Update: 2017-04-20 11:58 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  Sanskrit dental-fricatives subgroup - cont
{a.i.} - cont
{a.Ri.} : Skt-Dev Highly rhotic vowel

{a.Ska.} : Skt: {Sa.} ष standing for Pal: {a.}

{a.Sya.} : uncharted waters
{a.Sra.} / {~a.ra.}
{a.Swa.} / {a.Sva.}/ {a.a.wa.}


UKT notes :
See my note on Sanskrit dental-fricatives and their derivatives on p032.htm .
Aspirated and Stop consonants
Fricative consonants
Sva-dharma {~wa. Dm~ma.}


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{a.i.} - cont



असित [ . -sita ]
- pp. unrestrained.



असित [ . s-ita ]
- a. ( or -ikn) dark-coloured, black; m. N.: -paksha, m. dark half of a month; -ptaka, a. (ik) dark yellow; -‿asman, m. sapphire; -‿kshana, a. black-eyed; -‿utpala, n. blue lotus.



असिद्ध [ a-siddha ]
- pp. not established: -tva, n. inconclusiveness.



असिद्धि [ -siddhi ]
= अ स ि द ् ध ि
- f. non-attainment, failure; inconclusiveness.



- m. N.



असिधारा [ asi-dhr ]
- f. sword-blade: -vrata, n. vow of lying with a sword between oneself and a woman = excessively difficult under taking; -dhenu, -k, f. knife.



असिन्व [ a-sinv ]
- a. insatiable.



असिपत्‍त्र [ asi-pattra ]
- n. sword-blade; m. a tree; -vana, n. a certain hell; -putrik, f. knife.

( end of old p035-1.htm)


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असु [ s-u ]
- m. breath, life, vitality; spirit world; vital spirits (pl. C.).



असुख [ a-sukha ]
- n. pain, sorrow; a. unpleasant; painful; unhappy; not easy to (inf.); -gvika, a. leading a joyless life; -‿vishta, pp. afflicted with grief.



असुखिन्् [ a-sukh-in ]
- a. sad, unhappy.



असुतर [ a-su-tara ]
- a. difficult to cross.



असुतृप्् [ asu-trp ]
- a. life-taking; (a-su-) insatiable.



असुनीति [ su-nti ]
- f. spirit-life, spirit-world.



असुन्दर [ a-sundara ]
- a. uncomely, ugly.



असुबोध [ a-subodha ]
- a. hard to learn.



असुर [ su-ra ]
- a. living, spiritual, divine; m. spirit, Lord God; evil spirit, demon, Asura: -tv, n. spirituality, divinity; state of an Asura.



असुरक्ष [ a-su-raksha ]
- a. difficult to guard.



असुरद्रुह्् [ asura-druh ]
- m. foe of Asuras, god; -brahm, m. priest of the Asuras.



असुरभि [ a-surabhi ]
- a. ill-smelling.



असुररक्षस [ asura-rakshas ]
- n. pl. Asuras & Rkshasas; -hn, a. (-ghn&isharp;) Asura-killing; -‿adhipa, m. king of the Asuras; -‿ari, m. foe of the Asuras (Vishnu).


असुर्य [ asury ]
- a. spiritual, divine, demoniac; n. spirituality, divinity; world of spirits or gods.



असुलभ [ a-sulabha ]
- a. hard to obtain; rare: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



असुष्वि [ -sushvi ]
- a. not Soma-pressing, niggardly.



असुसू [ asu-s ]
- m. arrow.



असुस्थ [ a-sustha ]
- a. unwell: -sarra, a. ill.



असुस्थिरादर [ asu-sthira‿dara ]
- a. always anxious about his life.



असुहृद [ a-suhrid ]
- m. no friend; a. friendless.



असुहृद्गण [ asuhrid-gana ]
- m. party of strangers.


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असूचीसंचार [ a-sk-samkra ]
- a. impenetrable even to a needle.



असूति [ a-sti ]
- f. not arising, non-appearance.



असूय [ . asya ]
- den. grumble, be angry at (ac., d.); cs. asyaya, P. irritate.



असूय [ . asya ]
- a. grumbling, angry: , f. grumbling, displeasure, anger, grudge: -ka, a. grumbling, angry, grudging.



असूर्य [ a-sry ]
- a. sunless: -ga, a. not moving towards the sun.


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{a.Ri.} : Skt-Dev Highly rhotic vowel


असृक्पङ्कपेषम्् [ asrik-paṅka-pesham ]
- abs.w. √pish, pound to a bloody pulp; -pta, m. track of blood; flow of blood.



असृग्धारा [ asrig-dhr ]
- f. stream of blood.



असृङ्मय [ asriṅ-maya ]
- a. () consisting of blood.



[s-rig ]
- n. blood, gore

( end of p035-2.htm)


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असेन्य [ a-seny ]
- a. not hitting or wounding.



असेवक [ a-sevaka ]
- m. no servant, indifferent servant.



