Update: 2017-05-28 06:23 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a-da.} - cont
{aad~ya.} / {a-da.ya.} / {a-d~ya.}
{aan} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear long-vowel
{a-pa.} / {aap}

Hindu Mahabharata and Buddhist Ramayana

UKT 161027: I am intrigued by the fact that most of the Theravada Buddhists in Myanmarpr have never heard of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata (in which Krishna is a hero), even though most are familiar with another Indian epic, Ramayana (in which Rama is a hero). The answer seems to be that Mahabharata is an IE story of the intruders, whilst Ramayana is a Tib-Bur story of the indigenous peoples. The following excerpt throws some light on my suggestion:

40. Vasudeva was called Anakadundubhi because at his birth the gods, foreseeing the birth of Krishna, caused drums (anaka and dundubhi) to resound in heaven.
41. Rama in the Bhagavata Purana stories of Krishna always refers to Balarama, Samkarsana, the brother of Krishna, and has nothing to do with the Rama of the Ramayana.
- Children and childhood in World Religions - ed. D S Browning & M J Bunge, 2009, p275.

The intruders into Ancient India and the indigenous peoples fought a decisive battle in the story of the Battle of Ten Kings, - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 161027
in which the indigenous people were put to route. One of the losers, King Abhiraza, seemed to have sought refuge in Northern Myanmarpr founding the kingdom of Tagaung as told in Golden Palace Chronicle.

UKT notes :
Adhavaryu : a Vedic priest


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{a-da.} - cont



आदर्तव्य [-dartavya] 
- fp. = daranya



आदर्श [ -dars ]
- m. seeing; mirror; image; copy; -pustaka, n. copy, manuscript; -maya, a. being altogether mirror.


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आदाहन [ -dhana ]
- n. place of cremation.



- m. receiver



आदादिक [ ddi-ka ]
- a. belonging to the Ad class (gr.).



आदान [ -d&asharp;-na ]
- n. grasping, taking;--away; receiving; seizure, appropriation; withdrawal; -ya, gd. having taken=with; -yin, a. inclined to receive gifts; --, appropriating.



आदार [ -dr ]
- m. consideration, regard.


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आदि [ -d-i ]
- m. [taking in hand: +√d] beginning: lc. in the --, at first; --, beg. with= and the rest, etc. (often -ka); -kartri, m. original creator; -kesava, m. ep. of Vishnu; -tas, ad. from or in the beg., at first; --, from onwards: -t, f. being the beginning, origin.



आदितेय [ ditey ]
- m. son of Aditi.



आदित्य [ . dity ]
- a. belonging to or descended from Aditi; m. son of Aditi; sun: pl. a class of gods; n. N. of a lunar mansion.



आदित्य [ . dity ]
- a. belonging to the dityas; divine; relating to the sun; -kandra, m. du. sun and moon; -prabha, m. N. of a king; -mandal, n. sun's orb; -vat, ad. like the sun; -varna, a. sun-coloured; -varman, -sena, m. Ns. of kings.



आदित्सु [ -ditsu ]
- des. a. desirous to obtain (ac.); avaricious.



आदिदेव [ di-deva ]
- m. primeval god: ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, Siva.



आदिन्् [ d-in ]
- a. eating.



आदिनान्तम्् [ -dina‿antam ]
- ad. up to the end of the day.



आदिपर्वत [ di-parvata ]
- m. chief mountain; -purusha, m. original ancestor; primeval spirit; -prusha, m. primeval spirit, ep. of Vishnu; -bhava, a. produced in the beginning; -bhta, pp. being the first among (g.).



