Update: 2016-12-13 05:04 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

/ {u.da} - cont
{u.di.}/ {U.di.} 
{u.du.}/ {U.du.} 
{u.d}/ {U.d} 
{u.dau:}/ {U.dau:} 

{oad}/ {OAd} / {OAd~}
  {oad~ga.}/ {OAd~ga.} 
  {oad~Ga.}/ {OAd~Ga.}
  {oad~da.}/ {OAd~da.} 
  {oad~Da.}/ {OAd~Da.}
  {oad~ba.}/ {OAd~ba.}
  {oad~Ba.}/  {OAd-Ba.} 

  {oad~ya.}/ {OAd~ya.} 
  {oad~ra.}/ {OAd~ra.}/ {OAdRa.} 
  {oad~wa.}/ {OAd~wa.} 


UKT notes :
Confusing glyphs of Skt-Dev and Hebrew
Sceptre or staff
Udumbara Devi
Vowel harmony


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{u.da}/ {U.da} - cont



उदाहार्य [ ud--hr-ya ]
- fp. to be given as an example; -hriti, f. example.


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{u.di.}/ {U.di.} 


उदित [ ud-i-t ]
- pp. √vad and ud+√i.



उदिति [ d-iti ]
- f. sunrise; sunset.



उदितोदित [ udita‿udita ]
- a. (in whom what has been said has risen =) learned.



उदीक्षा [ ud-ksh ]
- f. looking up or towards; waiting.



उदीची [ ud-k ]
- f. of udak.



उदीचीन [ udk-&isharp;na ]
- a. northward.



उदीच्य [ udk-y (or -y) ]
- a. northern; m. pl. Northmen; -vritti, f. usage of the north country.



उदीप [ ud-pa ]
- m. inundation.



उदीरण [ ud-rana ]
- n. hurling; pronunciation.


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{u.du.}/ {U.du.} 


उदुम्बर [ ud-umbra ]
= उ द ु म ् ब र
Skt: उदुम्बर [ ud-umbra ] - m. glomerous fig-tree; its fruit. - Mac051c1
Pal: {U.dm~ba.ra.} - UHS-PMD0215
  UKT from UHS: m. water-fig tree (note the adj. {r} 'water')

glomerous - adj. (comparative more glomerous, superlative most glomerous) 1. (obsolete) Gathered or formed into a ball or round mass. [Origin: Latin glomerosus, from glomus. See glome. ] - http://www.yourdictionary.com/glomerous 150521
The genus Ficus is a large one, out of which Agri. Dept.2000 lists the following five:
F. cunia -- Agri.Dept.2000, 01-0026  {ka.twut}
F. glomerata -- Agri.Dept.2000, 50-1334 {r-a.hpn:}
F. glomerata -- Agri.Dept.2000, 58-1541 {a.hpn:}
F. lanceolat -- Agri.Dept.2000, 50-1335 {r-a.hpn:}
F. saemocarpa -- Agri.Dept.2000, 50-1335 {r-a.hpn:}
See: MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index
-- MMPD-indx.htm > click on {a.} > Ficus spp. fam: Moraceae (link chk 161212)
See my note on Udumbara - the fig-tree, and Udumbara devi


उदुम्बल [ ud-umbal ]
- a. copper-coloured.


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{u.d}/ {U.d}


उदेतव्य [ ud-etavya ]
- fp. n. it is needful to rise.



उदेतोस् [ ud-etos ]
- ab. inf. with pur, before sunrise.


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{u.dau:}/ {U.dau:} 


उदोजस् [ d-ogas ]
- a. extremely powerful.

( end of old p051-1.htm )

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{oad}/ {OAd} / {OAd~} 

{oad~ga.} उद्ग


उद्गता [ ud-gat]
= उ द ् ग त ा
Skt: उद्गता [ ud-gat] - f. a metre -- Mac051c1
Skt: उद्गाथा udgāthā - f. variety of the AryA metre -- SpkSkt



उद्गति [ ud-gati ]
- f. coming forth, springing up.



