Update: 2016-10-25 04:11 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a-z~a.} : pseudo-Za
{a-Na.} /
  {aaN} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear long-vowel.
{a.ta.} / {aat} : For comparison see {t} - p005.htm


UKT notes :
Atta, Atman, Brahman, and Brahmin

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आजीव [ gv-a ]
- m. livelihood; -ana, n. id.; -an-ika, a. seeking a livelihood.



आजीवम्् [ -gvam ]
- ad. for life.



आजीवितान्तम् [ -gv-ita‿antam ]
- ad. for life; -ya, fp. fit for or affording a livelihood.

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{a-z~a.} : pseudo-Za

UKT 150502, 161023: Cell r2c4 of akshara matrix can be occupied by 3 different glyphs depending on language. I expect that because of the phonemic-principle of the akshara, they would have either similar pronunciations and/or similar deeper meanings:

Bur-Myan: - suggesting link to {sa.}
Mon-Myan: / (2 versions) - suggesting link to {za.}
Skt-Dev: ज ् ञ --> ज्ञ --> {z~a.} - suggesting links between Mon and Skt
Note: I've been calling the Skt-Dev Pseudo-Za .

From the shape of the glyphs and the implied meanings of words having this phoneme, I suggest it is linked to the English ending <ism> found in words like <communism> - systems of thought, philosophy, or knowledge, {Zaan} (MLC MED2006-155).


आज्ञप्ति [ -gapti ]
= आ ज ् ञ प ् त ि
- f. order, command.



  आज्ञा [ -g ]
= आ ज ् ञ ा --> {a-z~a}
- f. id.: -kara, m. () servant: -tva, n. office of a servant; -dna, n. giving an order; -na, n. apprehending, understanding; -parigraha, m. reception of an order.



आज्ञाप्य [ -gpya ]
- fp. at the service of (g.).



आज्ञाभङ्ग [ g-bhaṅga ]
- m. breach of a command: -kara, -krin, a. neglecting an order; -vidhyin, a. doing one's behest, obedient.



आज्य [ &asharp;g-ya ]
- n. clarified liquid butter (for sacrificing or anointing); kind of sastra; -dhanvan, a. having clarified butter for a bow; -p, a. drinking clarified butter; m. pl. Ma'nes of the Vaisyas; -sesha, m. rest of the clarified butter; -havis, a. having an offering of clarified butter; -homa, m. sacrifice of clarified butter; -‿hut, f. offering of clarified butter.



- i.p. kha , pull, tug, stretch


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आञ्जन [ &asharp;g-ana ]
= आ ञ ् ज न
- n. ointment, eye-salve; -gandhi, a. smelling of ointment.



आञ्जनेय [ ganeya ]
= आ ञ ् ज न े य --> आञ्जना Apsara Ajana
- m. son of Agan, Hanumat.

UKT 150502: Hanumat, whose mother is Apsara Ajanā आञ्जना, is Hanuman, a central character in Ramayana. Read more about Hanuman in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanuman 150502 .
See my note on Anjana

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आटविक [ tavika ]
- a. relating to a forest; consisting of foresters; m. forest-dweller; wood man.



आटोप [ topa ]
- m. inflation; pride.


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आडम्बर [ dmbara ]
- m. drum; din; verbosity; trumpeting (of an elephant); --, acme, height, crown: -vat, a. noisy.



- m. N. of a crow


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आढक [ dhaka ]
- m. n. (-- f. ) a dry measure (= 4 prasthas).



आढ्य [ dhy ]
- a. wealthy; abounding in (in. or --): -t, f. wealth.


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- a. = anaka , minute, tiny, subtle



आणि [ n ]
- m. pin of the axle.


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UKT 150504: Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear long-vowel


आण्डज [ nd-ga ]
= आ ण ् ड ज
- a. egg-born.

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{a.ta.} : {aat}


आत् [ 1. &asharp;t ]
- ad. (ab.) then; also, and; w. intr. pray.