आदिम [ di-ma ]
- a. first; -mat, a. having a beginning; -mla, n. original cause; -varha, m. original boar, ep. of Vishnu.

boar - n. . a. An uncastrated male pig. b. The adult male of any of several mammals, such as the beaver, raccoon, or guinea pig. . The wild boar. - AHTD

UKT 161026: I am intrigued by -varha, m. original boar, ep. of Vishnu. "Boar" can mean the following among the animals: from - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boar_disambiguation 161026
Wild boar Boar, adult male domestic pig Boar, adult male of several other species; see List of animal names Iron Age pig, a pseudo-primitive breed of boar Razorback, hybrid boar in North America (a dirty animal according to Jews, Christians and Muslims). In Greek mythology: Calydonian Boar Erymanthian Boar (devils which have to be put down by heroes). However it is a prized animal as depicted in Heraldry (coat of arms) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boars_in_heraldry 161026


- f. scheme, purpose, intent



आदीशे [ -dse ]
- (d.) inf. to aim at (ac.).



आदिष्ट [ -dish-ta ]
- (pp.) m. kind of peace or alliance; n. injunction, rule of conduct; -t-in, m. student who has received rules from his teacher, novice.



आदीर्घ [ -drgha ]
- a. longish.


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आदृत [ -drita ]
- pp. considerate, careful, attentive; intent on (lc., --); respected, valued, honoured: -vati, f. act. (for finite verb) having paid attention or treated with respect.



आदृष्टिगोचरम्् [ -drishti-gokaram ]
- ad. as far as the eye can reach; -prasaram, ad. id.


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आदेय [ -deya ]
- fp. to be taken or plucked; to be removed; to be employed.



आदेवन [ -devana ]
- n. play-ground.



आदेश [ -des- ]
- m. statement; report; prophecy; instruction; rule, precept; command; substitute (gr.): -ka, m. guide; -in, a. instructing, ordering (--); -ya, fp. to be stated or told.


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{aad~ya.} / {a-da.ya.} / {a-d~ya.}

UKT 150503: It is probable that the disyllabic conjunct {a-d~ya.} is formed. Compare with Pal-Myan {a-di.ya.}. However, since in आद्य = आ द ् य , the virama is clearly shown, we have no choice but to consider that {aad~ya.} is formed.


आद्य [ . d-y ]
= आ द ् य
Skt: आद्य [ . d-y ] - fp. to be eaten, eatable; n. food. - Mac039c1
Pal: {a-di.ya.} - UHS-PMD064
  UKT from UHS: . n. eatable



आद्य [ . dya ]
- a. first: --, having as first=etc.


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आद्यन्त [ di‿anta ]
= आ द ् य न ् त
- n. sg., m. du. beginning and end; --, a. beginning and ending with: -vat, a. having a beginning and an end.


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आद्याद्य [ dya‿dya ]
- a. each preceding.



आद्युदात्त [ di‿udtta ]
= आ द ् य ु द ा त ् त
- a. having the acute on the first syllable: -tva, n. accentuation on that syllable.



आद्यून [ -dyna ]
- a. voracious.



आद्वादशम्् [ -dvdasm ]
- ad. up to twelve.

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आधमन [ -dhamana ]
- n. pledge, mortgage.



आधमर्ण्य [ dhamarnya ]
- n. indebtedness.



आधवनीय [ -dhav-an&isharp;ya ]
- m. vessel for shaking and clarifying Soma.



[-dhtri ]
- m. lighter of sacred fire; giver, bestower; teacher


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आधान [ -dh&asharp;na ]
- n. laying or placing on; kindling of the sacred fires; impregnation; ceremony preceding impregnation; production; pledging; employment: -hetu, a. occasioning the creation of (--).



आधायक [ -dhy-aka ]
- a. bestowing, effecting, causing (--); -in, a. id.: -i-t, f. abst. ɴ.



आधार [ -dhr ]
- m. support, prop, foundation; receptacle, reservoir; trench (round the foot of a tree); dyke, dam; location or sphere of an action (gr.): --, a. relating to; -t, f. state of a receptacle; -‿adheya-bhva, m. relation between the receptacle and what it contains.


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आधि [1. dh] [√dh]
- m. receptacle; foundation; pledge



[-dh ]
- . √dhy m. generally pl. anxiety, care, longing



आधिक्य [ dhikya ]
- n. excess; superiority, pre-eminence.