उद्गद्गदिका [ ud-gadgadik ]
- f. sobbing.



उद्गम [ ud-gama ]
- m. rise (of heavenly bodies); ascent; rising, elevation, breaking forth, appearance; springing up; shoot; departure; -tva, n. abst. ɴ.

See my note on Vowel harmony in the word उद्गम in Pal-Myan on sun's rising and setting. I am referring to Mora Sutta of Pal-Myan Eleven Paritta.



उद्गमन [ ud-gamana ]
- n. rising, coming forth, appearance: -ya, n. clean garment.



[ud-gtri ]
- m. priest who chants the Sma-vda



उद्गार [ ud-gr-a ]
- m. spitting out; exudation; throwing out; pouring forth; flood; saliva; roar; -in, a. belching, spitting; emitting, exhaling, pouring forth, uttering (--).



उद्गिरण [ ud-girana ]
- n. spitting, vomiting.



- f. a metre



उद्गीथ [ ud-gtha ]
- m. (n.) chanting of the Sma-vda by the Udgtri.

UKT 150521: Sma: songs of same prayers and hymns in meters for singing accompanying the sacrifices by Udgtri priest. - based on http://bhagavata.org/glossary/v.html 150521



उद्गूर्ण [ ud-grna ]
- n. (pp.) raising a weapon as a threat; -gorana, n. id.



उद्ग्रथन [ ud-grathana ]
- n. girding on.



उद्ग्रहण [ ud-grhana ]
- n. taking out.



उद्ग्राह [ ud-grha ]
- m. reception.



उदग्रीव [ ud-grv-a ]
- a. with outstretched neck (-m, ad.); having the neck uppermost; -ik, f. stretching out the neck; -in, a. = udgrva.


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{oad~Ga.}/ {OAd~Ga.} 


उद्घट््टन [ ud-ghattana ]
= उ द ् घ ट ् ् ट न
- n. striking; blow; outbreak, outburst; -gharshana, n. friction; thrashing.



उद्घाट [ ud-ght-a ]
- m. opening, displaying; -aka, m. key; -ana, a. opening, thrusting aside; n. opening; -anya, fp. to be opened; -ita-ga, a. prudent, wise; -in, a. opening.



उदघात [ ud-ght-a ]
- m. blow; jolt, shock; discussion; beginning; -in, a. rough, rugged.



उद्घूर्ण [ ud-ghrna ]
- a. wavering.



उद्घोण [ ud-ghona ]
- a. having the nose or snout raised.



उद्घोष [ ud-ghosha ]
- m. proclaiming aloud; -ka, m. eager; -na, n. public proclamation; blazing abroad.


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{oad~da.}/ {OAd~da.} 


उद्दण्ड [ ud-danda ]
= उ द ् द ण ् ड
- a. with staff upraised; having its stalk erect; raised aloft; eminent; extraordinary; -karman, a. doing extraordinary deeds.

UKT 131230: Stout sticks or staffs were carried by foot-travellers in old days not only to help them to walk but to be used as weapons if necessary. Mountain climbers in Myanmarpr still use special bamboo (without hollow interior) as staff. Until recently visitors to Kyaikhtiyo Pagoda which had to accessed by foot across hills had to use bamboo staffs.




उद्दर्प [ ud-darpa ]
- a. haughty.



उद्दलन [ ud-dalana ]
- a. tearing out.



उद्दान [ ud-dna ]
- n. tying up; stringing.



उद्दाम [ ud-dma ]
- a. unfettered, unloosed; unbridled; abounding in, full of (--): -and -m, ad.



उद्दामय [ ud-dma-ya ]
- den. P. make luxuriant.



- m. N. of a teacher



उद्दिश्य [ ud-dis-ya ]
- gd. (pointing to=) to wards, to, with regard to, about.



उद्दीपन [ ud-dpana ]
- n. inflaming; -t, f. virulence (of a poison).