आत् [ . -t]
--> {aat}
- the vowel [UKT: cf. {aat} 'energy' ]



आतङ्क [ -taṅka ]
- m. ailment; uneasiness, anxiety, fear.



आततायिन्् [ -tat-y-n ]
- a. having one's bow strung; m. armed aggressor, assassin; dangerous character, felon.



आतप [ -tap ]
- a. causing pain; m. (solar) heat, sunshine: -tra, n. umbrella; -vat, a. irradiated by the sun; -vrana, n. umbrella; -‿a tyaya, m. end of the heat, cool of the evening.

आतपवारण ātapavāraṇa
Skt: [-vrana], n. umbrella - Mac038c1
Skt: आतपवारण ātapavāraṇa n. heat protector, parasol - SpkSkt



आतपाय [ tapya ]
- den. P. become solar heat.



आतपोवनम्् [ -tapovanam ]
- ad. up to the hermits' wood.



आतर [ -tara ]
- m. crossing a river; fare.



- f. (in. pl. + tais) , frame, edge



- m. N. of a Daitiya



आताम्र [ -tmra ]
- a. reddish: -t, f. redness.


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आति [-t ]
- f. kind of aquatic bird



आतितांसु [ -titm-su ]
- des. a. wishing to stretch across (ac.).



आतिथेय [ titheya ]
- a. () relating to guests, hospitable; n. hospitality.


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आतिथ्य [ tithy ]
- a.; n. id.; reception of the Soma (ritual): -vat, a. speaking of hospitality; containing the word 'guest'; -satkra, m. good offices of hospitality.



आतिरश््चीन [ -tiras-k-na ]
- a. somewhat oblique.



आतिरैक्य [ tiraikya ]
- n. redundancy.



आतिशयिक [ tisayika ]
- a. superabundant.


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आतुर [ &asharp;-tura ]
- a. diseased, ill, weak; ailing; --, afflicted with, tortured by; w. inf. morbidly desirous of.

आतुरालय āturālaya
- m. hospital - SpkSkt 



आतोद्य [ -tod-ya ]
- (fp.) n. musical instrument.

UKT 161024: "According to 6th and 28th chapters of Bharat's Nātya Śāstra (bet. 200 BC - 200 AD) the Ātodya or Vādyas (musical instruments) can be classified into 4 kinds: 1. Tata vādya (stringed instrument), 2. Ānaddha or Avanaddha vādya (percussion instrument), 3. Ghana vādya (solid instrument), 4. Suṣira vādya (wind instrument)15 "
- Musical Instruments of North-Eastern India - by Dilip Ranjan Bartharkur, 2003
- https://books.google.ca/books? 161024


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UKT 150503: It is probable that the disyllabic conjunct {a-t~ta.} is formed. Compare with Mon-Myan 'hanging consonant'. See   Speaking Mon-Myan Language  -- MV1874-indx.htm (link chk 161024)
and Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 161024) .
   However, since in आद्य = आ द ् य , the virama is clearly shown, we have no choice but to consider that {aat~ta.} is formed.



आत्त [ -tta ]
= आ त ् त --> {aat}
  cf. {Daat} 'energy', {Daat-hsi} 'petrol' aka 'gasoline'
- pp. (√d) taken; sts. --, a. grasped, obtained; taken away, -less; felt= grasping, feeling; -gandha, a. whose pride has been taken away; -garva, a. humbled; -danda, a. grasping one's staff; -rati, a. feeling delight, in (lc.); -vibhava, a. having attained to wealth; -vrya, a. deprived of strength; -sastra, a. grasping his weapon; -sra, a. robbed of treasure; -sva, a. deprived of one's possessions: -t, f. abst. ɴ.


