Update: 2016-11-23 08:28 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{a-wRi.} : highly rhotic form of {a-wi.}
- it has nothing to do with either /ɹ/ or /r/ phonemes, and {ra.}
{a-w~ya.} / {a-v~ya.} / {a-b~ya.} / {a-bya.}

/ {aash~ra.}

{a-wRi.} : highly rhotic form of {a-wi.}
- it has nothing to do with either /ɹ/ or /r/ phonemes, and {ra.}. See inset pix, the rhotic vowel {iRi.} is on farthest plane. -- UKT 161115

UKT notes :
Ashvin अश्विन् - the 7th Hindu month and the Myanmar Buddhist months
Stages in life of a Brahmin


Contents of this page



आवृत [ -vrita ]   Hindi: आवृत<))
- pp. surrounded; covered; overspread; m. a certain mixed caste.



आवृत्तत्व [ -vritta-tva ]
- n. the being covered; the being closed (of a door).



आवृत्ति [ -vritti ]
- f. turning in; return; repetition; solstice; re-birth; course, direction.


Contents of this page



आवेग [ -vega ]
- m. excitement, flurry.



आवेदक [ -ved-aka ]
- a. informing, stating (--); -ana, n. announcement; legal notice; -anya, fp. to be reported or announced; -ita, cs. pp. made known, told; -in, a. announcing (--); -ya, fp.= vedanya.



आवेश [ -ves-a ]
- m. entrance; fit (of rage, &c.); wrath: -na, n. possession (by demons); workshop; -vat, a. possessed by (--); -ika, m. guest.



आवेष्ट [ -veshta ]
- m. strangulation.


Contents of this page


UKT 150508: The following pronunciation changes are always possible:

{a-w~ya.} --> {a-v~ya.} --> {a-b~ya.} --> {a-bya.}


आव्य [ vy ]
- a. (v) relating to sheep; woollen.



आव्यक्त [ -vyakta ]
- pp. perfectly clear.



आव्यथा [ -vyath ]
- f. slight emotion: -m kri, be somewhat touched.

( end of old p043-1.htm)


Contents of this page



आश asa [ s-a ]
Skt: आश [ s-a ] - m. food - Mac043c1
Pal: {a-a.}
- - UHS-PMD0184
   UKT from UHS - m. food, eating

- BHS: āśa-pātrī - food-bowl - FE-BHS109



आशंस [ -samsa ]
- a. expecting (--); -na, n. wishing; , f. wish; expectation, hope; presentiment; -parikalpita, pp. only expected.



आशंसितृ [-sama-i-tri ]
Skt: आशंसितृ [-sama-i-tri] - m. proclaimer (w. ac.); -in , a. announcing, promising (-)
  - Mac043c1
Skt: आशंसितृ āśaṃsitṛ - m. one who announces, announcer - SpkSkt



आशङ्कनीय [ -saṅk-anya ]
- fp. to be feared, -expected, -assumed; -, f. anxiety; dread of (ab.); distrust; -in, a. dreading; supposing; considering; causing anxiety or fear; doubtful, uncertain.



आशय [ -say ]
- m. resting-place; seat, place; heart, mind; thought, intention; way of thinking; a‿agni, m. fire of digestion.



आशरीरम् [ -sarram ]
- ad. including the body.



आशस् [ -ss ]
- f. wish, expectation, hope.



आशा [ 1. s ]
- f. id. (w. g., lc., or --): in. in the expectation or hope of; -ganana, a. inspiring hope; -piskik, -, f. demon of (=cruel and delusive) hope; -bandha, m. bond of hope; cobweb; -vat, a. hopeful; hoping for (d., lc.); -vibhinna, pp. cut off from hope, disappointed.



आशा [ 2. s ]
- f. space; region, quarter; -kakravla, n. encircling horizon; -mukha, n. point of the compass; -vsas, n. the quarters as a garment: with vas,= go about naked; -vigaya, m. conquest of the world.



आशाश [ s‿asa ]
- a. filling the quarters.



आशास्ति [ -ssti ]
- f. prayer.



आशास्य asasya [ -ss-ya ]
- fp. to be wished; n. wish, blessing.



आशित [ s-ita ]
- cs. pp. of √2. as; n. food.



आशिन् [ s-in ]
- a. eating, enjoying (--).



आशिर् [ -sr ]
- f. milk added to Soma.



आशिरःपादम् [ -sirah-pdam ]
- ad. from head to foot.



आशिष्ठ [ s-ishtha ]
- spv. of su.



