Update: 2017-11-25 09:37 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{a-ku.} - cont
{a-kRi.} : {kRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel
{a-k~ra.} : {k~ra.} written as a {ra.ric}
{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha
{a-hka.} : regular-Kha
{a-hk~ya.} : do not pronounce as medial {a-hkya.}
{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}


UKT notes :
Rishi Angiras {n~ra-a. ra..}
Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials


Contents of this page

{a-ku.} - cont



आकुलय [ -kulaya ]
- den. P. confuse; fill: pp. ita, disordered, disturbed, perplexed, by (in., -).



आकुलीकृ [ -kul-kri ]
- confuse, dim; fill; pp. bewildered, disturbed with (in.); -bh , be or become confused; -yamna , pr. pt. ps. bewildered, annoyed



आकूत [ &asharp;-kta ]
- n. intention, wish.


Contents of this page


UKT 161021: {kRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ


आकृति [ &asharp;-kriti ]
- f. component part; form, appearance; -mat, a. having a form, embodied.



आकृष्टवत्् [ -krishta-vat ]
- pp. act. drawn.



आकृष्टि [ -krishti ]
- f. attraction; drawing (a bowstring); magic attraction, attractive spell.


Contents of this page



आके [ k ]
- ad. (lc.) near.



आकेकर [ -kekara ]
- a. squinting slightly.


Contents of this page



आकोप [ -kopa ]
- m. touch of anger; -vat, a. somewhat angry at (lc.).



आकौशल [ kausala ]
- n. inexperience, lack of skill.


Contents of this page

{a-k~ra.} / {kra.}

UKT 150501, 161020: See my Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials in my note below.


आक्रन्द [ -krand- ]
= आ क ् र न ् द
- m. cry, wail, lamentation; natural ally of a belligerent king (neighbour's neighbour); -ana, n. lamentation; -anya, fp. to be called on for help; -ita, (pp.) n. cry; -in, a. calling upon piteously (--).



आक्रम [ -kram- ]
- m. stepping up; attack; -ana, a. striding up; n. id.; attack; extension (towards, lc.).



आक्रान्त [ -krnta ]
- pp. (√kram) beset, overspread; in the power of, dominated by, pervaded with (--).



आक्रान्ति [ -krnti ]
- f. treading, ascending; rising.



आक्रीड [ -krda ]
- m. n. play-ground, grove, garden; -giri, -parvata, m. pleasure-hill.



आक्रोश [ -kros-a ]
- m. reviling; abuse, affront: -ka, a. reviling, abusing; -ita, cs. pp. cursed, reviled; -in, a. abusing.


Contents of this page

{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha


आक्षाण [ ksh-n ]
= आ क ् ष ा ण
- pf. pt. of √aksh.


Contents of this page



आक्षिप्तिका [ -kshiptik ]
- f. song sung by a person approaching the stage.


Contents of this page



आक्षेप [ -kshepa ]
- m. turning up (soil); quivering, convulsion; putting on (salve); throwing off; abandonment; enrapturing (g. or --); reference to (--); hint; challenge; abuse, affront; -na, a. () ravishing, charming; -rpaka, n. kind of simile; -valana, n. swaying (of the arms); -stra, n. thread for stringing pearls; -‿upam, f. kind of simile.



[-ksheptri ]
- m. rejecter



आक्षेप्य [ -kshepya ]
- fp. to be challenged.


Contents of this page



आखण्डल [ -khandala ]
- m. breaker, destroyer, ep. of Indra: -kakubh, f. east; -kpa, m. n. rainbow; -snu, m. son of Indra = Arguna.


Contents of this page



आखु [ -kh- ]
- m. mole; mouse [burrower: + √kh]; -va-grma, m. N. of a village.


Contents of this page



आखेट [ kheta ]
- m. chase: -ka, m. id.; hunter; -bhmi, f. hunting ground; -‿atav, f. game forest.