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आत्थ at-tha
- 2. sg.pf. of √ah


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आत्म [tma]
= आ त ् म --> {aat~ma.}
tma, - = tman; -ka, a. (ik) having the nature of, consisting of or in (-): -tva, abst. N.; - karman, n. one's own act; -kama, a. selfish; -kya, a. own; -krita, pp. self-inflicted, committed or done by oneself; -gata, a. being in or relating to self: -m, ad. to one-self (drama); -gati, f. own way or resources: in. by oneself; -guna, n. virtue of the soul; -ghtaka, -ghtin, m. suicide; -ghosha, m. crow; -ga, a. self-begotten; m. son, . f. daughter: -t, f. state of a son; -ganman, n. birth of oneself = birth of a son; son; -gaya, m. (his) own victory; -gna, a. knowing oneself; knowing the universal soul; -gnna, n. self-knowledge; knowledge of the universal soul; -tattva, n. own nature; true nature of the universal soul; -tantra, a. independent; -ta, f. essentiality, nature; -tripta, pp. self-sufficing; -tyaga, m. suicide; -tva, n. essentiality, nature; -darsa, m. mirror: -na, n. seeing oneself in (-) ; -dana, n. self-sacrifice; -drohin, a. self-tormenting, fretful; -dvesha, m. self-hatred.



आत्मन्् [ tmn ]
- m. breath; soul; life, self (sg.=rfl. prn.); essence, nature; peculiarity; body; intellect, understanding; universal soul.

See my note on Atta, Atman, Brahman, and Brahmin   {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}



आत्मनातृतीय [ tman-tritya ]
- a. with two others; -dvitya, a. with one other.



- f. woman's N.



आत्मनिन्दा [ tma-nind ]
- f. self-reproach.



आत्मनेपद [ tmane-pad-a ]
- n. the middle terminations (gr.); -in, a. having the middle terminations.



आत्मन्वत्् âtman-vt, ˚विन्् [ -vn ]
- a. animate.



आत्मपक्ष [ tma-paksha ]
- m. one's own party; -parityga, m. self-sacrifice; -pg, f. self praise; -pratyarthi-nma-vat, a. hvg. one's own name and that of the defendant; -prabha, a. self-luminous; bright with himself; -prasams, f. self-praise; -bodha, a. knowing the universal soul; -bhaya, n. fear for one's life; -bhava, m. his own presence; a. self caused; m. Kma; -bhva, m. personality; -bh, m. self-existing, ep. of Brahman; -bhta, pp. being the self of=devoted to; -maya, a. () proceeding from oneself; -mmsa, n. one's own flesh.



आत्मंभरि [ tmam-bhari ]
- a. thinking only of his livelihood, selfish: -tva, n. selfishness, self-produced.



आत्मयाजिन्् [ tma-ygin ]
- a. sacrificing oneself; -yoni, m. ep. of Kma & Vishnu; -rakshana, n. self-protection; -lbha, m. one's own advantage; attainment of life, birth; -vat, ad. like oneself; a. animate; self-controlled; sensible; personal: w. sruta, n. =knowledge of men: -t, f. self-control; -vadha, m., -vadhy, f. suicide; -varga, m. one's own party; -vasa, a. depending on oneself; -vasya, a. that one has in one's power; -vikraya, m. selling one's freedom; -vit-t, f. self-knowledge; -vd, a. knowing the universal soul; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of the universal soul; -vidhits, f. selfishness; -vivriddhi, f. self-aggrandisement; -vrittnta, m. n. account of oneself; -vritti, f. one's own condition.


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आत्मशंसा [ tma-sams ]
- f. self-praise; -sakti, f. one's own power: in. according to one's power; -sonita, n. one's own blood; -slgha, -slghin, a. boastful; -samyoga, m. personal interest in anything; -samstha, a. attached to one's person; directed to oneself.



आत्मसंतान [ tma-samtna ]
- m. son; -samdeha, m. personal risk; -sama, a. like oneself: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -samarpana, n. giving oneself up to (a deity); -sambhava, m. son; Kma: , f. daughter; -sambhvan, f. self conceit; -st-kri, place on oneself; make one's own; -stava, m. self-praise; praise of the tman; -haty, f. suicide; -han, a. killing the soul; m. suicide; -hita, n. one's own welfare.



