Update: 2018-09-13 10:50 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p040.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a-pa.} / {aap} - cont
  p040c1
{a-pa}
  p040c2
{a-pi.}
{a-pu}
{a-pau:}
{aap-ta.}
{aap-t~ya.}
{a-p~ya.}
{a-p~ra.}
{a-p~la.}
{a-hpa.}
{a-ba.}
  p040c3
{a-Ba.}
{aam}
{a-ma.}
{a-ma}

 

 

 

 

 

 

----- on line : 180903 : p040htm - search आपक्व

UKT notes :
Apastamba (fl. 600 BC) : the mathematician
Bhisma, Satiavali and Goddess Ganges
Mix-up in Pronunciations of Row 5 and Wa.
  {pa.} {hpa.} {b} {hp.} {m} & {wa.}
Theravada-Buddhist Brahma, Hindu Brahman, and Bama of Burma
Trita - of Rig Veda : Is it Tritsu?

UKT 161107: For further study, you read History and Chronology of the Myth-Making Age by J. F. Hewitt, 1835-1908, in which he tells the story of Mahabharata in a different vein. Read: Sect. D. The conquest of the Bharata merchant-kings by Sanskrit-speaking sun-worshippers, on p.585. book preview
- https://books.google.ca/books?... 161106

Contents of this page

{a-pa.} / {aap} - cont

p040c1

p040c1-b01/p038

आपक्व [ -pakva ]
- pp. half-ripe.
 आपक्व   -pakva half-ripe.

 

p040c1-b02/ p038

आपगा [ pa-g ]
Skt: - f. river - Mac040c1
BPal: {a-pa.ga} - UHS PMD0167
 आपगा   pa-g river.
  UKT from UHS: same as {a-pa.ka}. - f. river 

 

p040c1-b03

आपगेय [ pageya ]
- m. metronymic of Bhshma.
आपगेय   pageya Bhshma.

See in my note on Bhishma, Satyavati, and Goddess Ganga

 

p040c1-b04

आपण [ -pan-a ]
- m. market; ware; -ya, a. coming from the market.
 आपण   -pan-a market; ware; -ya, a. coming from the market.

 

p040c1-b05

आपतन [ -pat-ana ]
- n. sudden appearance.
 आपतन   -pat-ana sudden appearance. 

 

p040c1-b06

आपत्कल्प [ pat-kalpa ]
- m. procedure in times of distress; -kla, m. season of distress.
आपत्कल्प   pat-kalpa procedure in times of distress; -kla, m. season of distress.

 

p040c1-b07

आपत्ति [ -patti ]
- f. occurrence; incurring; misfortune, distress.
 आपत्ति   -patti occurrence; incurring; misfortune, distress.

 

p040c1-b08

आपत्प्राप्त [ pat-prpta ]
- pp. fallen into misfortune; -sahya, a. helping in misfortune.
 आपत्प्राप्त   pat-prpta fallen into misfortune; -sahya, a. helping in misfortune.

 

p040c1-b09

आपत्य [ patya ]
- a. patronymic.
आपत्य   patya patronymic.

 

p040c1-b10

आपद्् [ -pad ]
- f. [getting into trouble], misfortune, disaster, adversity, distress: -uddharana, n. relieving from distress; -gata, pp. fallen into misfortune; -dharma, m. rules applying in case of distress.
आपद््   -pad [getting into trouble], misfortune, disaster, adversity, distress: -uddharana, n. relieving from distress; -gata, pp. fallen into misfortune; -dharma, m. rules applying in case of distress.

 

p040c1-b11

आपन्न [ -panna ]
- pp. (√pad) gotten or fallen into (ac., --); unfortunate, afflicted, miserable; -sattv, a. f. pregnant.
 आपन्न   -panna (√pad) gotten or fallen into (ac., --); unfortunate, afflicted, miserable; -sattv, a. f. pregnant. 

 

p040c1-b12

आपर्वभाग [ -parva-bhga ]
- ad. up to the joint (--).
 आपर्वभाग   -parva-bhga up to the joint (--).

 

p040c1-b13

[pas]
- nm. pl. of ap , water

 

p040c1-b14

आपस्तम्ब [ pastamba ]
- m. N. of a teacher; a. ( ) derived from pastamba.
 आपस्तम्ब   pastamba () derived from pastamba. 

UKT 131126: See my note on Apastamba : - a mathematician who gave a formula for derivation of √2 correct up to the 5th decimal places: 1 + 1/3 + 1/(34) - 1/(3434)
UKT 150708: Āpastamba is from a family of Brahmins of the Taittirīya branch Vedic school dedicated to the study of the KRISHNA Yajurveda. [2] It is believed that the entire Kalpasūtra was written by Āpastamba, but, Kane states that there is difference of opinion among scholars regarding this issue. [1] Kane assigns this Dharmasūtra an approximate date between 450-350 BC. [3] -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apastamba 150708

 

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{a-pa}

p040c1-b15

आपाटल [ -ptala ]
- a. reddish.
 आपाटल   -ptala reddish. 

