in. or --); dependent; -ana, n. livelihood; -i-tri, a. living by (g.); -in, a. maintaining oneself by (ac., g., --); wholly dependent on; humbly adoring (--); -ya, a. furnishing a maintenance; that on which anything depends; n. livelihood.



उपजोषम् [ upa-gosham ]
- ad. silently.



उपज्ञा [ upa-g ]
- f. self-obtained knowledge, own invention; --, a. (a) invented by.


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उपतटम् [ upa-tatam ]
- ad. on the slope.



उपतल्पम् [ upa-talpam ]
- ad. upon the towers.



उपताप [ upa-tp-a ]
- m. heat; pain; disease; -aka, a. causing pain; -n, a. ill; causing pain to (--).



उपतिष्ठासु [ upa-tishth-su ]
- des. a. wishing to betake oneself to (ac.).



उपत्यका [ upa-tya-k ]
- f. land at the foot of a mountain.


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उपदा [ upa-d&asharp; ] 
- f. offering, present.



[upa-dtri ]
- m. bestower



उपदिग्धता [ upadigdha-t ]
- f. being covered with (--).



[upa-dis ]
- f. intermediate quarter (N.E. etc.) 

UKT 140105, 161218: The intermediate quarters of the 8 points of compass are popularly known by their astrological attributes: e.g. North-East = {ta.nn~ga.nw dan.} 'Sunday corner'. These are clearly marked around most of the Theravada Buddhist stupas. The icon on the Sunday-corner post is that of a garuda - the mythical king of the birds. See the Vaishnavite-Hindu representation in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda (161218)
Since the introduction of male gods by iron-age intruders (IE linguistic group) into the Indian subcontinent, came later in the Vdic period, the account of Garuda being the mount of Vishnu as related in the above Wikipedia article should be treated as a fabrication by the ancient writers. The original inhabitants Mother-goddess worshipers - the brass-age indigenous natives (Tib-Bur linguistic group) were easily defeated militarily. The result was the Mother-goddess were portrayed as the wives of the male-gods, and the defeated peoples treated as the lowest rank in the caste system - the Sudras 'slaves'. See TIL PDF-Library
- DDKosambi-CultureCivilizAnciIndia<> (link chk 161218)



उपदेश [ upa-des-a ]
- m. reference; direction, instruction; precept, rule, lesson; advice; grammatical designation: -t, f. instructiveness for (g.); -an, f. direction, instruction, lesson, rule; -in, a. (-) instructing; m. teacher; prescribed form of a word, suffix &c. as stated in grammatical works.



उपदेष्टव्य [ upa-desh-tavya ]
- fp. to be advised or taught; -tri, m. instructor.

( end of old p052-2.htm )

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UKT notes

Sanskrit prefix Upa - {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.}

-- UKT 140106 , 140113, 161218
This study is quite wide, and I need to go over this note again and again as I come across concrete examples.

For examples of entries with words with {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.}, see
{u.pa.ka.}/  {U.pa.ka.} to {u.pa.ma.}/  {U.pa.ma.} - p052-2.htm  p053-1.htm 
{u.pa.ya.}/  {U.pa.ya.} to {u.pa.wa.}/  {U.pa.wa.} - p053-2.htm p054-1.htm

For examples of entries with words with {a.pa.}, see
p020-1.htm (link chk 140113)

The usual method of studying language relations is to look into the inflexions. However, when Bur-Myan is to be compared to the three other languages of BEPS - the group I am studying - relying on inflexion is useless because Bur-Myan is a language with no inflexions, no tenses, and no numbers. So One method I am using is to use contrastive sounds as in vowel pairs, {i} & {au} and {u} and {a}. Note that in vowel quadrilateral {i} is the most close front vowel and {au} is the most open back vowel. The next pair of contrastive vowel is {u} & {a}. These two are not contrastive as the first pair.

Because of contrastive sounds, the meanings attached to contrastive words should be opposite or nearly so. We must note that they are not antonyms. Here we have the opportunity to study {u.} & {a.} and their derivatives from their meanings. As the first test case see the meanings of {u.pa.} and {a.pa.} as given by Monier-Willaims.