Contents of this page

{a-hk~ya.} / {a-hkya.}

UKT150501, 161021: I have observed among my friends the English-speakers and the Hindi-speakers, that they could pronounce {hk~ya.} only as a disyllable and not as monosyllabic medial {hkya.}. However, they always mix it up the Palatal affricates. Remember, our row #2 Palatal plosive-stops are Palatal affricates to them.


आख्या [ -khy ]
- f. name: in. by name; period: a. named (--); -ta, (pp.) n. finite verb; -tavya, fp. to be told or related; -ti, f. tale, report; appellation; -tri, m. teller, relater; teacher; -na, n. narration; story, tale; legend: -ka, n. short tale: , f. a metre, -pakama, a. having the Purnas as the fifth; -paka, a. announcing, proclaiming; -pana, n. invitation to relate; -yik, f. short tale; -yin, a. relating, reporting (--).

आख्यात [ -khyta ]
Skt: आख्यात [ -khyta ] - (pp.) n. finite verb -- Mac037c1
Pal: {a-hkya-ta.} - UHS PMD0157
  UKT from UHS: n. verb such as to speak, to go, to cook

Contents of this page



आख्येय [ -khyeya ]
- fp. to be told, -related, -admitted.


Contents of this page



आगण्ड [ -ganda ]
- ad. up to the cheeks (--).



आगत [ -gata ]
- (pp.) m. guest; n. event.


आगति [ &asharp;-gati ]
- f. arrival, return (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); origin; coming up to, joining.



आगन्तव्य [ -gan-tavya ]
- fp. that must come; -tu, a. 1. arriving: m. new comer, stranger, guest; 2. adventitious: -ka, id.; a. stray (cattle); having crept in (unauthorised reading); -tr, a. about to come.



आगम [ &asharp;-gama ]
- a. coming up; m. arrival, occurrence; origin; course (of streams); affluence, revenue, property; acquisition; learning, knowledge; science; precept, tradition; manual, code; augment (gr.); -na, n. coming, arrival; origin; sexual intercourse; -vat, a. having sexual intercourse; -sruti, f. tradition; -‿apyin, a. coming and going.



आगमिन्् [ gam-in ]
- a. taking an augment.



आगस्् [ &asharp;g-as ] 
- n. offence, crime, fault, sin.



आगस्त्य [ gastya ]
- a. referring to Agasti; m. descendant of Agasti.



आगामिन्् [ -gmin ]
- a. coming; future.



आगामुक [ -g&asharp;muka ]
- a. wont to come to (ac.).



आगार [ gra ]
- n. apartment, dwelling, house.



आगुर्् [ -gur ]
- f. ritual response.



आगुरव [ gurava ]
- a. () produced by aloe wood.



आग्नावैष्णव [ gn-vaishnav ]
- a. belonging to Agni-Vishnu.



आग्निक [ gnika ]
- a. () relating to fire-service.



आग्निमारुत [ gni-mrut ]
- n. litany to Agni and the Maruts.



आग्नीध्र [ &asharp;gni‿idhra ]
- m. fire-kindler (priest); n. fire-altar: &isharp;-ya, m. fire on the fire-altar.



आग्नेय [ gney ]
- a. () relating to fire or Agni; n. the lunar mansion Krittik.



आग्रथन [ -grath-ana ]
- n. putting on (girdle).



आग्रयण [ grayan ]
- m. offering of new grain (a Soma libation); n. offering of first-fruits at the end of the rainy season; , f. (sc. -ishti) sacrifice of first-fruits; (a)-ka, n. id. (--, a.).



आग्रह [ -graha ]
- m. pertinacity; favour.



आग्रहायणी [ grahyan ]
- f. day of full-moon in the month Mrga-srsha; kind of pka yaga.



आघट््टना [ -ghattan ]
- f. blow, impact.


Contents of this page



आघर्घरम्् [ -ghar-ghar-am ]
- ad. growling.



आघर्ष [ -gharsha ]
- m. friction.