 

p040c1-b16

आपाण्डु [ -pndu ]
- a. yellowish, pale: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
आपाण्डु   -pndu yellowish, pale: -t, f. abst. n.

 

p040c1-b17

[-pndura]
- a. id.; -bh , become pale

 

p040c1-b18

आपात [ -pta ]
- m. onset, attack; rushing into (--); unexpected appearance, setting in: - or -tas, at once, at first sight: -mtre or  -mtra-, at the first moment only.
आपात   -pta onset, attack; rushing into (--); unexpected appearance, setting in: -- or -tas, at once, at first sight: -mtre or -mtra-, at the first moment only.

 

p040c1-b19

आपातिन्् [ pt-in ]
- a. occurring (--).
 आपातिन््   pt-in occurring (--). 

 

p040c1-b20

आपान [ -pna ]
n. carousal; banquet; -ka, n. drinking-bout; -goshth, f. drinking-bout; -bhmi, f. place for drinking; -sl, f. tavern.
 आपान   -pna carousal; banquet; -ka, n. drinking-bout; -goshth, f. drinking-bout; -bhmi, f. place for drinking; -sl, f. tavern. 

 

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p040c2

p040c2-b01

आपार्ष्णि [ -prshni ]
- ad. up to the heels.
आपार्ष्णि   -prshni up to the heels.

 

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{a-pi.}

p040c2-b02

आपि [ p- ]
- m. associate, friend, acquaintance.
आपि   p- associate, friend, acquaintance. 

 

p040c2-b03

आपिञ्जर [ -pigara ]
- a. reddish.
 आपिञ्जर   -pigara reddish.

 

p040c2-b04

आपित्व [ pi-tv ]
- n. alliance, friendship.
 आपित्व   pi-tv alliance, friendship. 

 

p040c2-b05

आपिशङ्ग [ -pisaṅga ]
- a. golden coloured.
 आपिशङ्ग   -pisaṅga golden coloured.

 

p040c2-b06

आपीड [ -pd-a ]
- m. pressure; chaplet worn on the crown of the head; -ita, pp. loaded with; adorned with a chaplet of (--).
 आपीड   -pd-a pressure; chaplet worn on the crown of the head; -ita, pp. loaded with; adorned with a chaplet of (--). 

chaplet - n. . A wreath or garland for the head. . Roman Catholic Church a. A rosary having beads for five decades of Hail Marys. b. The prayers counted on such a rosary. . A string of beads. 4. Architecture A small molding carved to resemble a string of beads. - AHTD
UKT 161105: A chaplet on her head, a bouquet in her hands with finger adorned with a band!

 

p040c2-b07

आपीत [ -pta ]
- a. yellowish: -ya, den. P. give a yellowish colouring to.
 आपीत   -pta yellowish: -ya, den. P. give a yellowish colouring to. 

 

p040c2-b08

आपीन [ -pna ]
- (pp.) n. udder: -vat, a. containing any form of √pyai.
आपीन   -pna udder: -vat, a. containing any form of √pyai.

 

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{a-pu}

p040c2-b09

आपूप्य [ ppya ]
- m. pastry.
 आपूप्य   ppya pastry.

pastry - n. pl. pastries . Dough or paste consisting primarily of flour, water, and shortening that is baked and often used as a crust for foods such as pies and tarts. . a. Baked sweet foods made with pastry: Viennese pastry. b. One of these baked foods. [Middle English pastree from paste paste, dough; See paste 1 ] - AHTD

p040c2-b10

आपूर [ -pra ]
- m. flood, redundance, excess: -na, a. filling; n. id.; quantity of water.
आपूर   -pra flood, redundance, excess: -na, a. filling; n. id.; quantity of water.

 

p040c2-b11

आपूर्ण [ &asharp;-prna ]
- pp. (√pr) full: -mandala, a. full-orbed.
 आपूर्ण   aN-prna (√pr) full: -mandala, a. full-orbed.

 

p040c2-b12

आपूर्त [ -prta ]
- n. pious deed.
आपूर्त   -prta pious deed.

 

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{a-pau:}

p040c2-b13

आपोमय [ po-mya ]
- a. consisting of water.
आपोमय   po-mya consisting of water.

 

p040c2-b14/ not online

आपोशान [ posna ]
- n. rinsing of the mouth accompanied by the words posna before & after eating.