उद्देश [ ud-desa ]
- m. reference; statement, account; sketch, brief exposition; region, part, place: in., ab. with reference to; -tas, ad. briefly.



उद्द्योत [ ud-dyota ]
- a. beaming; m. effulgence; splendour; -kara, m. N. of an author.


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{oad~Da.}/ {OAd~Da.} 


उद्धत [ ud-dhata ]
= उ द ् ध त
- pp. (√han) struck; whirled up; excited; violent; strong; loud; high; proud, arrogant; m. N. of an ass.



उद्धति [ ud-dhati ]
- f. blow; shock, jolt; elevation, arrogance.



उद्धरण [ ud-dhar-ana ]
- n. lifting; extraction, removal; deliverance; -tavya, fp. to be drawn out; -tri, m. destroyer; deliverer.



उद्धार [ ud-dhr- ]
- m. pulling out; removal; payment; exception; omission; selected part; abstract; deliverance; -aka-vidhi, m. payment; -ana, n. extraction; payment; -ya, fp. to be removed.



उद्धुर [ ud-dhura ]
- a. uncontrollable, overweening; bent on (-- or in.).



उद्धूनन [ ud-dhnana ]
- n. shaking up, violent agitation (tr.).



उद्धूलय [ ud-dhla-ya ]
- den. P. bestrew.



उद्धूषित [ ud-dhsh-ita ]
- pp. shuddering.



उद्धृत [ ud-dhrita ]
- pp. √dhri or √hri; -dhriti, f. pulling out; tearing up; abstract, epitome; deliverance.


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{oad~ba.}/ {OAd~ba.}

UKT 131230, 161213: Take care not to get confused with Skt-Dev akshara {ba.} ब &  {wa.} व . Even the phoneme <wa> seemed to absent in the phonology of the Sanskrit speakers, and they had to identify with the labio-dental <va>, which was probably absent before Panini came on the scene. Though Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan has no need of a dedicated glyph for <va>, Romabama has to coin a new one for <va>: {va.} for BEPS work.


उद्बन्ध [ ud-bandha ]
= उ द ् ब न ् ध
- m. hanging oneself; -na, n. id.; hanging (a criminal).



उद्बाष्प [ ud-bshpa ]
- a. shedding tears: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



उद्बाहु d-bâhu, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. having the arms upraised.



उद्बुद्बुद [ ud-budbuda ]
- a. bubbling forth.


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{oad~Ba.}/  {OAd-Ba.}


उद्भङ्ग [ ud-bhaṅga ]
- m. breaking off (a habit).



उद्भट [ ud-bhata ]
- a. eminent, extraordinary.



उद्भव [ ud-bhava ]
- m. origin, birth, appearance; birthplace; --, a. arising or produced from: -kshetra, n. place of origin.



उद्भावन [ ud-bhv-ana ]
- n. neglect; -ayitri, m. raiser or exalter (ac.).



उद्भासिन् [ ud-bhs-in ]
- a. resplendent with; made visible or indicated by (--); forthcoming; -ura, a. blazing.



उद्भिज्ज [ ud-bhig-ga ]
- a. produced from sprouts; -bhd, a. breaking forth, sprouting; f. shoot, plant.



उद्भूतस्पर्शवत् [ ud-bhta-sparsa-vat ]
- a. tangible.


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उद्भूति [ ud-bhti ]
- f. origin; appearance; exaltation; prosperity.



उद्भेद [ ud-bheda ]
- m. bursting forth, appearance; fountain; treason.



उद््भ्रमण [ ud-bhramana ]
- n. soaring up.



उद्भ्रान्त [ ud-bhrnta ]
- (pp.) n. rising; waving a sword; -ka, a. wandering about; n. soaring up.


