Update: 2017-11-25 09:37 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p037.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a-ku.} - cont
  p037c1
{a-kRi.} : {kRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel
{a-k}
{a-kau:}
{a-k~ra.} : {k~ra.} written as a {ra.ric}
{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha
{a.kSi.}
{a.kS}
{a-hka.} : regular-Kha
{a-hku.}
{a-hk}
{a-hk~ya.} : do not pronounce as medial {a-hkya.}
  p037c2
{a-ga.}
{a-Ga.}
{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}
  p037c3
{a-sa.}
{a-za.}
{a-za}
{a-zi.}

 

UKT notes :
Rishi Angiras {n~ra-a. ra..}
Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials

 

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{a-ku.} - cont

p037c1

p037c1-b01

आकुलय [ -kulaya ]
- den. P. confuse; fill: pp. ita, disordered, disturbed, perplexed, by (in., -).

 

p037c1-b02

आकुलीकृ [ -kul-kri ]
- confuse, dim; fill; pp. bewildered, disturbed with (in.); -bh , be or become confused; -yamna , pr. pt. ps. bewildered, annoyed

 

p037c1-b03

आकूत [ &asharp;-kta ]
- n. intention, wish.

 

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{a-kRi.

UKT 161021: {kRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ

p037c1-b04

आकृति [ &asharp;-kriti ]
- f. component part; form, appearance; -mat, a. having a form, embodied.

 

p037c1-b05

आकृष्टवत्् [ -krishta-vat ]
- pp. act. drawn.

 

p037c1-b06

आकृष्टि [ -krishti ]
- f. attraction; drawing (a bowstring); magic attraction, attractive spell.

 

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{a-k}

p037c1-b07

आके [ k ]
- ad. (lc.) near.

 

p037c1-b08

आकेकर [ -kekara ]
- a. squinting slightly.

 

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{a-kau:}

p037c1-b09

आकोप [ -kopa ]
- m. touch of anger; -vat, a. somewhat angry at (lc.).

 

p037c1-b10

आकौशल [ kausala ]
- n. inexperience, lack of skill.

 

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{a-k~ra.} / {kra.}

UKT 150501, 161020: See my Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials in my note below.

p037c1-b11

आक्रन्द [ -krand- ]
= आ क ् र न ् द
- m. cry, wail, lamentation; natural ally of a belligerent king (neighbour's neighbour); -ana, n. lamentation; -anya, fp. to be called on for help; -ita, (pp.) n. cry; -in, a. calling upon piteously (--).

 

p037c1-b12

आक्रम [ -kram- ]
- m. stepping up; attack; -ana, a. striding up; n. id.; attack; extension (towards, lc.).

 

p037c1-b13

आक्रान्त [ -krnta ]
- pp. (√kram) beset, overspread; in the power of, dominated by, pervaded with (--).

 

p037c1-b14

आक्रान्ति [ -krnti ]
- f. treading, ascending; rising.

 

p037c1-b15

आक्रीड [ -krda ]
- m. n. play-ground, grove, garden; -giri, -parvata, m. pleasure-hill.

 

p037c1-b16

आक्रोश [ -kros-a ]
- m. reviling; abuse, affront: -ka, a. reviling, abusing; -ita, cs. pp. cursed, reviled; -in, a. abusing.

 

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{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha

p037c1-b17

आक्षाण [ ksh-n ]
= आ क ् ष ा ण
- pf. pt. of √aksh.

 

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{a.kSi.}

p037c1-b18

आक्षिप्तिका [ -kshiptik ]
- f. song sung by a person approaching the stage.

 

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{a.kS}

p037c1-b19

आक्षेप [ -kshepa ]
- m. turning up (soil); quivering, convulsion; putting on (salve); throwing off; abandonment; enrapturing (g. or --); reference to (--); hint; challenge; abuse, affront; -na, a. () ravishing, charming; -rpaka, n. kind of simile; -valana, n. swaying (of the arms); -stra, n. thread for stringing pearls; -‿upam, f. kind of simile.

 

p037c1-b20

[-ksheptri ]
- m. rejecter

 

p037c1-b21

आक्षेप्य [ -kshepya ]
- fp. to be challenged.

 

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{a-hka.}

p037c1-b22

आखण्डल [ -khandala ]
- m. breaker, destroyer, ep. of Indra: -kakubh, f. east; -kpa, m. n. rainbow; -snu, m. son of Indra = Arguna.

 

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{a-hku.}

p037c1-b23

आखु [ -kh- ]
- m. mole; mouse [burrower: + √kh]; -va-grma, m. N. of a village.