आधिदैवत âdhi-daivata, ˚दैविक [ -daivika ]
- a. relating to the gods; -patya, n. (paramount) sovereignty, lordship (over, lc.); -bhoga, m. usufruct of a pledge; -rgya, n. paramount dominion; -vedanika, n. present made to a first wife by a man on marrying a second.

usufruct  n. Law 1. The right to use and enjoy the profits and advantages of something belonging to another as long as the property is not damaged or altered in any way. -- AHTD


आधी [ -dh&isharp; ]
- f. longing, care, anxiety.



[dh-kri ]
- pledge


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आधुनिक [ dhunika ]
- a. present.


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आधेय [ -dheya ]
- fp. to be put on; -deposited; -granted; contained or situated in; n. laying on; kindling of the sacred fire.


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आधोमुख्य [ dho-mukh-ya ]
- n. going downwards.



आधोरण [ -dhorana ]
- m. driver of an elephant.


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आध्मात [ -dhm-ta ]
- pp. inflated, swelled.


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[dhytmika ]
- ( , ) relating to self, subjective; relating to the universal soul


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आध्र [ dhr ]
= आ ध ् र
- a. needy, indigent.


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आध्वनिक [ dhvanika ]
= आ ध ् व न ि क
- a. travelling.



आध्वर्यव [ &asharp;dhvaryava ]
- a. relating to the Adhvaryu (Yagur-veda); n. function of the Adhvaryu.

See my note on Adhvaryu

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आन [ n- ]
- m. [breather], face.



[n-msa ]
- 3. sg. pf. of √i . as .



आनक [ naka ]
- m. kind of drum.

40. Vasudeva was called Anakadundubhi because at his birth the gods, foreseeing the birth of Krishna, caused drums (anaka and dundubhi) to resound in heaven.
41. Rama in the Bhagavata Purana stories of Kishna always refers to Balarama, Samkarsana, the brother of Krishna, and has nothing to do with the Rama of the Ramayana.
- Children and childhood in World Religions - ed. D S Browning & M J Bunge, 2009, p275.


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[n-at ]
- 2. & 3 sg. aor of √. as



आनडुह [ &asharp;naduha ]
- a. coming from a bull.



आनतपर्वन्् [ -nata-parvan ]
- a. hvg. depressed ( = not prominent) knots, smooth (arrow).



आनति [ &asharp;-nati ]
- f. bowing; submission.


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आनन [ n-ana ]
- n. [breather: √an] mouth; face.



आनन्तर्य [ nantarya ]
- n. immediate succession; no interval.



आनन्त्य [ nantya ]
- a. endless; n. -ness, eternity.



आनन्द [ -nand ]
- m. (n.) joy, bliss; sensual pleasure: -ka, a. gladdening, delighting; -thu, m. joy, delight; -na, a. delighting; -bshpa, m. tears of joy; -maya, a. () consisting of joy, blissful; -yitri, m. delighter; -vardhana, m. N. of a poet.



आनन्दाश्रु [ nanda‿asru ]
- n. tears of joy; -‿utsava, m. joyous festival.



आनन्दिन्् [ nand-n ]
- a. joyful; delighting.



आनम्र [ -namra ]
- a. bent, bowed.



आनयन [ -nay-ana ]
- n. bringing near or back; procuring; producing; -itavya, fp. to be brought near.



- m. pl. N. of a people



आनर्थक्य [ narthak-ya ]
- n. uselessness.



- -s , - , etc., pf. of √i. as


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आनाक [ -nka ]
- ad. up to heaven (--).



आनाथ्य [ nth-ya ]
- n. defencelessness.



आनाय [ -nya ]
- m. [attractor], net.



आनायाय [ nyya ]
- den. . represent a net.



आनायिन्् [ ny-in ]
- m. fisherman.



[n-sa ]
-- 3 sg. pf. of √i. as 

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आनीति [ -nti ]
- f. bringing near.



आनील [ -nla ]
- a. blackish.