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{oad~ya.}/ {OAd~ya.} 

UKT 131231, 161213: Note the conjunct form gives a disyllable. If was in medial form, it would be a monosyllable. The possibility of medial formation is a problem when another consonant is present. Thus how is उद्यत to be pronounced: {u.dya.ta.}/ {U.dya.ta.}, or  {oad~ya.ta.}/ {OAd~ya.ta.}? If we had been using only transliteration, we would not be considering the pronunciation. To solve the problem, I have to include the viram {a.t} to show the pronunciation. I need to go over my arguments carefully again. Please remember, my aim has been to get reliable two inter-transcriptions between Burmese and English, one using the Myanmar akshara, and the other using extended-Latin alphabet. I have put Romabama to a severe test by trying to get a reliable inter-transcription between Pali and Sanskrit by introducing Mon-Myan.

I have found that transcription depends on the phonology, and since my Romabama is based on Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur linguistic group) phonology, it fails miserably in Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi linguistic group). However, in transcribing Pali words, Romabama is somewhat applicable. Listen to a popular Mon-Myan song, and see what Pali words you can pick out: - bk-cndl-Mon-Dana'kutho<))


उद्यत [ d-yata ]
= उ द ् य त
- pp. (√yam) prepared, ready; n. offering; -danda, a. having his sceptre erect, ready to inflict punishment.

See my note on sceptre - the staff or {kyaing:} when used by authorities.



उद्यति [ d-yati ]
- f. raising, striking up.



उद्यम [ ud-yama ]
- m. raising; exertion, endeavour, diligence (w. d., prati, inf., --): -na, n. raising; endeavour; -bhrit, a. exerting oneself, working.



- a. id.; taking trouble



उद्यान [ ud-yna ]
- n. walking out; pleasure garden, grove, park; -ka, n. pleasure garden, grove; -pla, m. () gardener; -plaka, m. (ik) id.; -ml, f. row of gardens.



- m. kind of disease



उद्योग [ ud-yog- ]
- m. exertion, effort; practice in (--): -samartha, a. capable of exertion: -in, a. active, strenuous, diligent.


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{oad~ra.}/ {OAd~ra.}/ {OAdRa.}

UKT 161213: Since hanging {ra.} can become confusing in Mon-Myan, I have to adopt a new rhotic vowel similar to Skt-Dev, ऋ, a special form of {ra.ric} with an extended hood: {OAdRa.}


उद्र [ ud-r ]
= उ द ् र
- m. kind of aquatic animal.



उद्रश्मि [ ud-rasmi ]
- a. resplendent.



उद्रिक्तचित्त [ ud-rikta-kitta ]
- a. haughty; -ketas, a. high-minded.



उद्रिन् [ udr-n ]
- a. abounding in water.



उद्रेक [ ud-rek-a ]
- m. excess, redundance, predominance; -in, a. excessive; producing an excess of (--).



उद्रोधन [ ud-rodhana ]
- n. rising, growth.


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{oad~wa.}/ {OAd~wa.}  


उद्वत् [ ud-vt ]
= उ द ् व त ्
- f. height.


उद्वर्तन [ ud-vartana ]
- a. bursting (--); n. leaping up; rising; unction; unguent.

- n. . The act of anointing as part of a religious, ceremonial, or healing ritual. . An ointment or oil; a salve. . Something that serves to soothe; a balm. 4. Affected or exaggerated earnestness, especially in choice and use of language. -- AHTD



उद्वस [ ud-vasa ]
- a. uninhabited; n. desert.



उद्वह [ ud-vah- ]
- a. carrying upwards, continuing; m. son, descendant of (--); -ana, n. raising up; bearing, supporting; drawing, driving; riding on (in.); possession of (--).



उद्वन्हि [ ud-vahni ]
- a. emitting sparks of fire.



उद्वाह [ ud-vha ]
- m. marriage.



उद्विजितव्य [ ud-vig-itavya ]
- fp. n. one must shudder at (ab.).



उद्विकासिन् [ ud-viksin ]
- a. blown (flower).



उद्विग्न [ ud-vigna ]
- pp. √vig; -manas, a. troubled in mind.



उद्वीक्षण [ ud-vkshana ]
- n. look, gaze; sight.