 

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{aap-ta.}

p040c2-b15

आप्त [ pt ]
=  आ प ् त --> {aap-ta.}
- pp. √p; m. suitable person; -krin, a. trusty, friendly; -dakshina, a. accompanied by liberal fees; -bhva, m. trust worthiness; -vakana, n. trustworthy utterance; -varga, m. acquaintance, friends (coll.); -vk, a. whose word is trustworthy.
आप्त   pt √p; m. suitable person; -krin, a. trusty, friendly; -dakshina, a. accompanied by liberal fees; -bhva, m. trustworthiness; -vakana, n. trustworthy utterance; -varga, m. acquaintance, friends (coll.); -vk, a. whose word is trustworthy.

 

p040c2-b16

आप्ति [ &asharp;p-ti ]
- f. attainment, acquisition.
 आप्ति   aNp-ti attainment, acquisition.

 

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{aap-t~ya.}

p040c2-b17

आप्त्य [ p-ty ]
= आ प ् त ् य --> {aap-t~ya.}
- a. dwelling in the waters, ep. of Trita.
 आप्त्य   p-ty dwelling in the waters, ep. of Trita.
 

UKT 150505: Trita {tri.ta.} त्रित =   त ् र ि त "the Third", is a minor deity of the Rigveda, mentioned 41 times. He is associated with the Maruts, with Vayu and with Indra, like Indra, or as Indra's assistant, fighting Tvastar, Vrtra and Vala. He is called Āptya, the deity of the Apas (waters). -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trita 150505

UKT 161106: Ekata, Dvita and Trita

द्वित  = द ् व ि त   dvita - m. second - SpkSkt
त्रित = त ् र ि त  trita - m. Vedic deity [water-deity] - SpkSkt

 

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{a-p~ya.} / {a-pya.}

p040c2-b18

आप्य [ . &asharp;p-ya ]
= आ प ् य --> {a-p~ya.}
- fp. obtainable.
आप्य   1. aNp-ya obtainable.

 

p040c2-b19

आप्य [ . p-ya ]
- a. watery, living in the water; n. N. of a lunar mansion.
आप्य   2. p-ya watery, living in the water; n. N. of a lunar mansion.

 

UKT 161106: Apya {a-pya.} आप्य - the 20th lunar mansion
is included in the list of Nakshatras. See my notes on Trita .
See also Markandeya Purana मार्कण्डेय पुराण mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markandeya_Purana 161106
- http://www.ahladam.com/en-US/devotional/puranas/markandeya-purana.php/26 161106
"... When Chakshush Manu attained marriageable age, he married Vidarbha, the daughter of Ugra. Markandeya says- Apya was the most prominent Gana of Chakshush Manavantar. He was the master of eight deities. ..."

p040c2-b20

आप्य [ . &asharp;pya ]
- n. alliance, friendship.
आप्य   3. aNpya alliance, friendship. 

 

p040c2-b21

आप्याय [ -pyy-a ]
- m. increase, becoming full; -ana, a. causing corpulency; causing well-being; n. satisfying; advancement; causing Soma to swell*: , f. satiety; -in, a. bestowing prosperity (--).
 आप्याय   -pyy-a increase, becoming full; -ana, a. causing corpulency; causing well-being; n. satisfying; advancement; causing Soma to swell: , f. satiety; -in, a. bestowing prosperity (--).

*UKT 161106: It probably means Soma - a nutritious drink like freshly pressed grape juice or  toddy-palm juice becoming fermented with increase of alcohol and vitamins (B-group being most important) content.

 

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{a-p~ra.}

p040c2-b22

आप्रपदम्् [ -prapad-am ]
- ad. to the tip of the foot; -na, a. reaching to the tip of the foot.
 आप्रपदम््   -prapad-am to the tip of the foot; -na, a. reaching to the tip of the foot.

 

p040c2-b23

आप्री [ -pr&isharp; ]
- f. pl. (propitiation) N. of certain hymns to Agni in the RV.: -skta, n. pr-hymn.
आप्री   -pr (propitiation) N. of certain hymns to Agni in the RV.: -skta, n. pr-hymn.

UKT 161106: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apris 161106
"Apri āprī in Skt-Dev means "conciliation, propitiation" and refers to special invocations spoken previous to the offering of oblations. RV 1.13 is known as the Apri-hymn of the Kanvas, ..."

 

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{a-p~la.}

p040c2-b24

आप्लव [ -plava ]
- m. bath; -na, n. bathing.
आप्लव   -plava bath; -na, n. bathing.

 

p040c2-b25

आप्लाव [ -plva ]
- m. bath.
 आप्लाव   -plva bath.

 

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{a-hpa.}

p040c2-b26

आफलोदयकर्मन्् [ -phala‿udaya-karman ]
- a. working till success appears.
 आफलोदयकर्मन््   -phala̮udaya-karman working till success appears.

( end of old p041-1.htm)

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{a-ba.}

UKT 140814, 161106: Remember there is always a possibility of mix up between {ba.} & {wa.} when Pal-Myan & Skt-Dev are studied together. See my note in my notes on Mix-up in Pronunciations of Row 5 and Wa.