आत्मादिष्ट [ tma‿dishta ]
- pp. self-dictated; -adhika, a. dearer than oneself; -‿adhna, a. dependent on oneself; -‿anapeksha, a. disinterested; -‿anugamana, n. personal attendance; -‿apardha, m. one's own transgression; -‿pahra, m. dissimulation; -‿apahraka, -hrin, a. making away with oneself, denying oneself, dissimulating; -‿abhim&asharp;ni-t, f. high opinion of oneself; -‿amisha, m. alliance (peace) bought by sacrifice of one's army; -‿artha: -m or lc. for oneself: lc. pl. in one's own interest.



- take possession of; -bhva , m. absorption in the universal soul; -ya , a. one's own; ...



आत्मेच्छा [ tma‿ikkh ]
- f. longing for the universal soul; -‿svara, m. master of oneself.



आत्मोत्कर्ष [ tma‿utkarsha ]
- m. self-elevation; boasting; -‿udaya, m. self-advantage, rise; -‿udbhava, m. son; -‿upagvin, a. supporting oneself by personal labour.



आत्मौपम्य [ tma‿aupamya ]
- n. self-comparison, analogy to oneself.


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आत्यन्तिक [ tyantika ]
- a. () lasting to the end; unalterable; absolute.



आत्ययिक [ tyayik ]
- a. admitting of no delay, urgent.


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आत्रेय [ trey ]
=  आ त ् र े य
- m. descendant of tri; , f. id.; woman who has bathed after menstruation.



आत्व [ -tva ]
- n. occurrence of (gr.).


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आथर्वण [ tharvan ]
- a. () belonging to Atharvan or the Atharvans; m. descendant of Atharvan or the Atharvans; Brhman conversant with the AV.; conjuror; the AV.; i-k, m. follower of the AV.

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आदघ्न [ -daghn ]
- a. reaching to the mouth.



आदम््aN-d-am, आदस््aN-d-as, आदत्् [ &asharp;-d-at ]
- impf. sg. of +√d.



आदर [ -dara ]
- m. regard, respect; consideration, care, attention (lc., --, or -‿artham): -m kri, endeavour; in., ab. considerately, carefully, seriously; -nya, fp. to be regarded: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vat, a. attentive to (lc.).

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UKT notes


-- UKT 140811, 161023

Was Hanuman aka Hanumat a monkey (with a tail) or an ape (without a tail)? Whatever he was, he was a forest dweller, known as a Varana. His mother was Ajanā. Rama, the human king who was later deified, of northern India, seemed to have sought the help of the southerners, particularly the forest dwellers, and with their help he conquered Lanka and rescued his wife, Sita, who had been abducted by the king of Lanka, Ravana, who like Rama himself was a human who was later demonized.

Ajanā was an apsara named Pujikastalā, who was born on earth as monkey princess. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C3%B1jan%C4%81  161023

I am beginning to form the opinion that the Epic Ramayana is an account of an actual war between the northerners and the southerners. The account of Sita being abducted was perhaps just a summary of the clash of two peoples (the northerners being speakers of Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman languages), and the southerners (the speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages). Each group had its own gods and goddesses, and the story is being told as religious texts.

Curiously, the name Ajanā is also known in Europe in Cantabrian mythology which has remarkable commonality to the Indian namesake possibly suggesting a common origin.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anjana 140811

Ajanā {aa~za.na} (Tamil: Anchanai, Malay: Anjani or Anjati, Thai: Sawaha) was the mother of Hanuman, one of the heroes of the Indian epic, the Ramayana. According to one version of the story, Ajanā was an apsara named Pujikastalā , who came to earth and married Kesari, a monkey chief. Vayu, god of the wind, carried the divine power of Lord Shiva Dva to Anjana's womb, and thus Hanuman was himself an incarnation of Lord Shiva. [1]

UKT 140811: Apsara, are court-dancers in Indra's palace. They are female Gandava: the males being musicians. Gandava-Apsara are different from Dva-Dvi.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanara 140811

Vānara , वानर {wa-na.ra.}, refers to a group of ape-like humanoids or monkeys [1] [2] in the Hindu epic Ramayana and its various versions. [UKT ]

UKT 161023: वानर {wa-na.ra.} are not necessarily monkeys with tails {mrauk}. They could also be apes (tailless) {lu wn} and bears (tailless) {wak wn}.