उद्वेग [ ud-vega ]
- m. tremor, heaving, surging; uneasiness, agitation; objection; -kara, a. () causing uneasiness, distressing, agitating, alarming; -kraka, -krin, a. id.; -krit, a. causing aversion.



उद्वेगिन् [ udveg-in ]
- a. getting excited.



उद्वेजक [ ud-veg-a-ka ]
- a. = udvega-kara; -ana, a. disquieting, alarming; n. shuddering; alarm: -kara, a. causing terror; -anya, fp. object of alarm to (g.); -in, a. causing aversion.



उद्वेदि [ ud-vedi ]
- a. on which an altar rises.


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UKT notes

Confusing glyphs of Skt-Dev and Hebrew

UKT 131230, 161212

The first confusing glyph I have come across is Skt-Dev in which there is no white-space to differentiate the words and because of the look-alike aksharas. The second is Hebrew, the main drawback as far is BEPS is concerned, is due to it being written right to left.

Skt-Dev {Ga.} घ & {Da.} ध are looks-alike, because of which it is confusing to a new learner. In this respect, Bur-Myan {Ga.}, & {Da.} are more easily differentiated. Similarly, in Asokan (Brahmi) script, they are easy to differentiate.

Another pair of confusing Skt-Dev akshara is {ba.} ब &  {wa.} व. Skt-Dev had to borrow the grapheme of {wa.} व, and add a diagonal to get {ba.} ब . These facts and others have led me to conjecture that Asokan and Myanmar are related, but Devanagari is not. 

The problem in Hebrew is solve by use of devices like Tetragrammation, JHVH, which is read from left-to-right, the Hebrew הוהי is read from right-to-left. I have attempted to study Hebrew because, a sister script of Asokan, Kharosthi script, writes from right to left like Hebrew. See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kharosthi 161212

My problem is compounded because of IAST (International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transliteration) which most readers take to be a transcription. We must note that labio-dentals were not present in Old Magadhi, but were only introduced when Panini transforming it to suit the IE speakers. Thus, {wa.} व itself. Why is it va - a labio-dental , and not like the English <w> or the Bur-Myan {wa.} - a bilabial? Were there labio-dentals before the IE (Indo-European) speakers appeared in the India-Myanmarpr language area where Tibeto-Burman languages, including the Vedic, were spoken? We can reform our question to was there labio-dentals in Vedic before Panini's Classical Sanskrit?

We would not be able to answer these questions satisfactory unless we go deeper into our search. And so we will leave them aside and introduce the tetragrammaton , the 4 letter Hebrew word JHWH and one of its alternate forms JHVH, where we can find the phoneme /w/ and the grapheme H used together. I am introducing JHVH as a possible direction we should look. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragrammaton 131230 .

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Sceptre or staff

- UKT 131231

The Sceptre is one of the royal insignia of the monarchs throughout the ages. It is derived from "walking sticks" carried by foot-travellers in ancient times. The "walking stick" of the Burma Army (a unit of the British troops) was quite popular during WWII.

It is noteworthy that the Burmese monarchs did not have such a sceptre as one of the five items of the regalia. However, in a possession, a staff was carried by his retainers. It is known as {kyaing:}. See MED2006-031.

The peoples of Myanmarpr are still steeped in the ancient traditions in which the alchemists played a major part. A junior alchemist is known as a {zau-gyi} who on discovering the potency of the various plants in the forest, ground them up and made them into medicinal balls with magic powers. Swallowing these balls one by one he would gain the ability to fly through the air. The walking staff he had used in climbing mountains is now his magic staff. Portrayed as an acrobatic dancer in traditional dance, he danced with his staff. It must be noted that he is by no means a morally right person - he may not even be a Buddhist. He still enjoys sex - not with humans - but with strangely shaped fruits which resemble human maidens. Since such fruits are rare, the forest dwelling {zau-gyi} are battling each other to possess one. However, being a fruit, it gets over-ripened and decayed and the love-starved {zau-gyi} had to look for another. Some {zau-gyi} may degenerate further and would have sex with married human women. See the traditional Zawgyi dance
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xP70V4lZ42M 131231 .