आशिस् [ -ss ]
- f. wish, prayer, benediction.



आशीःक्रिय [ sh-kriya ]
- a. expressing the action of asking (gr.).



आशीयस् [ s-yas ]
- cpv. of su: n. ad.



आशीर्वचन [ sr-vakana ]
- n. benediction: -‿kshepa, m. a rhetorical figure; -vkaka, a. expressing a wish; -vda, m. benediction: -mantra, m. id., -‿abhidhna-vat, a. containing a benedictory expression.


Contents of this page



आशीविष [ s-vish ]
- m. poisonous snake; -‿upama, a. snake-like = poisoned (arrow).



आशु [ s- ]
- a. swift: n. quickly, at once; m. horse; -krin, a. operating quickly; -klnta, pp. quickly faded; -g, a. moving swiftly; m. arrow; -gamana, n. rapid course; -tva, n. quickness; -mt, ad. quickly.



आशुया [ suy ]
- (in.) ad. quickly, rapidly.



आशुविमर्दित [ su-vimardita ]
- pp. quickly crushed.



आशुशुक्षणि [ -susukshni ]
- a. gleaming forth; m. fire.



आशुशुष्क [ su-sushka ]
- a. quickly drying up: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sravas, m. N. of a mythical horse; -samdheya, fp. easily to be joined; easily to be reconciled.



आशौच [ sauka ]
- n. ritual impurity.



आश््चर्य [ skarya ]
- a. strange, wonderful; n. prodigy, marvel; astonishment; -bhta, pp. marvellous; -maya, a. wonderful.

( end of old p043-2.htm)

Contents of this page

/ {aashra.}

UKT 131206, 161115: The conjunct श्र {shra.} is quite common and is easily recognizable. It is well worth memorizing the shape.

Coming after the vowels /u/, we expect to find words formed from the very rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ {iRi.}. Instead we find only the rhotic conjunct {shra.} . Because there is a possibility of confusion, the first form {shra.} is preferable.


आश्रम [ -srama ]
= आ श ् र म --> आ श्र म
- m. n. hermitage; m. stage in a Brhman's life; -pada, n. id.; -mandala, n. group of hermitages; -vsin, -sad, m. hermit; -sthna, n. hermitage.



आश्रमालय [ srama‿laya ]
- m. hermit.



आश्रमिन् [ sram-in ]

- a. belonging to one of the religious stages.

UKT 131206: I became aware of the stages in life of a Brahmin, after a famous Brahmin-astrologer of Yangon, announced that he would retire as a professional astrologer on given date citing that as a Brahmin, he would have to live the life of a hermit. See my note on the Stages in Life of a Brahmin.



आश्रय [ -sray-a ]
- m. leaning on, attachment to; connexion with, devotion to, recourse to; dependence on, relation to; support; refuge, shelter, protection; seat, abode; receptacle; foundation; (logical) subject; --, a. depending on; relating to; -na, a. () taking refuge in; relating to (--); n. recourse to; -nya, fp. to be had recourse to or followed.



आश्रयभूत [ sraya-bhta ]
- pp. being the support or foundation of (g. or --); being a refuge.



आश्रयाश [ sraya‿sa ]
- m. (house-consumer), fire; -‿asiddha, pp. logically inadmissible owing to the subject.



आश्रयिन् [ sray-in ]
- a. attaching to, seated on, dwelling in, relating to (--).



आश्रव [ -srava ]
- a. obedient, amenable.



आश्रित [ -srita ]
- (pp.) m. dependent, retainer, servant; -tva, n. dependence.


Contents of this page



आश््लिष्टसानु [ -slishta-snu ]
- a. peak-embracing.



आश््लेष [ -slesha ]
- m. close contact; embrace; -, f. sg. & pl. N. of a lunar mansion.



आश््व [ sva ]
- a. relating to or coming from the horse.



आश््वत्थ [ svattha ]
- a. () derived fr. the sacred fig-tree, made of its wood.



आश््वमेधिक [ sva-medhika ]
- a. relating to the horse-sacrifice.



आश््वयुज [ sva-yuga ]
- m. the month svina; n. a Pkayaga occurring on the day of full moon in the month svina.



- m. N. of a teacher



आश््वास [ -svs-a ]
- m. breathing again, recovery, recreation; consolation; confidence in (g., lc.); -ana, n. animating; consoling: , f. recreation, consolation; -anya, fp. to be cheered or consoled; -in, a. breathing again; -ya, fp. to be comforted about.