In Ramayana, the Vanaras help Rama defeat Ravana. The Vanaras also appear in other texts, including Mahabharata.

There are three main theories about the etymology of the word "Vanara":

It derives from the word vana ("forest"), and means "belonging to the forest" or "forest-dwelling". [3] [1]

It derives from the words vana ("forest") and nara ("man"), thus meaning "forest man". [4]

It derives from the words vav and nara, meaning "is it a man?" [5] or "perhaps he is man". [6]

Although the word Vanara has come to mean "monkey" over the years and the
It derives from the word vana ("forest"), and means "belonging to the forest" or "forest-dwelling".[3][1]
It derives from the words vana ("forest") and nara ("man"), thus meaning "forest man".[4]
It derives from the words vav and nara, meaning "is it a man?"[5] or "perhaps he is man".[6] [UKT ]

Vanaras are depicted as as monkeys in the popular art, their exact identity is not clear. [7] [8] [UKT ]

Unlike other exotic creatures such as the rakshasas, the Vanaras do not have a precursor in the Vedic literature. [9] [UKT ]

The Ramayana presents them as humans with reference to their speech, clothing, habitations, funerals, consecrations etc. It also describes their ape-like characteristics such as their leaping, hair, fur and a tail. [8]

According to one theory, the Vanaras are strictly mythological creatures. This is based on their supernatural abilities, as well as descriptions of Brahma commanding other deities to either bear Vanara offspring or incarnate as Vanaras to help Rama in his mission. [8] The Jain re-tellings of Ramayana describe them as a clan of the supernatural beings called the Vidyadharas; the flag of this clan bears monkeys as emblems. [10] [11]

Another theory identifies the Vanaras with the tribal people, who dwelled in the forests and used monkey totems. [12] [13] [4] G. Ramdas, based on Ravana's reference to the Vanaras' tail as an ornament, infers that the "tail" was actually a appendage in the dress worn by the men of the Savara tribe. [8] (The female Vanaras are not described as having a tail. [14] [13]) According to this theory, the non-human characteristics of the Vanaras may be considered artistic imagination. [15] In Sri Lanka, the word "Vanara" has been used to describe the Nittaewos mentioned in the Vedda legends. [16] [17]

Vanaras are created by Brahma and other gods to help Rama in battle against Ravana. They are powerful and have many godly traits. Taking Brahma's orders, the gods began to parent sons in the semblance of monkeys (Ramayana 1.17.8). The Vanaras took birth in bears and monkeys attaining the shape and valor of the gods and goddesses who created them (Ramayana 1.17.17-18). [18] After Vanaras were created they began to organize into armies and spread across the forests, although some, including Vali, Sugriva, and Hanuman, stayed near mount Riskshavat.

According to the Ramayana, the Vanaras lived primarily in the region of Kishkindha (identified with parts of the present-day Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra). Rama first met them in Dandaka Forest, during his search for Sita. [19] An army of Vanaras helped Rama in his search for Sita, and also in battle against Ravana, Sita's abductor. It is Nala and Nila built a bridge over the ocean so that Rama and the army could cross to Lanka. [UKT ]

UKT 140811: The bridge referred to is Rama Setu रामसेतु rāmasetu (setu 'bridge'). It is also known as Adam's Bridge.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adams_Bridge 140811

As described in the epic, the characteristics of the Vanara include being amusing, childish, mildly irritating, badgering, hyperactive, adventurous, bluntly honest, loyal, courageous, and kind. [20]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam%27s_Bridge 140811