From Monier-Williams, upa p194-195, and apa .
- MW-indx.htm (link chk 140106)

pa ind.
- (a preposition or prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) towards, near to (opposed to apa, away), by the side of, with, together with, under, down (e.g. upa-√gam, to go near, undergo
upa-gamana, approaching
in the Veda the verb has sometimes to be supplied from the context, and sometimes upa is placed after the verb to which it belongs, e.g. āyayur upa = upyayuḥ, they approached). (As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns upa expresses) direction towards, nearness, contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, but with the idea of subordination and inferiority (e.g. upa-kaniṣṭhikā, the finger next to the little finger
upa-purāṇam, a secondary or subordinate Purāṇa
upa-daśa, nearly ten)
sometimes forming with the nouns to which it is prefixed compound adverbs (e.g. upa-mūlam, at the √
upa-pūrva-rātram, towards the beginning of night
upa-kūpe, near a well) which lose their adverbial terminations if they are again compounded with nouns (e.g. upakūpa-jalśaya, a reservoir in the neighbourhood of a well)
prefixed to proper names upa may express in classical literature 'a younger brother' (e.g. upndra, 'the younger brother of Indra'), and in Buddhist literature 'a son.' (As a separable adverb upa rarely expresses) thereto, further, moreover (e.g. tatrpa brahma yo veda, who further knows the Brahman) RV. AV. ŚBr. PārGṛ. (As a separable preposition) near to, towards, in the direction of, under, below (with acc., e.g. upa āśāḥ, towards the regions)
near to, at, on, upon
at the time of, upon, up to, in, above (with loc., e.g. upa sānuṣu, on the tops of the mountains) [Page 195, Column 1] Contents of this page
with, together with, at the same time with, according to (with inst., e.g. upa dharmabhiḥ, according to the rules of duty) RV. AV. ŚBr. upa, besides the meanings given above, is said by native authorities to imply disease, extinction
ornament command reproof undertaking giving killing diffusing wish power effort resemblance, &c. ; [Zd. upa Gk. ? ; Lat. sub ; Goth. uf ; Old [195, 1] Germ. oba ; Mod. Germ. ob in Obdach, obliegen, &c.]

pa ind.
(as a prefix to nouns and verbs, expresses) away, off, back (opposed to pa, nu, sam, pra)
down (opposed to ud)

Go back skt-pre-upa-note-b

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Shin Upagotta {rhn U.pa.goat}

-- UKT 140109, 161218

My first source on Esoteric Myanmar-Buddhism, Cult of the Magus and Runes, is Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung's Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm (link chk 161218)

In the chapter on Nine-God puja - ch02.htm (link chk 161218), Dr. Htin Aung mentions that Buddha and eight of his disciples are also worshipped. At least two of them, Shin Revata and Shin Gavampati, are worshipped because of their magical powers. They were placed in charge of direction-of-compass controlled by two malefic planetary-gods. The South-East Corner (here 'corner' means 'direction') from where Tuesday-Planet-god (same as the Greek-Roman God of War) can bring war, and enmity. The vehicle of the Planet-god (not dva) is the Lion - the hunters who lives in a pack. The attributes of the Lion can be interpreted as that of the Tuesday-Planet. It is a 'feared direction'. And therefore Shin Revata was placed in charge to tame the malefic Planet-god. Diagonally across is the North-West Corner, is ruled by Wenesday-evening-Planet god. He is the Asura Rahu - not a dva - and can bring on sudden calamities such as sudden storms accompanied by fierce gusts of wind. To tame the Rahu Planet, Shin Gavampati is placed in charged. However, Shin Upagotta  {rhn U.pa.goat} another saint with magical powers has been left out.

My mother, Daw Hla May, told me what she said was a true story. She said, when she was young, Shin Upagotta {rhn U.pa.goat} visited Moulmein her native town for his daily rice and curry alms. She said he - the solitary monk - would come alone, with his robes half wet and very few people would notice such a monk going for alms just as the dawn was breaking. An elderly lady was the only one who had her offerings ready and was successful in donating a spoonful of steaming rice. The donor noticed the alms bowl to be almost full of steaming rice showing that the monk had been to other to places as well. As a result the donor became quite rich over night. On the following fortnight, the street on which my mother lived was awoke before dawn and the whole street were lined with people with their offerings of steaming-rice. But Shin Upagotta never came!

I, UKT, who never believe such stories asked her how the old lady knew it was Upagotta. My mother's reply: by his wet robe (because the monk resides in the middle of the ocean all alone in a monastery made of brass. He came by his magical power for his daily alms before the Sun appeared above the horizon. He would eat his morning rice-meal looking up at the Sun.