 

p040c2-b27

आबन्ध [ -bandha ]
- m. bond, tie: -na, n. tying up or round.
 आबन्ध   -bandha bond, tie: -na, n. tying up or round.

 

p040c2-b28

आबन्ध abandha  [ -bandha ]
- m. bond, tie: -na, n. tying up or round.
आबन्ध   -bandha bond, tie: -na, n. tying up or round. 

 

p040c2-b29

  आबाध [ -bdh ]
- m., , f. pressure, suffering; pain; danger.
 आबाध   -bdh pressure, suffering; pain; danger.

 

p040c2-b30

आबालम्् [ -blam ]
- ad. down to the boys.
 आबालम््   -blam down to the boys.

 

p040c2-b31

[-blya]
-  - , -m , ad. from boyhood

 

p040c2-b32

आबुत्त [ butta ]
- m. sister's husband (drama).
आबुत्त   butta sister's husband (drama). 

 

p040c2-b33

आब्दिक [ bdika ]
- a. annual; --, lasting years.
आब्दिक   bdika annual; --, lasting years.

 

p040c2-b34

आब्रह्मसभम्् [ -brahma-sabham ]
- ad. up to Brahman's court.
 आब्रह्मसभम््   -brahma-sabham up to Brahman's court.

See my note on Theravada-Buddhist Brahma, Hindu Brahman, and Bama of Burma

( end of old p040-2.htm)

 

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p040c3

{a-Ba.}

p040c3-b00

आभङ्गिन्् [ -bhaṅgin ]
- a. somewhat bent.
 आभङ्गिन््   -bhaṅgin somewhat bent.

 

p040c3-b01

आभरण [ -bhar-ana ]
- n. ornament.
 आभरण   -bhar-ana ornament.

 

p040c3-b02

आभा [ -bh ]
- f. lustre, light: --, a, a. like.
 आभा   -bh lustre, light: --, a, a. like.

 

p040c3-b03

[‿abhr]
- 3 sg. aor. of -bhri

 

p040c3-b04

आभाष [ -bhsh-a ]
- m. speech; saying, proverb; -ana, n. conference; addressing; -ya, fp. worthy of being addressed.
 आभाष   -bhsh-a speech; saying, proverb; -ana, n. conference; addressing; -ya, fp. worthy of being addressed.

 

p040c3-b05

आभास [ -bhs-a ]
= आ भ ा स --> {a-Ba-a.}
Skt: आभास [ -bhs-a ] - m. lustre, light; colour; appearance; apparition, phantom. - Mac040c3
आभास   -bhs-a lustre, light; colour; appearance; apparition, phantom.
BPal: {a-Ba-a.} - UHS-PMD0170
  UKT from UHS: - . m. luster (colour). . m. lecture

 

p040c3-b06

आभिजन [ bhi-gana ]
- a. patronymic; -gt, f., -gtya, n. nobility; -gnika, a. relating to cognition; -dhnika, m. lexicographer; -plavika, a. belonging to the abhiplava; -mukhya, n. direction towards (ac., g., --); -rmika, a. amiable; -sheka, -shekanika, a. () referring to the inauguration of a king.
आभिजन   bhi-gana patronymic; -gt, f., -gtya, n. nobility; -gnika, a. relating to cognition; -dhnika, m. lexicographer; -plavika, a. belonging to the abhiplava; -mukhya, n. direction towards (ac., g., --); -rmika, a. amiable; -sheka, -shekanika, a. () referring to the inauguration of a king. 

 

p040c3-b07

आभीक्ष्ण्य [ bhkshn-ya ]
- n. continual repetition.
आभीक्ष्ण्य   bhkshn-ya continual repetition.

 

p040c3-b08

[bhra]
- m., , f. offspring of a Brahman by an Ambashtha woman; pl. N. of a people

UKT 161108: "Ambashtha or Ambastha is a caste or sub-caste or a community of Hindus in India. According to Hindu scriptures, the term Ambastha refers to the offspring of a Brahmin father and a Vaishya mother, whose traditional occupation was the practice of medicine. [1] [2] Ambastha refers to a sub-caste of Kayasthas, and Crooke suggests that "they may be connected with the old Ambastha caste" as some Kayasthas are also associated with the practice of medicine and surgery. [3]"
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambashtha 161108

 

p040c3-b09

आभील [ -bhla ]
- a. terrible.
आभील   -bhla terrible.

 

p040c3-b10

आभु [ bh ]
- a. empty; empty-handed, niggardly.
आभु   bh empty; empty-handed, niggardly.

 

p040c3-b11

आभुग्न [ -bhugna ]
- pp. slightly curved.
आभुग्न   -bhugna slightly curved.