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sceptre 131231

A sceptre (or scepter in U.S. English) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Sometimes, it could be used for magical purposes, mainly by skilled magicians.

The was and other types of staffs were a sign of authority in Ancient Egypt, for which reason they are often described as "sceptres" even if they are full-length staffs. One of the earliest royal sceptres was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherds crook.

The Bronze Age rulers of Mesopotamia are not regularly depicted with sceptres; but in some instances they are shown armed, with bow and arrow and occasionally a mace (club).

Use of a rod or staff as representing authority can be traced to the beginning of Classical Antiquity. Among the early Greeks, the sceptre (Ancient Greek: σκῆπτρον, skeptron, "staff, stick, baton") was a long staff, such as Agamemnon wielded (Iliad, i) or was used by respected elders (Iliad, xviii. 46; Herodotus 1. 196), and came to be used by judges, military leaders, priests and others in authority. It is represented on painted vases as a long staff tipped with a metal ornament. When the sceptre is borne by Zeus or Hades, it is headed by a bird. It was this symbol of Zeus, the father of Olympus, that gave their inviolable status to the kerykes, the heralds, who were thus protected by the precursor of modern diplomatic immunity. When, in the Iliad Agamemnon sends Odysseus to the leaders of the Achaeans, he lends him his sceptre.

Among the Etruscans, sceptres of great magnificence were used by kings and upper orders of the priesthood, and many representations of such sceptres occur on the walls of the painted tombs of Etruria. The British Museum, the Vatican and the Louvre possess Etruscan sceptres of gold, most elaborately and minutely ornamented.

The Roman sceptre probably derived from the Etruscan. Under the Republic an ivory sceptre (sceptrum eburneum) was a mark of consular rank. It was also used by victorious generals who received the title of imperator, and its use as a symbol of delegated authority to legates apparently was revived in the marshals baton.

In the Hellenistic period, the biblical Book of Esther mentions the sceptre of the King of Persia.

Under the Roman empire the sceptrum Augusti was specially used by the emperors, and was often of ivory tipped with a golden eagle. It is frequently shown on medallions of the later empire, which have on the obverse a half-length figure of the emperor, holding in one hand the sceptrum Augusti, and in the other the orb surmounted by a small figure of Victory.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article .

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Udumbara Devi

- UKT 131228, 161212

One of the prescribed texts on which we were examined on the Burmese literature for Matriculation exam in 1950 was the full text of Mahosadha Jataka {ma-hau-a-Da zaart-tau}. The text tells us the episode of Mahosadha being adopted by the queen Udumbara devi as her younger brother.

From: http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/u/udumbara_devi.htm 131228


Wife of Pinguttara. She was the daughter of a teacher in Takkasilā and was given to Pinguttara because he was the eldest pupil. But he was unhappy with her, and on the way to his home, when she climbed up a fig (udumbara) tree to pluck fruits for herself, he put thorns round the tree and ran away, leaving her. The king, coming along, saw her and married her. She was called Udumbara-devi because of the circumstances in which she was found. When the king suspected her of infidelity to him, Mahosadha saved her from ignominy, and she became thereafter his best friend and helped him in all his doings, treating him, with the king's permission, as her younger brother. When the king planned to kill Mahosadha, Udumbara-devi warned him in time and enabled him to evade the treachery of his enemies at court (J.vi.348, 352, 355, 363, 368, 384).

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udumbara_Buddhism 131228

In Buddhism, udumbara , Pali, Skt-Dev: उडुम्बर refer to the tree, flower and fruit of the Ficus racemosa (syn. Ficus glomerata). [1] [2] [3] In Buddhist literature, this tree or its fruit may carry the connotation of rarity, parasitism or Vedic mysticism.