आश््विन [ svina ]
- a. () like horsemen; () be longing or sacred to the Asvins; m. N. of a rainy month; -kratu, m. N. of a rite in the prtaranuvka; -satra, n. N. of a modification of the prtaranuvka.

UKT 131206, 150709: See my note on Ashvin अश्विन् - the seventh month of the lunisolar Hindu calendar.  I have come to understand that the "prtaranuvka" is a sort of morning prayer or offering.


Contents of this page



आश््वीन [ svna ]
- n. day's journey for a horse.

( end of old p043-3.htm)

Contents of this page



  आषाढ [ shdha ]
- m. N. of a month (June- July); staff of Palsa-wood (borne in certain rites); a. relating to shdha; m. a certain holiday; -ka, m. N.; -pura, n. N. of a mythical mountain; -bhti, m. N. of a cheat.

UKT 150508: The month of आषाढ āṣāḍha corresponds to June-July in Gregorian calendar. It is āsāḷha in Pali, and is the beginning of the Buddhist rain-retreat {wa-hso} . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassa 150508



आषाढी [ shdh ]
- f. day of full moon in shdha.



आष्टमिक [ shtamika ]
- a. taught in the eighth book of Pnini.

( end of p043-4.htm)

Contents of this page



आस् [ . s ]
- ij. of joy or displeasure



आस् [ . s ]
- V. 3 sg. impf. of √as, be.



आस् [ . s ]
- n. (?) mouth, face: in. openly.



आस् [ 4. AS, II.] A. as-te (E. + I. A. asa. II. P. as-ti),
- sit, sit down ( in or on, Ic.); remain sitting; dwell, abide; take up one's abode, encamp; rest, remain, lie; be firm; be left in the lurch; engage in (ac.); apply oneself to (Ic.); behave, be (in a state) w. ad.; continue doing or being (w. pt., gd., a., N. ad.); tend to (d.); have (g.): stm, impv. away w., enough of, to say nothing of. adhi, sit or lie down on (ac.); take up one's abode in, occupy, inhabit; tread on, enter upon; rest on: pp. adhyasita, resting upon; on which anything (in.) rests; have carnal knowledge of (ac.). sam-adhi, occupy, inhabit (ac.). anu, sit beside or round (ac.); sit down after (ac.) ud, be indifferent. upa, sit beside, sit down- (ac.) beset (of subordinates or supplicants); besiege; sit; occupy, dwell in; take part in (ac.); betake oneself to, attain to (ac.); practise, be addicted to; suffer, undergo; continue doing or being (pt. or gd.); expect; honour; celebrate, perform; endeavour to (pt.); spend (time). pari‿upa, sit round, surround; beset (hostile); sit upon (ac.); take part in (ac.); honour, adore; quietly look on it. sam-upa, sit; practise; honour. pari, assemble round (ac.). sam, sit together; assemble round (ac.); abide in (Ic.); deliberate; practise (ac.); behave like (iva); attend to, acknowledge (ac.); be a match for (ac.). prati-sam, resist, be a match for (ac.).



आस [ . s-a ]
- m. [√2. as] ashes, dust.



आस [ . s- ]
- m. seat; nearness.



आसंसारम् [ -samsram ]
- ad. from the beg. of the world; to the end of the world, for ever.



आसक्त [ -sakta ]
- pp. (√sag) attached; intent on; -bhva, a. in love with (lc.).



आसक्ति [ -sakt ]
- f. fastening on, persecution; attachment or addiction to (lc. or --).



आसङ्ग [ -saṅg- ]
= आ स ङ ् ग --> {a-n~ga.}
Skt: आसङ्ग [ -saṅg- ] - m. id.; -in, a. attached to (--) - Mac043c3
Pal: {a-n~ga.} - UHS-PMD0184
  UKT from UHS: m. adhesive, attachment, clothe



आसञ्जन [ -sg-ana ]
- n. attaching; adhesion; -ita, pp. with whom an agreement has previously been made.



आसत्ति [ -satti ]
- f. connexion.



आसदे [ -sde ]
- d. inf. to sit down upon (ac.).



आसन् [ sn ]
- n. mouth, jaws.



आसन [ s-ana (or ) ]
- n. sitting, sitting down; sitting posture; halting, encamping; abiding; seat; position, office (of a king); -bandha, m. sitting down; -vat, a. having a seat, sitting; -vidhi, m. offer of a seat; -stha, a. sitting.



[san-kr ]
- turn into a seat



आसन्दिका [ sandik ]
- f. small chair.