आघाट [ -ght ]
- m., , f. cymbal, rattle.



आघात [ -ghta ]
- m. stroke, blow; gust; killing; place of execution; slaughter-house.



आघृणि [ &asharp;-ghrini ]
- a. glowing; radiant.



आघोषणा [ -ghoshan ]
- f. public proclamation.



आघ्राण [ -ghrna ]
- n. smelling: -tas, ad. by smelling.


Contents of this page

{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}


आङ् [-ṅ] = आ
- . (gr.).



आङ्ग [ ṅga ]
- m. prince of Aṅga; -, f. princess of Aṅga.

Aṅga was one of the 16 Mahajanapada (c. 600 BCE - c. 300 BCE) of time of Gautama Buddha. "Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region, prior to the rise of Buddhism in India".
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada 150501



आङ्गारिक [ ṅgrika ]
- m. charcoal burner.

Contents of this page



आङ्गिरस [ ṅgiras ]
- a. () relating to the Aṅgiras; m. pat. descendant of Aṅgiras.

See my note on Angiras {n~ra-a. ra..}



आङ्गूष [ ṅgsh ]
- m. n. song of praise.

( end of old p037.htm)

Contents of this page



- in adverbs like dakshin- &c. (gr.) 



- m. N. of a man



आचन्द्रतारकम्् [ -kandra-trakam ]
- ad. except moon and stars.



आचमन [ -kamana ]
- n. sipping water; rinsing the mouth; water for rinsing the mouth (also , f.); -ya, n. water for rinsing the mouth.



आचरण [ -kr-ana ]
- n. arrival; performance; conduct; -anya, fp. to be done or performed; -ita, (pp.) n. arrival; usage; conduct; -itavya, fp. to be done; n. one should act according to usage.



आचाम [ -kma ]
- m. sipping water; water or scum of boiled rice.



आचार [ -kra ]
- m. behaviour; good conduct; usage, custom, observance, rule: --, customary: -maya, a. ceremonious, devoted to etiquette; -lg&abrevcirc;, m. f. pl. customary parched grain; -vat, a. well-behaved, virtuous; -vyapeta, pp. diverging from usage; -‿apeta, a. id.; -hna, pp. neglectful of the rules of conduct.



आचार्य [ -kry [fp. to be gone to] ]
- m. teacher, esp. a Brhman; N. of Drona (teacher of the Pndavas); son of an outcast Vaisya; -ka, n. teachership; -t, f., -tva, n. calling of a teacher; -vat, a. having a teacher; -n, f. wife of a teacher; -‿adhna, a. dependent on one's teacher: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



आचिख्यासु [ -ki-khy-su ]
- des. a. wishing to express; -sa‿upam, f. kind of simile.



आचित [ -kita ] 
- pp. heaped up; filled, laden, studded, with (in.. or --).



- m. N. of a temple built by ka.



- pp. (√khad) covered, clad



आच्छाद [ -kkhd-a ]
- m. garment, clothing: -ka, a. covering, concealing: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -na, n. covering, concealing; clothing: -vastra, n. lower garment; -in, (--) a. covering, concealing.



आच्छुरित [ -kkhurita ]
- pp. scratched.



आच्य [ ‿ak-ya ]
- gd. having bent.


Contents of this page



आज [ ga ]
- a. relating to goats; n. N. of a lunar mansion.



आजगर [ gagara ]
- a. () relating to or behaving like a boa.



आजन्म [ -ganma ]
- ad. from birth.



आजरसम्् [ -garasm ]
- ad. to old age.



आजर्जरित [ -gargarita ]
- pp. somewhat bruised or tattered.


Contents of this page



आजातशत्रव [ gtasatrav ]
- a. relating to Agtasatru; m. descendant of Agtasatru.

King Ajatasatru aka Kunika (ruled c. 492 BC c. 460 BC) was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara ( 558 BC 491 BC), the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira ( 540 BCE468 BCE) and Buddha (563 BCE483 BCE).
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajatasatru 150501
Read more about him in Fourth Adhyya, The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by Max Mller, [1879], at sacred-texts.com
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbe01/sbe01242.htm 161023



आजाति [ -gti ]
- f. birth.