Because he is mainly venerated in the Mon regions of Shw-kying {rhw-kyn mro.} (in Myanmarpr), Thailand, and Laos, he was probably introduced into Myanmarpr by the Mons. He

Based Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin_Upagutta 140110.

Shin Upagutta {rhing-U.pa.goat~ta.} aka Shin Upa.goat {ring-U.pa.goat} is a Buddhist arahant commonly venerated by Buddhists in Myanmarpr Burma, as he is believed to protect worshipers from danger, including floods and storms. He is also venerated in Northern Thailand and Laos, where he is known as Upakhut (อุปคุต). [1]

He is commonly depicted sitting cross-legged, dressed in monk's robes and with a hand tilted into an alms bowl called a thabeik, and is associated with nāga, the [mythical] water serpents. [UKT ]

UKT 161218: Naga is not an animal and is therefore not a serpent. Naga (sing. & plural the same) are devoted disciples of the Buddha, and the Buddha preached the most important sermon in Mahayana Buddhism, the Diamond Sutra aka Vajracchedikā Prajāpāramitā Sūtra ,  was preached to the Naga first - not to the dvas. It was not to be revealed to the humans until a suitable time later. See the Diamond Sutra  in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_Sutra 161218
Chinese: 《金剛般若波羅蜜多經》, Jingang Banruopoluomiduo Jing (Chin-kang Pan-Jo-p'o-lo-mi-to Ching); shortened to 《金剛經》, Jingang Jing (Chin-kang Ching)
Japanese: 金剛般若波羅蜜多経, Kongō hannya haramita kyō, shortened to 金剛経, Kongō-kyō
Korean:  금강반야바라밀경, geumgang banyabaramil gyeong, shortened to 금강경, geumgang gyeong
Mongolian: Yeke klgen sudur[3]
Vietnamese:  Kim cương bt-nh-ba-la-mật-đa kinh, shortened to Kim cương kinh
Tibetan:  འཕགས་པ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་རྡོ་རྗེ་གཅོད་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་མདོ།, Wylie: phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rdo rje gcod pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen poi mdo

He [Shin Upa.goat {ring-U.pa.goat}] is believed to be either Moggaliputta-Tissa, a Buddhist monk who presided the Third Buddhist Council; Upagupta, a Mahayana arhat, or a creation of Mahayana Buddhism, because he is not described in the Tipitaka, the Pali Canon [of Theravada], and only mentioned in the Burmese historical chronicle, Maha Yazawindawgyi. [2] [3]

UKT: Shin Upagoat's monastery must always be placed over water to show his solitary residence in the ocean. The little monastery is in West Yangon - not in the adjacent Chinatown - is therefore placed in a small cement tank filled with water. The little structure is a permanent structure situated Anawrahta Road (near Shwe Bazun) in Lanmadaw Township, Yangon.

For the floating ceremony a banana-stem monastery is made. Of course, an image (not costing much would be placed and floated down the Rangoon River. Of course, the Chinese are great believers in stories of wealth-givers, and they are participating more and more in such esoteric ceremonies.

Some Burmese believe that Shin Upagutta is still living, in a floating brass palace in the southern ocean, and that he can be invoked through a special Pali incantation, and that his mere invisible presence will prevent storms and floods. [4] Shin Upagutta is commonly venerated by people, mostly of Mon descent, in the Ayeyarwady delta region. A major festival dedicated to Shin Upagutta is in Shwegyin {rhw-kying mro.}, near Bago, during the Burmese month of Thadingyut.[4] Another, called the Ye Hmyaw Pwe 'water-floating ceremony', is held in Yangon.

UKT Historical note 140110: {rhw-kying mro.} meaning the town where gold could be panned was a sizable Mon-Burmese town, known as "Shevaygheen" to the foreign missionaries who transliterated the name from Bur-Myan akshara. You can guess the name from <Shev> - their <v> is Bur-Myan {wa.} with its pronunciation of /w/. <gheen> is {kying} which the foreigners not being able to pronounce the {ya.ric} & {nga.t} had to use. {rhw-kying mro.} or "Shevaygheen" was a river port on the Salween River at the time of British annexation of Southern Burma. Even now, gold could still by panned - but the yield is no longer good and gold panning is no longer done. It is on the way Rangoon-Pegu-Taungoo - Taungoo being the northern-most frontier town of the British.
See Project Cantebury: Journey from Rangoon to Toungoo, and Six Weeks in the Toungoo Mountains of Burma - by Rev. John Trew, in Mission Life, Vol. V (1874), pages 563-578 . http://anglicanhistory.org/asia/burma/trew_six1874.html 140110
I came to know the existence of this paper due to my interest in Mon-Myan language, which led me to the names of Rev. Dr. Mason and his wife, and others of the American Baptist Mission.
Dr. Mason is the author of A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhing kic~s:} by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm (link chk 140110)