 

p040c3-b12

आभू [ -bh&usharp; ]
- a. present, at hand, helping; m. assistant.
आभू   -bhuN present, at hand, helping; m. assistant.

 

p040c3-b13 \

आभूति [ &asharp;-bhti ]
- f. faculty, power.
 आभूति   aN-bhti faculty, power.

 

p040c3-b14

आभोग [ -bhog ]
- m. bend, curve, roundness; vault; extensiveness; force; multiplicity; serpent.
आभोग   -bhog bend, curve, roundness; vault; extensiveness; force; multiplicity; serpent.

 

p040c3-b15

आभोगि [ -bhog ]
- f. nourishment, enjoyment; seeker of gain.
आभोगि   -bhog nourishment, enjoyment; seeker of gain.

 

p040c3-b16

आभोग्य [ -bhogya ]
- fp. to be enjoyed; to be perceived.
आभोग्य   -bhogya to be enjoyed; to be perceived.

 

p040c3-b17

आभ्यन्तर [ bhyantara ]
- a. inner, interior.
 आभ्यन्तर   bhyantara inner, interior.

 

p040c3-b18

आभ्युदयिक [ bhyudayika ]
- a. causing prosperity; n. kind of sacrifice to the Ma'nes.
 आभ्युदयिक   bhyudayika causing prosperity; n. kind of sacrifice to the Manes.

( end of old p040-3.htm)

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{aam}

p040c3-b19

आम् [m]
= आ म ् --> {aam}
- ij.. of reminiscence, <ah!> of assent, <yes> .

 

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{a-ma.}

p040c3-b20

आम [ m ]
- a. raw, uncooked; crude, unripe; unburned.
 आम   m raw, uncooked; crude, unripe; unburned.

 

p040c3-b21

आमज्जनान्तम्् [ -maggana‿antam ]
- ad. till immersion.
 आमज्जनान्तम््   -maggana̮antam till immersion.

 

p040c3-b22

आमज्वर [ ma-gvara ]
- m. dysentery.
 आमज्वर   ma-gvara dysentery.

UKT 161108: Since there are two types of dysentery: bacterial and amoebic, and since there is no differentiation for आमज्वर [ ma-gvara ], I suspect the word also embraces other types of stomach disorders.

p040c3-b23

आमञ्जु [ -magu ]
- a. charming, lovely.
 आमञ्जु   -magu charming, lovely.

 

p040c3-b24

[-mandal-kri ]
- form almost into a circle

 

p040c3-b25

आमध्याह्नम्् [ -madhyhnam ]
- ad. till noon.
 आमध्याह्नम््   -madhyhnam till noon. 

 

p040c3-b26

आमन्त्रण [ -mntr-ana ]
- n. calling, addressing; invitation; -ayitavya, fp. to be taken leave of; -ita, n. (pp.) address; vocative.
 आमन्त्रण   -mntr-ana calling, addressing; invitation; -ayitavya, fp. to be taken leave of; -ita, n. (pp.) address; vocative.

 

p040c3-b27

आमन्द्र [ -mandra ]
- a. somewhat dull or deep (sound).
 आमन्द्र   -mandra somewhat dull or deep (sound).

 

p040c3-b28

आमय [ maya ]
- m. (√am) sickness, disease: -vi-tva, n. dyspepsia; -vn, a. ill; dyspeptic.
 आमय   maya (√am) sickness, disease: -vi-tva, n. dyspepsia; -vn, a. ill; dyspeptic.

dyspepsia - n. . Disturbed digestion; indigestion.

 

p040c3-b29

आमरणम्् [ -marana-m ]
- ad. till death: -‿anta, a. lasting till death: i-ka, a. id.
 आमरणम््   -marana-m till death: -̮anta, a. lasting till death: i-ka, a. id.

 

p040c3-b30

आमर्द [ -mard-a ]
- m. pressure; pulling (hair); -in, a. pulling; pressing hard (--).
 आमर्द   -mard-a pressure; pulling (hair); -in, a. pulling; pressing hard (--).

 

p040c3-b31

आमर्श [ -marsa ]
- m. contact.
आमर्श   -marsa contact.

 

p040c3-b32

आमलक [ malaka ]
- m., , f. N. of a tree (Emblic myrobalan); n. its fruit: -phala, n. id.
 आमलक   malaka -phala, n. id.

UKT 161108: "Phyllanthus emblica , also known as emblic, [1] [3] emblic myrobalan, [1] myrobalan, [3] Indian gooseberry, [1] [3] Malacca tree, [3] or amla [3] from Sanskrit amalika is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. It is known for its edible fruit of the same name."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_emblica   161108
See: MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm > {hsa.} in r2c2hsa.htm
Note: Correct name is {hsi:hpru} but commonly known as {zi:hpru}. Alternate name is {hya:hpru} pronounced as {sha:hpru}. The plant grows wild in the forests of Myanmarpr, and its green fruit is slightly sour but with a sweet after-taste with or without drinking of water. It quenches the thirst of the weary traveller travelling through the bush. It was my own experience while looking for medicinal plants in the forests neighbouring Taunggyi College (now University) with my wife Daw ThanThan Tun before our retirement from University service.