आजानुलम्बिन्् [ gnu-lambin ]
- a. reaching to the knees.



आजानेय [ gneya ]
- a. () of noble race; m. well-bred horse.


Contents of this page



आजि [ g- ]
- m. f. race, contest, fight: -bhmi, f. battle-field; -mukha, n. vanguard.



आजिह्मित [ -gihmita ]
- pp. somewhat turned aside: -lokanam, ad. with somewhat averted glance.



आजीगर्ति [ &asharp;ggarti ]
- m. pat. descendant of Aggarta.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Angiras (rishi)

UKT 110813: Akshara-to-akshara of Skt: अंगिरस् gives Myan: {n-gi.r}. The nearest in Pal-Myan:

Pal:   {n~gi-ra.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0013
   UKT from UHS: mfn. 'descendant of {n~gi-ra.a.}' . m. the Planet Jupiter

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_sage 110813

Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced as "əngirəs"; nominative singular Angirā - अंगिरा, pronounced as "əngirα:") is a Vedic rishi (or sage) who, along with sage Atharvan, is credited to have formulated ("heard") most of the fourth Veda called Atharvaveda. He is also mentioned in the other three Vedas. Sometimes he is reckoned as one of the Seven Great Sages, or saptarishis of the first Manvantara, with others being, Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha [1] Bharadwaja maharshis was his descendant. .

His wife is Surūpa and his sons are Utatya, Samvartana and Brihaspati. He is one of the ten Manasaputras (wish-born-son) of Lord Brahma. Other accounts say that he married smrithy, the daughter of Daksha.

The name Angirasas is applied generically to several Puranic individuals and things; a class of Pitris, the ancestors of man according to Hindu Vedic writings, and probably descended from the sage Angiras. In the Rigveda, Agni is sometimes referred to as Angiras or as a descendant of Angiras (RV 1.1). In the Rigveda, Indra drives out cows from where they had been imprisoned by either a demon (Vala) or multiple demons (the Panis) and gifts them to the Angirasas (RV 3.31, 10.108 and a reference in 8.14). Mandala 6 of the Rigveda is attributed to a family of Angirasas.

Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. [2] Scholars like Dr. Eitel connects it to the Rishi Gautama. [3] There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish. [4]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Go back Angiras-note-b

Contents of this page

Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials

UKT 150501, 161020: This note is intended for Bur-Myan speakers, and may not be totally applicable to British English (RP) nor General American (GA).

When {ka.} and {ra.} are brought near each other *, they can form a disyllabic conjunct, or as in the case of Bur-Myan, a monosyllabic medial which sounds like {kya.} without rhoticity (aka R-colouring **). However, in the case of Rakhine dialect of Bur-Myan, and Pal-Myan, the monosyllable has a distinctly rhotic sound with R-colouring. In every case, the combination of {ka.} and {ra.} is written as {kra.}.

* As a chemist, I draw a parallel between two phonemes such as {ka.} and {ra.} forming a disyllable (presumably more expenditure of energy) and a monosyllable (less energy) to two atoms approaching each other to form a molecule. See Molecular Orbital Theory in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_theory 161021

** In the case of spoken English, R-colouring is either due to consonant at the beginning of the word, or to the vowel. The R-colouring due to consonant is best explained by pronunciation of words such as "rabbit", "radish", "rainbow", "rat", "red", "ring", "road", "rocket", "rocking horse", "rose", "run", etc. Read R-coloured vowel in Wikipedia: 
  "R-colored vowels are rare, occurring in less than one percent of the languages of the world. [1] However, they occur in two of the most widely spoken languages: North American English and Mandarin Chinese. In North American English, they are found in words such as butter, nurse and, for some speakers, start. "
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel 161021

Go back Th-Conjunct-Medial-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file