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Upakosa - wife of Vararuchi

-- UKT 140103, 161216

Vararuchi was thought to be a fictional character. However, since he was a contemporary of Panini the Sanskrit grammarian who codified Vedic into Classical Sanskrit, he may also be a historical person.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vararuchi 140103

Vararuci , aka Vararuchi , वररुचि = वररुचि , is a name associated with several literary and scientific texts in Sanskrit and also with various legends in several parts of India. This Vararuci is often identified with Kātyāyana. [1] Kātyāyana is the author of Vārtikās which is an elaboration of certain sūtrās (rules or aphosisms) in Pāṇini's much revered treatise on Sanskrit grammar titled Aṣṭādhyāyī. Kātyāyana is believed to have flourished in the 3rd century BCE.[2] However, this identification of Vararuci with Kātyāyana has not been fully accepted by scholars. [3] Vararuci is believed to be the author of Prākrita Prakāśa the oldest treatise on the grammar of Prākrit language.[1] ... ... ...

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prakrit 140112

Prakrit (also transliterated as Pracrit, प्राकृत prākṛta Shauraseni: pāuda पाउद, Maharashtri:pāua पाउअ) is the name for a group of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, derived from dialects of Old Indo-Aryan languages. [1] [2] :p.3

UKT 140112: I hold that classifying Prakrit with IE (Indo-European language group) stems from the premise that every language in northern India must be related to IE. In this case I hold that since the kingdom of Magadha was just to the south of the Himalayas, it was and still is populated by Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language group).

Pali - the language of Theravada Buddhism - was derived from Old Magadhi taken to Sri Lanka by missionaries of Magadha king Asoka. Therefore Pali is Magadhi-Lanka, which has lost many Tib-Bur influences.

However, Myanmarpr populated by Tib-Bur speakers must have received Buddhism straight from Magadha Magadha Maha Janapada itself, the population being well-mixed because of overland routes through mountain passes of the Hukong valley, and those of Assam-Manipur.

It is a well known fact that northerners, who have never seen large expanses of water - my own uncles included, are afraid of the sea. It is therefore logical that the peoples of northern Myanmarpr and those of areas just south of the Indian-Himalayas (present day Nepal, Sikkam and Bhutan) and Assam-Manipur would have preferred over-land routes over-water routes ever since there had been humans living in the area. See Physical Geography and Fossils in Geography, Geology, Fossils
-- geo-indx.htm > phy-geo-myan.htm & fossil.htm (link chk 161216)

Because of the above reasons, Myanmar-Buddhist monks of pre-Anawrahta days, the so-called Ari-gyis, must have used Magadhi itself and not Pali-Lanka.

In the 11th century CE, Anawrahta wiped out the Ari-gyis and had imported Mon monks (who spoke an Austro-Asian language similar to southern Indian languages) from southern Myanmarpr. It is obvious that the local population of Bur-Myan would not be able to understand what the imported Mon monks were saying, and they were forced to recite Pali passages uttered by the Mon monks. The Pali passages were no doubt Pali-Lanka because the Mons had got their Buddhism from Sri Lanka via sea-routes.

The Mon language which I am studying piece-meal has Sanskrit sounds especially in the aksharas of row #2. And so the Pali spoken in Myanmarpr is under the influence of Sanskrit, yet the overall language is still Magadha. Thus, from a Phonemic-Phonetics view, I hold that Pali in whatever form is a Tib-Bur language.

The Ardhamagadhi language ("half Magadhi"), an archaic form of the Magadhi language which was used extensively to write Jain scriptures, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching "Prakrit" are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi. [3] [UKT ]

UKT 140112: Whenever you see the word "Pali" make sure of its form: Pali-Latin 'International Pali', Pali-Jaina 'Pali of Gujarat' of south-western India, Pali-Lanka 'Pali of Sri Lanka', Pali-Thai 'Pali of Thailand' similar to Pal-Lanka, and Pali-Myanmar 'Pali derived from Magadha itself'. Since Gautama Buddha was born in Magadha, and he died there he must have spoken Magadhi especially when speaking to the locals - not to the self-styled learned Brahmin-Poannas. And so his language must be the same as Pali-Myanmar.