The epic Mahabharata describes them as forest-dwelling, and mentions their being encountered by Sahadeva, a Pandava general who led a military campaign to south India.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anjana_Cantabrian_mythology 140811

The Anjana (from jana, a former word for witches during the Middle Ages) are one of the best known fairies of Cantabrian mythology. These female fairy creatures foil the cruel and ruthless Ojncanu. In most stories, they are the good fairies of Cantabria [Spain], generous and protective of all people. Their depiction in the Cantabrian mythology is reminiscent of the xanas in Asturian Mythology, the janas in Len, and lamias in Basque [France and Spain], the latter without the zoomorphic appearance.

Oral tradition provides different explanations for the nature of the Anjana. Some say they are heavenly beings sent by God [ of Christians, equivalent to YHVH of Jews, and Allah of Muslims] to do good deeds, and they go back to heaven after 400 years, never to return. Others, however, indicate that they are spirits of trees who take care of the forests.

Anjana are described as beautiful and delicate, half a foot tall, with white skin and a sweet voice. Some are like a nightingale when they are happy, and others are like a beetle stepping on leaves in autumn. Their eyes are slanted, serene and loving, with black or blue pupils as bright as the stars, and they feature nearly transparent wings. They wear long, jet black or golden braids, adorned with multicolored silk bows and ribbons; a beautiful crown of wild flowers on their head; and a blue cape on a long thin white tunic, and carry in their hands a stick of wicker or hawthorn which shines in a different color every day of the week.

They are seen walking through the forest trails, resting on the banks of springs and on the margins of streams which then seem to come alive. They are able to talk with the water that flows from the sources and springs. They help injured animals and trees damaged by storms or Ojncana, lovers, people who lose their way in the forest, and the poor and suffering. Whenever they wander in villages, they leave gifts at the doors of helpful and kind people. When summoned for help they accept if the summoner is good of heart, but they also punish the wicked.

Traditions state that at night during the spring equinox, they gather in the fells and dance until dawn holding hands and scattering roses. Anyone who manages to find a rose with purple, green, blue, or golden petals will be happy until the time of their death.

Other Cantabrian-related fairies are the Hechiceras del Ebro (Enchantresses of the Ebro [River]), the Mozas del Agua (Water Lasses), the Viejuca de Vispieres (the Vispieres Little Old Woman), the Anjanas of Treceo, las Moras de Carmona (Moorish Maidens of Carmona) o las Ijanas del Valle de Aras (Ijanas of Aras Valley).

Anjanas come to villages of the region during the night of January 5, with the intention of bringing children a variety of toys and gifts. [1] This occurs every four years, generally to poor families, and still occurs annually in some areas of Cantabria, in coexistence with Esteru.

Go back Anjana-note-b

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Atta, Atman, Brahman, and Brahmin

UKT 110814, 140812, 150503, 161025:

I used to be confused between the words Atta and Atman since my early teens when my father U Tun Pe introduced me to the idea of Atman. Since that time I have been interested in such philosophical questions, and I had requested him to explain to me his views. Little did I realized that the first point of my confusion is due to unreliable English transcription. Atta is {t~ta.} is derived checking the short-vowel, {t}, and that Atman is {aat~ma.} or {aat~mn}. The latter is the result of checking the long-vowel, {aat}.
Now from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/Atman_Buddhism 150503
"Although the Buddha argued that no permanent, unchanging "self" can be found, sutras and tantras of some Buddhist schools present the notion of an atman (/'ɑːtmən/) or permanent "Self", although mostly refer to an Absolute - not a personal self."

As a scientist, I have become convinced that engaging in philosophical ideas is a useless activity. As an aging person, I am more concerned with my health and my income. As for Death, it will surely come. As for life after death, there is no scientific proof. I am convinced of the infallibility of the Four Principles of Buddhism. Our experience in life is to see everything including my attitudes and beliefs changing constantly from childhood to the present - an old man! Anatta is what I am experiencing.