 

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{a-ma}

p040c3-b33

आमाद्् [ ma‿ad ]
- a. eating raw flesh or carrion.
आमाद््   ma̮ad eating raw flesh or carrion.

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--- online : 180903 : p040htm - search for आपक्व

 

   आपो&100;शान   poƶsna poƶsna before & after eating.
   आबद्धमाल   -baddha-mla forming circles, circling.
  

 

 

 

 

 

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UKT notes

Apastamba (fl. 600 BC) : the mathematician

- UKT 131126

From: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
- http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Apastamba.html 131126

To write a biography of Apastamba [a mathematician] is essentially impossible since nothing is known of him except that he was the author of a Sulbasutra which is certainly later than the Sulbasutra of Baudhayana. [UKT ]

UKT 140814: See Sulba-sutra - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shulba_Sutras 140814
"The Shulba Sutras or Śulbasūtras śulba "string, cord, rope" are sutra texts belonging to the Śrauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire-altar construction."
For Baudhayana another mathematician, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudhayana 140814

It would also be fair to say that Apastamba's Sulbasutra is the most interesting from a mathematical point of view. We do not know Apastamba's dates accurately enough to even guess at a life span for him, which is why we have given the same approximate birth year as death year.

Apastamba was neither a mathematician in the sense that we would understand it today, nor a scribe who simply copied manuscripts like Ahmes. [UKT ]

UKT 140814: Ahmes was an Egyptian scribe probably having nothing to do with India. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmes 140814

He [Apastamba] would certainly have been a man of very considerable learning but probably not interested in mathematics for its own sake, merely interested in using it for religious purposes. Undoubtedly he wrote the Sulbasutra to provide rules for religious rites and to improve and expand on the rules which had been given by his predecessors. Apastamba would have been a Vedic priest instructing the people in the ways of conducting the religious rites he describes.

The mathematics given in the Sulbasutras is there to enable the accurate construction of altars needed for sacrifices. It is clear from the writing that Apastamba, as well as being a priest and a teacher of religious practices, would have been a skilled craftsman. He must have been himself skilled in the practical use of the mathematics he described as a craftsman who himself constructed sacrificial altars of the highest quality.

The Sulbasutras are discussed in detail in the article Indian Sulbasutras. Below we give one or two details of Apastamba's Sulbasutra. This work is an expanded version of that of Baudhayana. Apastamba's work consisted of six chapters while the earlier work by Baudhayana contained only three.

The general linear equation was solved in the Apastamba's Sulbasutra. He also gives a remarkably accurate value for √2 namely

1 + 1/3 + 1/(34) - 1/(3434).

which gives an answer correct to five decimal places. A possible way that Apastamba might have reached this remarkable result is described in the article Indian Sulbasutras.

As well as the problem of squaring the circle, Apastamba considers the problem of dividing a segment into 7 equal parts. The article [3] looks in detail at a reconstruction of Apastamba's version of these two problems.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apastamba 150708

UKT 150708: Āpastamba is from a family of Brahmins of the Taittirīya branch Vedic school dedicated to the study of the KRISHNA Yajurveda. [2] It is believed that the entire Kalpasūtra was written by Āpastamba, but, Kane states that there is difference of opinion among scholars regarding this issue. [1] Kane assigns this Dharmasūtra an approximate date between 450-350 BC. [3] -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apastamba 150708

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apastamba_Dharmasutra 161105
UKT 161105: The word {Dar~ma.} dharma in Skt-Dev āpastamba dharmasūtra describes the "Laws" {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}. It has nothing to do with the Buddhist {Dm~ma.}. The difference stems from the fact that {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} are of Hindu-faith - believers of an axiomatic entity like the Christian God, whereas the Buddhist-religion - at least in the very beginning - is based on reason and logic. Buddhism is therefore non-axiomatic and scientific in the modern sense, the very opposite of Hinduism.