The udumbara is also used to refer to the blue lotus (Nila udumbara) flower.

UKT: Moe in Wikipedia.

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Vowel harmony

UKT 13129: 

See also my work on Vowel harmony in Language and meaning , a collection by U Kyaw Tun, - harmo.htm (link chk 161213).

Note: Vowel harmony, or harmony between two aksharas forming a disyllabic word is still in the gray area of my understanding. I need to study more, and with more study my present views may change. -- UKT131229

The words relating to rising sun and setting sun are found in Mora Sutta, one of the Eleven Paritta in Pal-Myan. For the "rising" the disyllable used is {U.d} - association of back vowel with a voiced consonant, and for the "setting" it is {a.p} - association of front vowel with a tenuis consonant. Refer to verses 03 & 05 shown on the right.

You will note that the close-back vowel {U.} and the open-front vowel vowel {a.} are very contrastive in the vowel quadrilateral. Therefore there is wonder when the words "rising" and "setting" have exactly the opposite meanings. It shows that Pali (a Prakrit) is a highly developed language, and not a language of "uncultured natives" of ancient India as the European Indologists of the 19th century would like to assert. These old European Indologists were just echoing the claims of the Brahmin-Poannas who were trying to promote their alien culture into India (and Myanmarpr of the Pyus), where the various indigenous peoples had their own advanced cultures.

Listen to Mora Sutta - bk-cndl-Mingun<)) 
(read in Pal-Myan: verse01-04, verse05-06) to the recitation of the whole Paritta by Mingun Sayadaw, U Vicittasarabivamsa (1911-1993) ; the holder of Guinness Record on human memory. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mingun_Sayadaw 131229.
"In 1985, the Guinness Book of Records recorded the sayadaw as a record holder in the Human memory category. The exact entry was Human memory: Bhandanta Vicitsara (sic) recited 16,000 pages of Buddhist canonical text in Rangoon, Burma in May 1954. Rare instances of eidetic memory -- the ability to project and hence "visually" recall material -- are known to science . [1] "

TIL has taken the pronunciation of Mingun Sayadaw as the standard for Pali-Myan which I contend was the authentic pronunciation of the Gautama Buddha who spoke in Magadhi, a Tib-Bur language. I base my contention on the fact that the Buddha was born and had died in the area just south of the Himalayas. Based on my study, I have to state categorically that the International Pali (Pal-Lat) derived from the Sinhala language of SriLanka as a misrepresentation. The numerous Burmese-Myanmar missionaries abroad should take note of this position. I wait for input from them.

Mora Sutta has its equivalent in Gayatri Mantra of Vedic (note: Vedic is not Paninian Sanskrit of the modern Hindus). Vedic and Sanskrit verses have different metres. Gayatri  meter contains three lines of eight syllables each. To make it Sanskrit , a first line - Oṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ - had been added. The verse RV 3.62.10 gives:

ॐ भूर्भुवः॒ स्वः ।
तत्स॑वितुर्वरे॑ण्यं ।
भ॒र्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि। ।
धियो॒ यो ः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त्॥ ।

which in IAST is:

Oṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ
tt savitr vreṇ(i)yaṃ
bhrgo devsya dhīmahi
dhyo y naḥ pracodyāt  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 131230
Listen to Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<))
Note: {na:.} ः॑  -  Mon-Myan, vowel-duration 1/2 eye-blink

Gayatri Mantra is the oldest of the hymns directed to the "Energy-giving Source" - and not to the Siva Dva. If we are to go by the number of hymns directed to the present Hindu Trinity (Vaishnavism) , Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva, they were minor gods in the Rig Vda.

"The deity associated with this gayatri mantra, ... is the sun, savitri. (The second word of this mantra.) The more common name for the sun is surya. Generally "surya" is the name for the sun while it is above the horizon and savitri is the sun as it is rising and setting, just below the horizon." -- Shukavak N. Dasa , Sanskrit Religions Institute , http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Hindu%20Primer/gayatri.html 131230

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