Before we delve into the philosophical aspects, we must be definite about the spellings:

Brahmin : dictionary definition from AHTD

Brahmin - n. . Also Brahman ( -mn) Hinduism a. The first of the four Hindu classes, responsible for officiating at religious rites and studying and teaching the Vedas. b. A member of this class. . A member of a cultural and social elite, especially of that formed by descendants of old New England families: a Boston Brahmin. . Variant of Brahman .

To get a clearer picture, I go back to Bur-Myan definition of Brahmin {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} who is just a human being who professes to be somewhat holy according to Hinduism. Being humans we can expect criminals and crooks among them. My confusion stems from the the 3rd dictionary entry "variant of Brahman".

Brahman , ब्रह्मन् brhman = ब ् र ह ् म न ् (note the three viram), is "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world", [1] which "cannot be exactly defined". [2] --  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman 140812
I have nothing to ask about Brahman, when it is stated that "which cannot be exactly defined". As a scientist, I must say that it is senseless to dwell on a subject that cannot be exactly defined.

Ātman , आत्मन् ātman = आ त ् म न ् (note the two viram), is a Sanskrit word that means 'inner-self' or 'soul'. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atman_Hinduism 140812.
My question on 'soul' is twofold.
#1. Is the 'soul' a reality that can be studied with instruments?
#2. Is it unchanging or not?
Since the answers to both are negative, I, as a scientist must take it as an axiom.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman#Brahman_and_Atman 110814


In Hinduism, Brahman , ब्रह्मन् brhman = ब ् र ह ् म न ् , is the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe. [1] [UKT ]

Brahman is sometimes referred to as the Absolute or Godhead [2] which is the Divine Ground [3] of all being. Brahman is conceived as personal ("with qualities"), impersonal ("without qualities") and supreme depending on the philosophical school.

The sages of the Upanishads teach that Brahman is the ultimate essence of material phenomena (including the original identity of the human self) that cannot be seen or heard but whose nature can be known through self-knowledge (atma jnana). [4] [UKT ]

According to Advaita doctrine, a liberated human being ( jivanmukta) has realised brahman as his or her own true self (see atman).

The Mundaka Upanishad says:

Auṃ - That supreme Brahman is infinite, and this conditioned Brahman is infinite. The infinite proceeds from infinite. If you subtract the infinite from the infinite, the infinite remains alone.


Sanskrit Brahman (an n-stem, nominative brhmā from a root bṛh " to swell, grow, enlarge". is a neuter noun to be distinguished from the masculine brahmn  denoting a person associated with Brahman and Brahmā, the creator God of the Hindu Trinity, the Trimurti. Brahman is thus a gender-neutral concept that implies greater impersonality than masculine or feminine conceptions of the deity.

The further origin of bṛh  is unclear. According to the Indogermanisches etymologisches Wrterbuch (IEW, "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary"), written by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny, IE root bhreu-, bhreu-d- denotes to swell, sprout (cf Slovenian brsteti - to sprout) It could be from PIE *bherg'h- "to rise, high, eminent", cognate to Old Norse Bragi. Some, including Georges Dumzil, have said that the Latin word flāmen "priest" may also be cognate. However, the standard Indo-Aryan etymological dictionary by M. Mayrhofer (19862000, vol. II, p. 236-8) derives brahman 'formulation (of truth) [in poetry], from Indo-Iranian *bhrajh-man < Indo-European *bhreg'h-men; cf. Old Persian brazman, Middle Persian brahm 'form', Nuristani (Ashkun) blamade 'a god' ( from *brahma-deva?), Old Norse bragr 'poetical art', etc., and argues against connection with Latin flamen.


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In the Upanisads the sages teach that brahman is infinite Being, infinite Consciousness, and infinite Bliss (saccidananda).