Āpastamba Dharmasūtra is a Sanskrit text and one of the oldest Dharma-related texts of Hinduism that have survived into the modern age from the 1st-millennium BCE. [1] It is one of three extant Dharmasutras texts from the Taittiriya school of Krishna Yajurveda, the other two being Baudhayana Dharmasutra and Hiranyakesin Dharmasutra. [2]

UKT 161105: The mention of Krishna, a human-king, supposed to be an incarnation of Hindu-god Vishnu-dva, shows that the text is a latter addition from the fact that the number of hymns directed Vishnu is very small compared to the number of hymns directed to Indra (289), Agni (218), and Soma (123). Vishnu (6) is just a minor god. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 161105

The Gautama Dharmasutra is part of Apastamba Kalpasutra collection, along with Apastamba Shrautasutra and Apastamba Grihyasutra. [2] It is one of the best preserved ancient texts on Dharma. [3]

The text is notable for its broad minded and liberal views on women and all social classes. [4] It is also notable for mentioning and citing views of ten ancient experts on Dharma, which has led scholars to conclude that there existed a rich genre of Dharmasutras text in ancient India before this text was composed. [5] [6]

Go back Apastamba-note-b

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Bhishma, Satyavati and Goddess Ganges

- UKT 150708

These three characters are all connected to the Indian Epic Mahabharata, Bhishma being the most important. Bhishma is the most dutiful son in the story.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhishma 150708

 

  The first 3 pix from Wikipedia: the last from Google image

In the epic Mahabharata, Bhishma was the eighth son of Kuru King Shantanu, [1] who was blessed with wish-long life and had sworn to serve the ruling Kuru king. [2] and grand uncle of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas. An unparalleled archer and warrior, he once fought his own guru the mighty Parasurama and defeated him. He also handed down the Vishnu Sahasranama to Yudhisthira when he was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra.

Names of Bhishma, (भीष्म) means 'terrible' or 'dreadful' oath :
Devarata (देवरत) - delighted in Gods or pious
Gangaputra (गङ्गापुत्र) - Son of Ganga
Shaantanava (शान्तनव) - descendent (son) of Shantanu
UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyavati 150708

Satyavati सत्यवती Satyavatī (also spelled Satyawati), or Setyawati (Indonesian) was the queen of the Kuru king Shantanu of Hastinapur and the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes (principal characters of the Hindu epic Mahabharata). She is also the mother of the seer Vyasa, author of the epic. Her story appears in the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa and the Devi Bhagavata Purana.

Daughter of the Chedi king Vasu (also known as Uparichara Vasu) and a cursed apsara (celestial nymph)-turned-fish Adrika, Satyavati was brought up as a commoner the adopted daughter of a fisherman-chieftain Dusharaj (who was also a ferryman) on the banks of the river Yamuna. Due to the smell emanating from her body she was known as Matsyagandha ("She who has the smell of fish"), and helped her father in his job as a ferryman.

   

As a young woman Satyavati met the wandering rishi (sage) Parashara, who fathered her son Vyasa out of wedlock. The sage also gave her a musky fragrance, which earned her names like Yojanagandha ("She whose fragrance is spread for a yojana (8-9 miles)") and Gandhavati ("fragrant one").

UKT 150708: An excerpt from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashara 150708
to make the story of Satyavati more intriguing: 
"Parashara p arāśara was a Rigvedic Maharishi (seer), and the author of many ancient Indian texts. He is accredited for being the author of the first Purana: Vishnu Purana (before his Son Veda Vyasa wrote it in its present form). He was the grandson of Vashista, the son of Śakti Maharṣi, and the father of Veda Vyasa. There are several texts which give reference to Parashara as an author/speaker. [UKT]

UKT 161027: Looking into https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashara 161027, I came across the various texts attributed to him such as the Vṛkṣāyurveda ("the science of life of trees"), one of the earliest texts on botany. [1] This text was considered to be an ancient botany primer for students of Traditional Indian Medicine.

It is customary for ancients and not so ancient healers to go into the forests and fields in search of medicinal plants. My father told me of his grand-father U Yan Shin, and his assistant U Sein going into forests of Pegu Yoma looking for medicinal plants. U Yan Shin came to know the forest tracks so well that he managed to escape from his enemies travelling at night on foot and on horseback from Sal town (near Mt. Popa) all the way south to Gyobinkauk village which was under the British colonial administration. The dangerous escape occurred some time in the 1880s.

I believe that Parashara might be an ancient botanist, and that he cured Satyavati of her terrible body-odour with his medicinal plants.

Modern scholars believe that there were many individuals who used this name throughout time whereas others assert that the same Parashara taught these various texts and the time of writing them varied. The actual sage himself never wrote the texts, he was known as a traveling teacher, and the various texts attributed to him are given in reference to Parashara being the speaker to his student. He is the third member of the Ṛṣi Paramparā of the Advaita Guru Paramparā.

Later King Shantanu, captivated by her fragrance and beauty, fell in love with Satyavati. She married Shantanu on condition that their children inherit the throne, denying the birthright of Shantanu's eldest son (and crown prince) Bhishma. Satyavati bore Shantanu two children, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. After Shantanu's death, she and her prince sons with the help of Bhishma ruled the kingdom. Although both her sons died childless, she arranged for her first son Vyasa to father the children of the two widows of Vichitravirya through niyoga. The children (Dhritarashtra and Pandu) became fathers of the Kauravas and Pandavas, respectively. After Pandu's death, Satyavati went to the forest for penance and died there before witnessing the Kurukshetra War.