 

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{a-hk}

p037c1-b24

आखेट [ kheta ]
- m. chase: -ka, m. id.; hunter; -bhmi, f. hunting ground; -‿atav, f. game forest.

 

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{a-hk~ya.} / {a-hkya.}

UKT150501, 161021: I have observed among my friends the English-speakers and the Hindi-speakers, that they could pronounce {hk~ya.} only as a disyllable and not as monosyllabic medial {hkya.}. However, they always mix it up the Palatal affricates. Remember, our row #2 Palatal plosive-stops are Palatal affricates to them.

p037c1-b25

आख्या [ -khy ]
- f. name: in. by name; period: a. named (--); -ta, (pp.) n. finite verb; -tavya, fp. to be told or related; -ti, f. tale, report; appellation; -tri, m. teller, relater; teacher; -na, n. narration; story, tale; legend: -ka, n. short tale: , f. a metre, -pakama, a. having the Purnas as the fifth; -paka, a. announcing, proclaiming; -pana, n. invitation to relate; -yik, f. short tale; -yin, a. relating, reporting (--).

आख्यात [ -khyta ]
Skt: आख्यात [ -khyta ] - (pp.) n. finite verb -- Mac037c1
Pal: {a-hkya-ta.} - UHS PMD0157
  UKT from UHS: n. verb such as to speak, to go, to cook

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p037c2

p037c2-b01

आख्येय [ -khyeya ]
- fp. to be told, -related, -admitted.

 

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{a-ga.}

p037c2-b02

आगण्ड [ -ganda ]
- ad. up to the cheeks (--).

 

p037c2-b03

आगत [ -gata ]
- (pp.) m. guest; n. event.
 

p037c2-b04

आगति [ &asharp;-gati ]
- f. arrival, return (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); origin; coming up to, joining.

 

p037c2-b05

आगन्तव्य [ -gan-tavya ]
- fp. that must come; -tu, a. 1. arriving: m. new comer, stranger, guest; 2. adventitious: -ka, id.; a. stray (cattle); having crept in (unauthorised reading); -tr, a. about to come.

 

p037c2-b06

आगम [ &asharp;-gama ]
- a. coming up; m. arrival, occurrence; origin; course (of streams); affluence, revenue, property; acquisition; learning, knowledge; science; precept, tradition; manual, code; augment (gr.); -na, n. coming, arrival; origin; sexual intercourse; -vat, a. having sexual intercourse; -sruti, f. tradition; -‿apyin, a. coming and going.

 

p037c2-b07

आगमिन्् [ gam-in ]
- a. taking an augment.

 

p037c2-b08

आगस्् [ &asharp;g-as ] 
- n. offence, crime, fault, sin.

 

p037c2-b09

आगस्त्य [ gastya ]
- a. referring to Agasti; m. descendant of Agasti.

 

p037c2-b10

आगामिन्् [ -gmin ]
- a. coming; future.

 

p037c2-b11

आगामुक [ -g&asharp;muka ]
- a. wont to come to (ac.).

 

p037c2-b12

आगार [ gra ]
- n. apartment, dwelling, house.

 

p037c2-b13

आगुर्् [ -gur ]
- f. ritual response.

 

p037c2-b14

आगुरव [ gurava ]
- a. () produced by aloe wood.

 

p037c2-b15

आग्नावैष्णव [ gn-vaishnav ]
- a. belonging to Agni-Vishnu.

 

p037c2-b16

आग्निक [ gnika ]
- a. () relating to fire-service.

 

p037c2-b17

आग्निमारुत [ gni-mrut ]
- n. litany to Agni and the Maruts.

 

p037c2-b18

आग्नीध्र [ &asharp;gni‿idhra ]
- m. fire-kindler (priest); n. fire-altar: &isharp;-ya, m. fire on the fire-altar.

 

p037c2-b19

आग्नेय [ gney ]
- a. () relating to fire or Agni; n. the lunar mansion Krittik.

 

p037c2-b20

आग्रथन [ -grath-ana ]
- n. putting on (girdle).

 

p037c2-b21

आग्रयण [ grayan ]
- m. offering of new grain (a Soma libation); n. offering of first-fruits at the end of the rainy season; , f. (sc. -ishti) sacrifice of first-fruits; (a)-ka, n. id. (--, a.).

 

p037c2-b22

आग्रह [ -graha ]
- m. pertinacity; favour.

 

p037c2-b23

आग्रहायणी [ grahyan ]
- f. day of full-moon in the month Mrga-srsha; kind of pka yaga.