It is said that Brahman cannot be known by empirical means that is to say, as an object of our consciousness because Brahman is our very consciousness and being. Therefore it may be said that moksha, yoga, samādhi, nirvana, etc. do not merely mean to know Brahman, but rather to realise one's "brahman-hood", to actually realise that one is and always was Brahman. Indeed, closely related to the Self concept of Brahman is the idea that it is synonymous with jiva-atma, or individual souls, our atman (or soul) being readily identifiable with the greater soul (paramatma) of Brahman.

Generally, Vedanta rejects the notion of an evolving Brahman since Brahman contains within it the potentiality and archetypes behind all possible manifest phenomenal forms. The Vedas, though they are in some respects historically conditioned, are considered by Hindus to convey a knowledge [13] eternal, timeless and always contemporaneous with Brahman. This knowledge is considered to have been handed down by realised yogins to students many generations before the Vedas were committed to writing. Written texts of the Vedas are a relatively recent phenomenon.

The term Brahmin in the Vedic period actually meant one who has realized Brahman. However, later on group of people who called themselves Brahmin came to be identified with the highest of the four castes, the Brahmins, who claim that by virtue of their purity (like whites considered themselves superior to blacks, while all they had was lesser melamine in their skins compared to blacks ) and priesthood were held proprietors of rituals, it is very obvious that the idea of caste itself is baseless and similar to cult religions in which beliefs like salvation is only through a particular faith exists, these ideas are similar to Nazism.

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Brahman and Atman

Some Upanishadic statements identify the Atman, the inner essence of the human being, with Brahman. While Advaita philosophy considers Brahman to be without form, qualities, or attributes, Visishtadvaita and Dvaita philosophies understand Brahman as one with infinite auspicious qualities. In Advaita, the ultimate reality is expressed as Nirguna Brahman. Nirguna means formless, attributeless, mega-soul, or spirit-only. Advaita considers all personal forms of God including Vishnu and Shiva as different aspects of God in personal form, Saguna Brahman i.e. God with attributes. In Visishtadvaita and Dvaita, God is Saguna Brahman with infinite attributes and is the source of the impersonal Nirguna Brahman, and God's energy is regarded as Devi, the Divine Mother.

The phrase that is seen to be the only possible (and still thoroughly inadequate) description of Brahman that humans, with limited minds and being, can entertain is the Sanskrit word Sacchidānanda, which is combined from sat-chit-ānanda, meaning "Being Consciousness Bliss".

The description of Brahman from Mandukya Upanishad:

सर्वं ह्येतद् ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म सोयमात्मा चतुष्पात्
sarvam hyetad brahmāyamātmā brahma soyamātmā chatushpāt
- Mandukya Upanishad, verse-2


sarvam (सर्वम्)- whole/all/everything; hi (हि)- really/surely/indeed; etad (एतद्)- this here/this; brahma (ब्रह्म)- Brahma/Brahman; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; ātmā(आत्मा)- atma/atman; sah(सः)- he; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; chatus(चतुस्)- four/quadruple; pāt(पात्)- step/foot/quarter

With the sandhi expanded:-

सर्वम् हि एतद् ब्रह्म अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म सः अयम् आत्मा चतुस पात्
sarvam hi etad brahma ayam ātmā brahm sah ayam ātmā chatus paat

Simple meaning:-

All indeed is this Brahman; He is Atman; He has four steps/quarters.

Vishnu is traditionally derived from the root "Vish" which means to enter or pervade, and He is called Vishnu because He pervades the whole universe. Brahmanda Purana (1.4.25) says that He is called as Vishnu because He has entered into everything in the universe. The most important aspect is that the whole universe is covered by only three steps of Vishnu which is referred to several times in the Vedas (Rig Veda 1.22.17, 1.154. 3, 1.155.4, Atharva Veda 7.26.5, Yajur Veda 2.25). In His three steps rests the whole universe (Rig Veda 1.154.2, Yajur Veda 23.49). All indeed is Brahman, which can thus be identified with Vishnu, based on the Vedas.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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