While Satyavati's presence of mind, far-sightedness and mastery of realpolitik is praised, her unscrupulous means of achieving her goals and her blind ambition are criticized.

Go back Bhisma-note-b

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Mix-up in Pronunciations of Row 5 and Wa.

UKT 140814, 161106: Remember there is always a possibility of mix up between
{ba.} & {wa.} in Skt-Dev because {ba.} was "derived" from {wa.}:

{wa.} व va + diagonal --> {ba.} ब ba

There is also a pronunciation problem of {wa.} व va, which is pronounced in Skt-Dev as Labio-dental {va.} - a BEPS akshara derived from {ba.}.

{ba.} + {ha.hto:} --> {va.}

In Bur-Myan, it is a pure Bilabial {wa.}. It is pronounced the same in Pal-Myan. I was told by a Bengali friend of mine, Dr. Malay Pundit, in Deep River, Ont, Canada, that they have the same phoneme (sound) in Bangla-Bengali.

A similar problem is met in Mon-Myan, where they pronounced the row#5 consonants as:

row#5 Labial:  {pa.},  {hpa.},  {b},  {hp.},  {m}  - bk-cndl-Mon-row5<))
Listen to all the 35 consonants in 7 rows of Mon-Myan akshara-consonants
- bk-cndl-Mon-aks-song<))

Mon-Myan has 2 more aksharas compared to Bur-Myan. The 2 extras are {a.} and {}. Romabama writes these two with "Latin Small Letter Sharp S", which looks like "Cap B", which I have tentatively chosen to represent Mon-Myan {a.} and {}. The alphabet (U00DF) or (Alt0223) is a German alphabet known as Eszett . Athough its German pronunciation is /s/, I have to ignore it "taking" its shape only.
Go back Mixup-row5wa1-note-b

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Theravada-Buddhist Brahma, Hindu Brahman, and Bama of Burma

UKT 161106: Remember there is a fundamental difference between Brahman or Brahma in Hinduism and in Buddhism. Here it means the Hindu Mahabrahma - a sexual material being.

In Buddhism there are 2 kinds of Brahma: those of Material (Matter) world and those of Non-material (Energy) world. Both are non-sexual - there are no male Brahmas and female Brahmas.

According to the popular legend, the Bama (Burmese) race has its origin in 4 asexual Brahmas coming down to Earth soon after its formation, and changing into 3 men and 1 woman as they enjoyed (first) the pleasant scents issuing from newly formed land masses. Secondly they started tasting and end up eating the various kinds of earth which resulted in their ethereal bodies changing into material bodies with sexual organs.

I suppose, that since there are 3 males to 1 female, there must have been rivalry and infighting between the 3 men. Of course, the female would always have the upper hand by showing favours towards her paramours, finally making her their Goddess, and their common wife.

Go back Brahma-Brahmin-Burma-note-b

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Trita - of Rig Veda

UKT 161106, 161108: List on right from book preview:
History and Chronology of the Myth-Making Age, by J.F. Hewitt, 1901
https://books.google.ca/books?... 161106
Search string on Google: "Apya - Nakshatra"
See downloaded - JFHewitt-HistoryChronology<> 161108

- UKT 150708: I was born in Kungyangon, a small town near Yangon, and I am very familiar with violent rainstorms which are very violent at the beginning (May-Jun) and end (Aug-Sep) of the Monsoon Season in the Irrawaddy Delta. It is probable that 'Trita' is a personification of violent rain-storms accompanied by violent gusts of wind. During such storms huge waves are quite common.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trita

Trita ("the Third") is a minor deity of the Rigveda, mentioned 41 times. He is associated with the Maruts [मरुत = म र ु त  {ma.ru.ta.} UHS PMD0762 'wind deity'], with Vāyu [वायु {wa-yu.} UHS PMD0865 'wind'] and with Indra, like Indra, or as Indra's assistant, fighting Tvastar, Vrtra and Vala. He is called Āptya, the deity of the Apas (waters).

In RV 1.105, Trita fallen into a well begs aid from the gods. Sayana * on 1.105 comments that this relates to three rishis, Ekata, Dvita and Trita who found a well, and Trita, drawing water, was pushed down by the other two and imprisoned, where he composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial Soma; this is alluded to in RV 9.34.4 and described in Mahabharata 9.2095.

* Sāyaṇa (Kannada: ಸಾಯಣ, सायण {a-ya.Na.}, with honorific Sāyaṇācārya ; died 1387) was an important commentator on the Vedas. He flourished under King Bukka I and his successor Harihara II, in the Vijayanagar Empire of South India. -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayana#Speed_of_light 150708

Go back Trita-note-b / Trita-note-b2

 

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End of TIL file