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आनुकूलिक [ nu-kl-ika ]
- a. courteous: -t, f. courteousness towards (g.), -ya, n. favour; agreeableness; friendly terms; -gunya, n. homogeneousness; -prv-a, n., -, f., -ya, n. regular succession: in., ab. successively; -ytrika, m. servant; -lomya, n. direct or natural order; -vesya, m. neighbour next but one; -shk, ad. in order; -shaṅgika, a. () adherent, connected with, following; enduring; necessarily following from (g.); adventitious; -shtubha, a. consisting of or like anushtubh.


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आनूप [ npa ]
- a. watery, swampy; m. aquatic animal.


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आनृण्य [ nrin-ya ]
- n. unindebtedness.



आनृशंस [ nrisams-a ]
- n. kindness, benevolence; -ya, a. kind; n. kindness.


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[-ne-tr ]
- m., -tri , f. bringer; -ya , fp. to be brought near


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UKT 150504: Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear long-vowel


आन्तम्् [ ‿antm ]
= आ न ् त म ् --> {aan-tm}
- ad. to the end; completely.



आन्तर [ ntara ]
- a. inner, interior.



आन्तरिक्ष [ ntariksh ]
- a. () proceeding from the air or sky; airy, aerial.



आन्त्र [ ntra ]
= आ न ् त ् र
- n. sg. & pl. entrails.



आन्दोलक [ ndol-aka ]
- m. swing; -ana, n. swinging.



आन्दोलय [ ndolaya ]
- den. P. swing: pp. ita.



आन्दोलिका [ ndolik ]
- f. litter.



आन्ध्य [ ndh-ya ]
- n. blindness.



आन्वाहिक [ nvh-ika ]
- a. () daily.



आन्वीक्षिकी [ nvksh-ik ]
- f. logic.

( end of p039-3.htm)

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{a-pa.} / {aap}


आप् (.} p-nu , reach, obtain, attain; incur, suffer, befall; ps. be completed; pp. pt , reached, obtained; filled, pervaded; abundant; trusty, familiar; cs. pya , P. cause to reach or obtain, bring to; cause to feel; des. ipsa, wish to obtain, desire. anu, reach: pp. arrived. abhi, cs. complete; attain; des. wish for. ava, reach; obtain, acquire; meet with, incur, suffer. prati‿ava, recover. sam-ava, obtain; incur. upa, fulfil. pari, reach; gain; make an end: pp. parypta, completed, full; abundant, spacious, sufficient of (d.,g.); equal to (d., lc., inf.), a match for (g.), adequate; des. wish for; demand; guard; lie-in-wait for. pra, reach, meet, fall in with, find; obtain, receive in marriage; incur; resulf from a rule, obtain, be in force (also ps.): pp. prpta, rached; met, obtained; incurred; having reached &c. (ac. or ); come, arrived, present; resulting from a rule, obtaining (gr.); cs. bring or convey to (2 ac.); report to or bring before; cause to obtain (2 ac.). ann-pra, reach, find; imitate: pp. arrived at, come to (ac.). sam-anu-pra, reach: pp. come; arrived at (ac.); having obtained. sam-pra, reach, arrive at; meet; obtain, - in marriage; fall into, incur, suffer: pp. met, obtained; having reached, - come to, -fallen into (ac.); come, arrived, coming from (ab.). anu-sam-pra, reach, arrive at; meet: pp. arrived at (ac.). befallen (ac.); come, present. prati, des. court, woo. vi, pervade, fill; reach to (): pp. pervaded, filled; bathed in (in.); occupied; possessed of (in.); included in; well -to-do: cs. pp. vypita, pervaded, filled. abhi-vi, gd. including (ac.). sam, obtain; complete; kill: pp. concluded; cs. cause to obtain; finish, complete. pari-sam, ps. be contained in (le.); belong to (lc.); pp. entirely comprehended; perfected, summed up.

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UKT notes


- UKT 131204, 140813, 161026

Theravada-Buddhism of Myanmarpr (as generally practiced by the majority of all indigenous natives) have no priests nor priestesses. What we find in Myanmarpr are monks and nuns. There are no female monks. What we have are nuns who are laywomen dressed in special robes observing a higher code of conduct: the Ten Precepts. This is all because Buddhism does not require the presence of a Supreme Being (YHWH, God, or Allah) in its doctrines. In all other religions priests and priestesses are intermediaries between the Supreme Being and humans: the possible exception being Islam.