UKT: p043c3-b22 is moved to the next file.
In the original ink-on-paper book, p044 is made up of two portions: the upper one bring a close to long-a vowels, and the lower the beginning of I-vowels.

( end of old p043-5.htm)


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Ashvin अश्विन् - the 7th Hindu month
and the Myanmar Buddhist months

-- UKT 131206, 140815: 
Unable to get a dedicated article, I have written the following based on my memory and from sources mentioned below. I need to rewrite my whole article. The cute cartoon on the right shows how dedicated we are to education. Even the monks and nuns in various teaching institutions have to take religious examinations which are held in the month of {na.yoan-la.} which approximate with the month of June. The exams can be taken in two languages, Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. The religious text is in Pal-Myan.

Based on
1. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_calendar 131206
and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashwin 131206
2. Khin Maung Nyunt (Dr.) , http://www.myanmars.net 100803
3. Myanmar Travel Guide, http://www.dpsmap.com/festival/september.htm 131206
4. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festivals_of_Burma 131206
5. Hindu Vasant Panchami - Nepali: वसन्त पञ्चमी , Hindi: वसन्त पञ्चमी :
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasant_Panchami   131206

The principal star and the its corresponding rasi {ra-i} are common to the Burmese and Hindu calendars.
01. Chaitra - Meṣa (Aries)
02. Vaiśākha - Vṛṣabha (Taurus)
03. Jyaiṣṭha - Mithuna (Gemini)
04. Āṣāḍha - Karka (Cancer)
05. Śrāvaṇa - Siṃha (Leo)
06. Bhādrapada or Bhādra also Proṣṭhapada - Kanyā (Virgo)
07. Āśvina in,sometimes Aśvayuja - Tula (Libra) 
08. Kārtika - Vṛścika (Scorpio)
09. Agrahāyaṇa or, Mārgaśīrṣa - Dhanus (Sagittarius)
10. Pauṣa - Makara (Capricorn)
11. Māgha - Kumbha (Aquarius)
12. Phālguna - Mīna (Pisces)

Ashvin अश्विन्  aka Aswayuja, is the seventh month of the lunisolar Hindu calendar. In solar religious calendar, Ashvin begins with the Sun's exit from Kanyā rasi (Virgo).

The month overlaps September and October of the Gregorian calendar and is the month preceding Diwali, the festival of lights. In Hindu lunar religious calendars, Ashvin begins on the new moon after the autumn equinox.

In Myanmar astrological-astronomical luni-solar tradition, the lunar month begins with the new moon {la.hsm:}, through full moon {la.pr.}, and ends on "no moon day" {la.kw}.

The Bur-Myan lunar month of ''Tawthalin" {tau-a.ling:la.} (September-October) is the sixth month. The monsoon rains have ceased in both southern and northern parts of the country. The Irrawaddy river is smooth and calm and we say "it is as if a watery-mat has been spread".

In northern Myanmarpr, in the days of the monarchy, the Royal Regatta was held in {tau-a.ling:la.}. It was a display of the king's "naval forces". In the present day Myanmarpr the boat races are held on practically every river and lake throughout the country.

Another event which we associate with the month of {tau-a.ling:la.} is as the time of "heat of the dogs", and you can be pretty much annoyed with the incessant howling of the dogs at night. It is the month devoid of mate - and therefore longing for mate - of the canine population - {tau-a.ling: hpau king: pa lo./ hkw tw u}.

Now, let's go by the Bur-Myan months:

01. Tagu (March-April) - Thingyan :

Myanmar new year marking Sun's entry into Meṣa rasi (Aries)

02. Kason (April-May) - Bo tree watering festival :

Marks the birth, enlightenment and death of Gautama Buddha ( Vesākha)

03. Nayon {na.yoan la.} (May-June) - Tipitaka Festival :

Academic religious (Pariyatti Sasana) examinations for monks, nuns and laypersons

04. Waso (June-July) - Dhammasekya Day - Four Noble Truths

Robe Offering at the beginning of Buddhist lent (Vassa) when monks go into Monsoon Retreat

05. Wagaung (July-August)

Non-Buddhist festival of Ma'nes (Nats) in Taungbyoan village near Mandalay

06. Tawthalin {tau-a.ling:la.} (August-September)

Regatta Festival - a secular festival

07. Thadingyut (September-October) - End of Monsoon Retreat

Festival of Lights marking Buddha's return from Deva kingdom (avoid using the English word "Heaven")

From the first day after the full moon of {i-tn:kwyut} to full moon of {ta.hsan-moan:} Kathina robes are offered to the Buddhist monks.