 

p037c2-b24

आघट््टना [ -ghattan ]
- f. blow, impact.

 

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{a-Ga.}

p037c2-b25

आघर्घरम्् [ -ghar-ghar-am ]
- ad. growling.

 

p037c2-b26

आघर्ष [ -gharsha ]
- m. friction.

 

p037c2-b27

आघाट [ -ght ]
- m., , f. cymbal, rattle.

 

p037c2-b28

आघात [ -ghta ]
- m. stroke, blow; gust; killing; place of execution; slaughter-house.

 

p037c2-b29

आघृणि [ &asharp;-ghrini ]
- a. glowing; radiant.

 

p037c2-b30

आघोषणा [ -ghoshan ]
- f. public proclamation.

 

p037c2-b31

आघ्राण [ -ghrna ]
- n. smelling: -tas, ad. by smelling.

 

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{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}

p037c2-b32

आङ् [-ṅ] = आ
- . (gr.).

 

p037c2-b33

आङ्ग [ ṅga ]
- m. prince of Aṅga; -, f. princess of Aṅga.

Aṅga was one of the 16 Mahajanapada (c. 600 BCE - c. 300 BCE) of time of Gautama Buddha. "Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region, prior to the rise of Buddhism in India".
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada 150501

 

p037c2-b34

आङ्गारिक [ ṅgrika ]
- m. charcoal burner.

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p037c3

p037c3-b00

आङ्गिरस [ ṅgiras ]
- a. () relating to the Aṅgiras; m. pat. descendant of Aṅgiras.

See my note on Angiras {n~ra-a. ra..}

 

p037c3-b01

आङ्गूष [ ṅgsh ]
- m. n. song of praise.

( end of old p037.htm)

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{a-sa.}

p037c3-b02

[-k]
- in adverbs like dakshin- &c. (gr.) 

 

p037c3-b03

[ka]
- m. N. of a man

 

p037c3-b04

आचन्द्रतारकम्् [ -kandra-trakam ]
- ad. except moon and stars.

 

p037c3-b05

आचमन [ -kamana ]
- n. sipping water; rinsing the mouth; water for rinsing the mouth (also , f.); -ya, n. water for rinsing the mouth.

 

p037c3-b06

आचरण [ -kr-ana ]
- n. arrival; performance; conduct; -anya, fp. to be done or performed; -ita, (pp.) n. arrival; usage; conduct; -itavya, fp. to be done; n. one should act according to usage.

 

p037c3-b07

आचाम [ -kma ]
- m. sipping water; water or scum of boiled rice.

 

p037c3-b08

आचार [ -kra ]
- m. behaviour; good conduct; usage, custom, observance, rule: --, customary: -maya, a. ceremonious, devoted to etiquette; -lg&abrevcirc;, m. f. pl. customary parched grain; -vat, a. well-behaved, virtuous; -vyapeta, pp. diverging from usage; -‿apeta, a. id.; -hna, pp. neglectful of the rules of conduct.

 

p037c3-b09

आचार्य [ -kry [fp. to be gone to] ]
- m. teacher, esp. a Brhman; N. of Drona (teacher of the Pndavas); son of an outcast Vaisya; -ka, n. teachership; -t, f., -tva, n. calling of a teacher; -vat, a. having a teacher; -n, f. wife of a teacher; -‿adhna, a. dependent on one's teacher: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.

 

p037c3-b10

आचिख्यासु [ -ki-khy-su ]
- des. a. wishing to express; -sa‿upam, f. kind of simile.

 

p037c3-b11

आचित [ -kita ] 
- pp. heaped up; filled, laden, studded, with (in.. or --).

 

p037c3-b12

[ka‿svara]
- m. N. of a temple built by ka.

 

p037c3-b13

[-kkhanna]
- pp. (√khad) covered, clad

 

p037c3-b14

आच्छाद [ -kkhd-a ]
- m. garment, clothing: -ka, a. covering, concealing: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -na, n. covering, concealing; clothing: -vastra, n. lower garment; -in, (--) a. covering, concealing.

 

p037c3-b15

आच्छुरित [ -kkhurita ]
- pp. scratched.

 

p037c3-b16

आच्य [ ‿ak-ya ]
- gd. having bent.

 

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{a-za.}

p037c3-b17

आज [ ga ]
- a. relating to goats; n. N. of a lunar mansion.

 

p037c3-b18

आजगर [ gagara ]
- a. () relating to or behaving like a boa.

 

p037c3-b19

आजन्म [ -ganma ]
- ad. from birth.

 

p037c3-b20

आजरसम्् [ -garasm ]
- ad. to old age.