The Pali language (the liturgical Prakrit language of Theravada Buddhism) tends to be treated as a special exception from the variants of the Ardhamagadhi language, as Classical Sanskrit grammars do not consider it as a Prakrit per se, presumably for sectarian rather than linguistic reasons. Other Prakrits are reported in old historical sources, but are no longer spoken (such as Paisaci). ... ... ...

A story similar to the story of Upakosa is also found in the Buddhist Birth story in Bur-Myan of Mahosada (and his wife Amaya). I had to study this story as a text on Burmese literature for the Matriculation examination of the Rangoon University in 1950.

The story of Upakosa is found imbedded in story of Vararuchi . In his story, Vararuchi [student of Versha: Upakosa was the niece of Versha] mentioned the origins of both himself and his wife. In it the name of Panini was also mentioned.

From: The Quarterly Oriental Magazine: review and register, Vol 1, March & June1824, p.71-77. The downloaded whole book is in TIL PDF-Library - QuartOrientMagUpakosa<> (link chk 161215)

Story of Vararuchi

I was born at Kausambi, the son of a Brahman, named Somadatta, who died whilst I was a child, and left my mother, Vasudatta, to indigence with the charge of my education. Whilst struggling with distress, it chanced that two Brahmans, named Indradatta and Vyuri, stopped our dwelling, and solicited hospitality for the night, as they were strangers and weary with long travel. They were received. Whilst sitting together, we heard a drum, and my mother exclaimed, in a tone of regret, Your father's friend, boy, the actor Navananda, holds some representation. I replied, Do not be vexed, mother, I will go see what is exhibited, and will bring every word to you. This vaunt astonished our guests, who, to try my memory, recited the Pratisahya (fn), which I immediately after repeated to them. They then accompanied me to the play, of which I repeated every speech to my mother, on our return home. One of the Brahmans, Vyari, then addressed (p067end-p068begin) my  mother, and told her I was the person of whom he was in search.

It appeared that he and Indradatta were born at Vetasa, cousins, and were both left orphans at an early age. They were after a time commanded in a dream to seek for a preceptor at Pataliputtra, in a Brahman, Versha; and the youths repairing  thither, discovered him, but found him an ideot. They ascertained, however, that in consequence of a special boon conferred upon him by Kumaraswarmi (fn), he was endowed with every science, under a condition to impart it only to a Brahman, who should retain the whole upon once hearing the lesson. As neither of these Brahmans were gifted with such retentive faculties, they were accordingly in search of one so qualified, through whose intermediation be instructed in all that Versha was competent to teach.

Having obtained my mother's assent, Vyari and Indradatta conducted me with them to the dwelling Versha. There the gifted Brahman repeated to us the whole of the Vedas, and their dependent sciences. This repetition sufficed for me, and when I had once more gone over the subject, Vyari acquired the lesson. His communication of it again to Indradatta fixed it in recollection of the latter. The circumstances were speedily noised abroad; and Nanda (fn), who then reigned at Pataliputra, hearing of them, adopted Versha as the object of his munificence, and enabled him to spend the remainder of his days in affluence and ease. The defects of his understanding were also dissipated, and he became a teacher of great repute.


Origin of Pataliputra.