Hindu Diwali, the festival of lights to mark King Rama's triumphal return from the kingdom of Lanka where his wife Sita had been held captive, falls on the new moon of {ta.hsan-moan:}

08. Tazaungmon (October-November) - semi-religious Tazaungdaing Festival of Lights

Festival of Kārtika group of stars which are sacred to nocturnal thieves is held by young men as the Sleeping Crow pranks {kyi:ma.no: pw:} when they steal property which is not worth much, to send it to improper places, e.g. removing a person's name plate from his house to hang it on a public toilet. Police do not look on these acts kindly and many ended sleeping the night in a police lock-up.

09. Nadaw (November-December) - non-Buddhist Festival of Ma'nes (Nats)

An individual festival of Nats lasts three days when loud boisterous Myanmar music is played. The priestesses, young and old, dance to the music and anyone who became possessed (mostly feigned) is welcomed to join in when they can enjoy whiskey and chicken barbeque. However, most Theravada Buddhists shunned such public display of debauchery.

10. Pyatho (December-January) - no central Myanmarpr festival.

Traditionally, the month is marked by cats going into heat when tom-cats challenge each other  over territory and mates with their loud cries and violent fights at night waking you from your sleep.

It was the month to hold the Equestrian Festival under the Burmese kings.
   " On the 3rd waning day of Pyatho, princes, ministers, minister of the Interior, commander of Palace Guard, Knights, commanders, and army officers dressed in their military uniforms rode caparisoned steeds. Each with 10 lances participated in the contest. Riding the horse at high speed, each by turn, threw a lance at a time, at the circular target on the post, until all ten lances had been thrown. Princes dressed in the army uniform of their rank also contested. "
-- http://www.myanmars.net/myanmar-culture/equestrian-festival.htm 140815

11. Tabodwe (January-February) - Harvest Festival

Glutinous rice is made into a thick paste {hta.ma.n:} and offered to people and monks. Chinese New Year falls on the first day of the new moon, and Hindus celebrated the Vasant Panchami - Nepali: वसन्त पञ्चमी , Hindi: वसन्त पञ्चमी - during the waxing moon of {ta.po.tw:}. It is time to honour the Mother goddess {u.ra~a.ti} sacred to both Buddhists and Hindus as the patron of learning. I was born at a time when the moon was just about to become full and I have been an educator from the age 19 to the present (82).

Soon after my 15the birthday I matriculated and joined the Rangoon University. I went to see my cousin U Boon Shein's friend, U Pe Aung, a noted Professor of Psychology who at that time was just a lecturer. U Pe Aung was noted as an expert palmist, and he read my palms, and said, "My younger brother, never think of any other occupation. You will be a life-long teacher".

12. Tabaung (Feburary-March) - Shwe Dagon pagoda festival

Historically it had been held every year from about 14th century to a full year before the British incursion. Pilgrims from places as far as Cambodia and Thailand had usually come. (I had read it somewhere, and I need to give the reference).

Go back Asvin-note-b

Contents of this page

Stages in life of a Brahmin

-- UKT 131206:

I became aware of the stages in life of a Brahmin, after a famous astrologer of Yangon, announced that he would retire as a professional astrologer on given date citing a Brahmin's life as an example, that he would be living the life of a recluse.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashrama-stage 131206

An Ashrama (āśrama) in Hinduism is one of four stages in an age-based social system as laid out in the Manu Smriti and later Classical Sanskrit texts.

Under the Ashram system, the human life was divided into four periods. The goal of each period was the ideal fulfillment of each of the four consecutive stages of life. [1] [2]

1. Brahmacharya (student life), upto age 24.
The male child would live with his family till he was at the age of 5. He would then be sent to a Gurukul (house of the guru) and typically would live with a Guru (teacher), acquiring knowledge of science, philosophy, scriptures and logic, practicing self-discipline and evangelicalism, learning to live a life of dharma (righteousness).

2. Grihastha (household life), age 24-48
The ideal householder life is spent in enjoying family life, carrying out one's duties to family and society, and gainful labor. The man in this ashram has to shoulder responsibilities of the other three ashrams.

3. Vanaprastha (retired life), age 48-72
After the completion of one's householder duties, one gradually withdraws from the world, freely shares wisdom with others, and prepares for the complete renunciation of the final stage.

4. Sannyasa (renounced life), age 72-demise
One completely withdraws from the world and starts dedicating to spiritual pursuits, the seeking of moksha (freedom from the cycle of rebirth), and practicing meditation to that end.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Life-stages-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file