The reciting the Paritta, and Hindu chants may be similar but not the same. Listen to Mora (Peacock) Paritta (Theravada), and its equivalent the Gayatri Mantra:
Listen to Mora Sutta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<)) (link chk 161026)
and Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<)) (link chk 161026)

We must note that the ancient Vedas and the modern day versions are different if we take into account the number of hymns dedicated to each deity in Rig Veda. Since there are more hymns directed to Indra, Agni and Soma than to the modern Hindu Trinity, the Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Siva, we can say that the Hindu Trinity is a a later addition. You will see below that as the ritual changes, the roles of the priests also changes. 

You must also note that Vedas are quite different from Vedangas which are described as the limbs of the Vedas. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanga 140813. Astrology is one of the six Vedanga and is different from the four Vedas. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas 140813

Excerpt from Wikipedia on Vedic Priesthood:
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adhvaryu 140813

Priests of the Vedic religion are officiants of the yajna service. As persons trained for the ritual and proficient in its practice, they were called ṛtvij ("regularly-sacrificing"). As members of a social class, they were generically known as vipra ("sage") or kavi ("seer") {ka.wi.}. [UKT ]

Specialization of roles attended the elaboration and development of the ritual corpus over time. Eventually a full complement of sixteen ṛtvijas became the custom for major ceremonies. The sixteen consisted of four chief priests and their assistants.

Chief Priests

The older references uniformly indicate the hotṛ as the presiding priest, with perhaps only the adhvaryu as his assistant in the earliest times. The phrase "seven hotars" is found more than once in the Rgveda. RV 2.1.2 enumerates them as the hotṛ, potṛ, neṣṭṛ, agnīdh, prashāstṛ (meaning the maitrāvaruna), adhvaryu and brahman (meaning the brāhmanācchamsin).

The hotṛ was the reciter of invocations and litanies. These could consist of single verses ( ṛca), strophes (triples called tṛca or pairs called pragātha), or entire hymns (sukta), drawn from the ṛgveda . As each phase of the ritual required an invocation, the hotṛ had a leading or presiding role.

The adhvaryu was in charge of the physical details of the sacrifice (in particular the adhvara, a term for the Somayajna). According to Monier-Williams, the adhvaryu "had to measure the ground, to build the altar, to prepare the sacrificial vessels, to fetch wood and water, to light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it," among other duties. Each action was accompanied by supplicative or benedictive formulas (yajus), drawn from the yajurveda. [UKT ]

UKT 140814: In Rgvedashita, by H.H.Wison, E.B.Cowell, 1854, p. 077, pdf 112/385, we read:
"3. The two b (priests, the Hotṛi and Adhwaryu ), equal honour, and alike assiduous, labouring mutually for a common object, ..." shows that the two were of equal importance in the beginning.
--- b. Or the two, in both this and the next verse, may refer to the husband and wife associated in the performance of the sacrifice.

Over time, the role of the adhvaryu grew in importance, and many verses of the ṛgveda  were incorporated, either intact or adapted, into the texts of the yajurveda.

The udgātṛ was a chanter of hymns set to melodies (sāman) drawn from the sāmaveda. This was a specialized role in the major soma sacrifices: a characteristic function of the udgātṛ  was to sing hymns in praise of the invigorating properties of soma pavamāna, the freshly pressed juice of the soma plant.

The brahman was superintendent of the entire performance, and responsible for correcting mistakes by means of supplementary invocations.

The rgvedic Brahmanas, Aitareya and Kausitaki, specify seven hotrakas to recite shastras (litanies): hotṛ, brāhmanācchamsin, maitrāvaruna, potṛ, neṣṭṛ, agnīdh and acchāvāka. They also carry a legend to explain the origin of the offices of the subrahmanya and the grāvastut.

UKT more in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Adhvaryu-note-b

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