The capital of Nanda, Pataliputra, was place of great sanctity, being the favoured shrine of Lakshmi and Sarasvati. It's origin is thus narrated. A Brahman from the south, whilst en-(p068end-p069begin)gaged on a pilgrimage to Kanakhala, or Gangadwara (fn), died, and left three sons. They subsequently repaired to Rajah Griha (fn) for instruction, and thence removed to Chinchini, a city on the sea shore, south from the shrine of Kumara Swami. They were kindly entertained by Bhojika, a Brahman, who gave his three daughters in marriage. After a time, the country was afflicted by famine; and the three husbands, deserting their wives, set off to  seek their fortunes elsewhere. Talents and relationship touched not the hearts of the wicked. The wife of the second brother proved pregnant, and was delivered of a son, whose helpless situation attracted the pity, and propitiated the guardian care of Devi and Siva. The first effect of this powerful patronage was the discovery, by the women, of an immense treasure, which being judiciously expended, elevated the boy to princely possessions. By the advice of his grandfather, and his own guardian Yajnadatta, Putraka, as the lad had been named, distributed publicly splendid gifts, at various seasons to the Brahmans, in the hope of attracting and discovery his father. The scheme succeeded, and the three brothers returned to claim their wives, and interest in the young Raja. The claim was joyfully recognized; but the evil propensities of the fraternity prevailing over natural affection, they conspired the death of the prince, and his own father led him into a temple, where he left him to be murdered by assassins, covertly stationed for the purpose. The murderers were, however, induced, by the entreaties and presents of Putraka, to let him escape, and he fled into the forests. His father and uncles met the fate that ever attends the  ungrateful (fn): the officers of the young Raja accused them of having killed him, ad falling upon the culprits, sacrificed them to his memory.

In the mean time, Putraka, whilst wandering in the woods, beheld two men struggling with each other. He enquired who they were. They replied, that they were the sons of Mayasur, and were contending for a magic cup, staff, and pair of slip-(p069end-p070begin)pers : the first of which yielded inexhaustible viands, the second generated any object which it delineated, and the third transported a person through the air. The strongest of the two was to possess these articles. Putraka then observed to them, that violence was a very improper mode of settling their pretensions; and that it would be better they should adjust the dispute by less objectionable means. He therefore proposed, that they should run a race for the contested articles, and the fleetest win them. They agreed, and set off. They were no sooner at a little distance, than Putrika, putting his feet into the slippers, and seizing the cup and staff, mounted into the air, and left the racers to lament in vain their being outwitted.

Putraka alighted at a city called Akershaka, and took up his residence with an old woman, from whom he received accounts of the beauty of the king's daughter, whose name was Patali. Having in consequence formed an intimacy with the princess, he carried her off, and alighted on the bank of the Ganges, where tracing the walls and buildings of a city with his staff, a stately town immediately arose. The people attracted to this place he maintained by the stores of his cup; and the place, named after his bride and himself, Pataliputraka, became the capital of a mighty empire. (fn)


Story of Vararuchi continued

Whilst residing with my preceptor [ Versha ], I became acquainted with his niece Upakosa , at the festival of Indra ; and as we inspired by mutual affection, we were soon married, with the consent of our relations. After having enjoyed the felicity of a wedded life some short time, I was induced to relinquish it, and repair to the Himalaya Mountains. 

Amongst the pupils of Versha was a Brahman, named Panini , a fellow of remarkable dullness, and so incapable of learning, that he was at last expelled from the classes. Deeply (p070end-p071begin) sensible of this disgrace, he had recourse to devotion; and setting off to the snowy mountains, propitiated Siva by a course of severe austerities, in consequence of which the god communicated to him the system of grammar which bears his name. Returning in triumph, he challenged me to a public disputation, and we argued on an equality for seven days: on the eighth the discussion was interrupted by a hideous noise, which disconcerted me and my abettors, and left Panini without a competitor. From this time his grammar supplanted mine, and Indra's, and all others, and we were compelled to acknowledge his superiority." ...

I [Vararuchi] therefore departed to the mountains, leaving to Upakosa the management of our affairs.


Story of Upakosa

Whilst I was thus absent, my wife, who performed with pious exactitude her ablutions in the Ganges, attracted the notice and desires of several suitors, especially the king's domestic priest, the commander of the guard, and the young prince's preceptor, who annoyed her by their importunities, and terrified her by their threats, till at last she determined to expose and punish their depravity.

Having fixed upon the plan, she made an appointment for the same evening with her three lovers, each being to come to her house an hour later than the other. Being desirous of propitiating the gods, she sent for our banker to obtain money to distribute in alms; and when he arrived, he expressed the same passion, as the rest, on her compliance with which, he promised to make over to her the money that I had placed in his hands; or on her refusal, he would retain it to his own use. Apprehending the loss of our property, therefore, she made a similar assignation with him; and desired him to come to her house that evening, at an hour when she calculated on having disposed of the first comers, for whose reception, as well as his, she arranged with her attendants the necessary preparations.