 

p037c3-b21

आजर्जरित [ -gargarita ]
- pp. somewhat bruised or tattered.

 

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{a-za}

p037c3-b22

आजातशत्रव [ gtasatrav ]
- a. relating to Agtasatru; m. descendant of Agtasatru.

King Ajatasatru aka Kunika (ruled c. 492 BC c. 460 BC) was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara ( 558 BC 491 BC), the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira ( 540 BCE468 BCE) and Buddha (563 BCE483 BCE).
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajatasatru 150501
Read more about him in Fourth Adhyya, The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by Max Mller, [1879], at sacred-texts.com
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbe01/sbe01242.htm 161023

 

p037c3-b23

आजाति [ -gti ]
- f. birth.

 

p037c3-b24

आजानुलम्बिन्् [ gnu-lambin ]
- a. reaching to the knees.

 

p037c3-b25

आजानेय [ gneya ]
- a. () of noble race; m. well-bred horse.

 

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{a-zi.}

p037c3-b26

आजि [ g- ]
- m. f. race, contest, fight: -bhmi, f. battle-field; -mukha, n. vanguard.

 

p037c3-b27

आजिह्मित [ -gihmita ]
- pp. somewhat turned aside: -lokanam, ad. with somewhat averted glance.

 

p037c3-b28

आजीगर्ति [ &asharp;ggarti ]
- m. pat. descendant of Aggarta.

 

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UKT notes

Angiras (rishi)

UKT 110813: Akshara-to-akshara of Skt: अंगिरस् gives Myan: {n-gi.r}. The nearest in Pal-Myan:

Pal:   {n~gi-ra.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0013
   UKT from UHS: mfn. 'descendant of {n~gi-ra.a.}' . m. the Planet Jupiter

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_sage 110813

Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced as "əngirəs"; nominative singular Angirā - अंगिरा, pronounced as "əngirα:") is a Vedic rishi (or sage) who, along with sage Atharvan, is credited to have formulated ("heard") most of the fourth Veda called Atharvaveda. He is also mentioned in the other three Vedas. Sometimes he is reckoned as one of the Seven Great Sages, or saptarishis of the first Manvantara, with others being, Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha [1] Bharadwaja maharshis was his descendant. .

His wife is Surūpa and his sons are Utatya, Samvartana and Brihaspati. He is one of the ten Manasaputras (wish-born-son) of Lord Brahma. Other accounts say that he married smrithy, the daughter of Daksha.

The name Angirasas is applied generically to several Puranic individuals and things; a class of Pitris, the ancestors of man according to Hindu Vedic writings, and probably descended from the sage Angiras. In the Rigveda, Agni is sometimes referred to as Angiras or as a descendant of Angiras (RV 1.1). In the Rigveda, Indra drives out cows from where they had been imprisoned by either a demon (Vala) or multiple demons (the Panis) and gifts them to the Angirasas (RV 3.31, 10.108 and a reference in 8.14). Mandala 6 of the Rigveda is attributed to a family of Angirasas.

Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. [2] Scholars like Dr. Eitel connects it to the Rishi Gautama. [3] There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish. [4]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials

UKT 150501, 161020: This note is intended for Bur-Myan speakers, and may not be totally applicable to British English (RP) nor General American (GA).

When {ka.} and {ra.} are brought near each other *, they can form a disyllabic conjunct, or as in the case of Bur-Myan, a monosyllabic medial which sounds like {kya.} without rhoticity (aka R-colouring **). However, in the case of Rakhine dialect of Bur-Myan, and Pal-Myan, the monosyllable has a distinctly rhotic sound with R-colouring. In every case, the combination of {ka.} and {ra.} is written as {kra.}.

* As a chemist, I draw a parallel between two phonemes such as {ka.} and {ra.} forming a disyllable (presumably more expenditure of energy) and a monosyllable (less energy) to two atoms approaching each other to form a molecule. See Molecular Orbital Theory in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_theory 161021

** In the case of spoken English, R-colouring is either due to consonant at the beginning of the word, or to the vowel. The R-colouring due to consonant is best explained by pronunciation of words such as "rabbit", "radish", "rainbow", "rat", "red", "ring", "road", "rocket", "rocking horse", "rose", "run", etc. Read R-coloured vowel in Wikipedia: 
  "R-colored vowels are rare, occurring in less than one percent of the languages of the world. [1] However, they occur in two of the most widely spoken languages: North American English and Mandarin Chinese. In North American English, they are found in words such as butter, nurse and, for some speakers, start. "
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel 161021

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