At the expiration of the first watch of the night, the Preceptor of the prince arrived. Upakosa affected to receive him (p071end-p072begin) with great delight; and after some conversation, desired him to take a bath which her handmaids had prepared for him, as a preliminary condition to any further intimacy. The Preceptor made not the least objection, on which he was conducted into a retired and dark chamber, where his bath was ready. On undressing, his own clothes and ornaments were removed, and in their place a small wrapper given to him, which was a piece of cloth smeared with a mixture of oil, lamp black, and perfumes. Similar cloths were employed to rub him with after bathing, so that he was a perfectly ebon colour from top to toe. The rubbing occupied the time till the second lover, (the Priest), arrived, on which the women exclaimed, "Here is our master's particular friend - in, in here, or all will be discovered; " and hurrying their victim away, they thrust him into a long and stout wicker basket, fastened well by a bolt outside, in which they left him to meditate upon his mistress.

The Priest and the Commander of the guard were secured, as they arrived, in a similar manner; and it only remained to dispose of the Banker. When he made his appearance, Upakosa, leading him near the baskets, said aloud, You promise to deliver to me my husband's property; and he replied, The wealth your husband entrusted to me shall be yours. On which she turned towards the baskets, and said, Let the gods hear the promise of Hiranyagupta. The bath was then proposed to the banker. Before the ceremony was completed, the day began to dawn, on which the servants desired him to make the best of his way home, lest the neighbours should notice his departure; and with this recommendation they forced him, naked as he was, into the street. Having no alternative, the banker hastened to conceal himself in his own house, being chase all the way by the dogs of the town.

As soon as it was day, Upakosa repaired to the palace of Nanda , and presented a petition to the king against the banker, for seeking to appropriate the property entrusted to him  by her husband. The banker was summoned. He denied having ever received any money from me. Upakosa then said: When my husband went away, he placed our household gods in three baskets; they have heard this man acknowledge his holding a deposit of my husband's, and let them bear witness for me. The king, with some feeling of (p072end-p073begin) surprise and incredulity, ordered the baskets to be sent for; and they were according produced in the open court. Upakosa then addressed them: Speak, gods, and declare what you over heard this banker say in dwelling. If you are silent, I will unhouse you in this presence. Afraid of this menaced exposure, the tenants of the baskets immediately exclaimed, "Verily, in our presence, the banker acknowledged possession of your wealth". On hearing these words, the whole court was filled with surprise; and the banker, terrified out of his senses, acknowledge the debt, and promised restitution.

The business being adjusted, the king expressed his curiosity to see the household divinities of Upakosa, and she very readily complied with his wish. The baskets being opened, the culprits were dragged forth by the attendants, like so many lumps of darkness. Being presently recognized, they were overwhelmed with the laughter and derision of all the assembly. As soon as the merriment had subsided, Nanda begged Upakosa to explain what it all meant, and she acquainted him with what had occurred. Nanda was highly incensed, and, as the punishment of their offence, banished the criminals from the kingdom. He was equally pleased with the virtue and ingenuity of my wife, and loaded her with wealth and honours. Her family were likewise highly gratified by her conduct, and she obtained the admiration and esteem of the whole city. (Page 073 footnote *)

Story of Vararuchi - contd.

I now returned from my sojourn in the Snowy Mountains, where by the favour of Siva, I had acquired the Paniniya grammar. This I communicated to my preceptor Versha, as the fruit of my penance; and as he wished to learn a new system, I instructed him that revealed by Swami Kumara . Vyari and Indradatta then applied to Versha for like instruction; but he desired them first to bring him a very considerable present. As they were wholly unable to raise the sum, they proposed applying for it to the king, and (p073end-p074begin) requested me to accompany them to his camp, which was at that time at Ayodhya. I consented, and we set off.

UKT 140103: Relevant portion of Upakosa story ends here. However, there is an interesting account of "restoration of life". I came to this in entry p055-1c2-b , of - p055-2.htm : उल्लाघय ullaghaya [ ullgha-ya ]
- den. P. restore to life. This account is in the next story The Story of Yogananda , and still more in The Quarterly Oriental Magazine .


Page 073 footnote *: This story occurs in Scott's additional Arabian Nights, as the Lady of Cairo, and her four Gallants. It is also one of the Persian Tales, that of Arouya. It is a story of ancient celebrity in Europe, as Constant du Hame, or La Dame qui attrapa au Pretre au Prevot et un Forestier. It is curious that the Fabliau alone agrees with the Hindu original, in putting the lovers out of the way, and disrobing them by the plea of the bath.
-- fn-star-b

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