असेवा [ a-sev- ]
- f. non-addiction; -ita, pp. not frequented: -‿svara-dvra, a. not waiting at grandees' doors.


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असोढ [ a-sodha ]
- pp. (√sah) unconquerable.



असोम [ a-soma ]
--> {a.au:ma.}
Skt: असोम  [ a-soma] - a. lacking Soma juice. -- Mac035c2
*Pal: {a.au:ma.} - UHS-PMD1073
  UKT from UHS: m. Moon, Moon-dva

UKT 140808: UHS-PMD1073 gives the word {au:ma.} as "Moon", or the "Moon-Dva". There is no mention of the alcoholic drink Soma juice.


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असौ [ a-s-a ]
- prn. m. f. of ad-s, that; he, she; so and so, M. or N.; as such (emphatic); with eva, the same.



- a. having such & such a name.



असौभाग्य [ a-saubhgya ]
- n. unpopularity.



असौवर्ण [ a-sauvarna ]
- a. not golden.

( end of old p035-3.htm)

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{a.Ska.} : Skt: {Sa.} ष standing for Pal: {a.}

UKT 150421: Because of Skt: {Sa.} ष stands for Pal: {a.}, you should look for Pal: {~a} whenever you see Skt: {S~}. In UHS PMD pages 0150-0153, there are many entries on Pal: {~a} and related words.


अस्कन्न [ -skanna ]
= अ स ् क न ् न
- pp. not sprinkled; un-impregnated, immaculate.


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अस्खलित [ a-skhalita ]
- pp. not stumbling; uninterrupted, unhindered; n. not coming to a standstill; -kakra, a. w. unimpeded chariot; -pada, a. where the foot does not stumble; safe; -prayna, a. with unfaltering march.


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अस्त [ s-ta ]
= अ स ् त
- n. home, abode; setting; mythical western mountain behind which sun and moon set: -m, ad. home, with verbs of going = set (stars, sun, moon); go to rest; die.



अस्तंयत् [ astam-yat ]
- pr. pt. setting.



अस्तगिरि [ asta-giri ]
- m. sunset-mountain.



अस्तंगत [ astam-gata ]
- pp. set; -gamita, pp. caused to set, destroyed.



अस्तब्ध [ a-stabdha ]
- pp. agile, active; unpretentious: -tva, n. unpretentiousness.



अस्तमय [ astam-aya ]
- m. sunset; disappearance; -ita, pp. having set, gone to rest, died: lc. (sc. srye) after sunset.



अस्तम्भ [ a-stambha ]
- a. lacking posts; unpretentious.



अस्तसमय [ asta-samaya ]
- m. time of sunset.



अस्ता [ s-t ]
= अ स ् त ा
Skt: अस्ता [ s-t ] - f. missile; arrow. - Mac035c2
*Pal: {~a.t} - UHS PMD0150 
  UKT from UHS: participle of  <throw, threw, thrown>

UKT 150421: Since <missile> and <arrow> implies 'throwing something', I am comparing Skt: अस्ता with Pal: {~a.t} - UHS PMD0150



अस्ताचल [ asta‿akala ]
- m., -‿adri, m. sunset mountain.



अस्ताभिलाषिन्् [ asta‿abhilshin ]
- a. verging towards sunset.



अस्तुत [ -stuta ]
- pp. unpraised; unrecited.



अस्तुत्य [ a-stu-tya ]
- fp. unpraiseworthy.



अस्तुविद्् [ astu-vid ]
- a. aware that something must be done.



[s-tri ]
- m. slinger, bowman.



अस्तृत [ -strita ]
- pp. unconquered, unconquerable.



अस्तेय [ -steya ]
- n. not stealing.



अस्त्र [ as-tr ]
= अ स ् त ् र
- n. (m.) missile, arrow; bow; -kshati-mat, a. wounded by missiles; -grma, m. collection of missiles; -ga, a. skilled in arms or in launching missiles; -vid, a. id.; -vrishti, f. shower of arrows; -‿agra, n. armoury.



अस्त्रिन्् [ astr-in ]
- m. bowman, archer.



अस्त्री [ a-str ]
- f. no woman; no feminine = m. and n. (gr.); -sambhogin, a. lying with no woman.


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अस्त्रोपनिषद्् [ astra‿upanishad ]
- f. skill in arms.



अस्थन्् [ asthn ]
- n. (used as weakest base of sthi) bone; kernel: -vat, a. having bones; ɴ. animal with bones.



अस्थान [ a-sthna ]
- n. wrong place (for, g.); - or lc. out of place; at the wrong time; wrongly.



अस्थास्नु [ a-sthsnu ]
- a. impatient.



अस्थि [ sthi ]
- n. bone; kernel: -ka, n. bone; -krna, n. bone powder.



अस्थित [ a-sthita ]
- pp. not existing.



अस्थिति [ a-sthiti ]
- f. disorder.



अस्थिदन्तमय [ asthi-danta-maya ]
- a. made of bone and ivory; -mat, a. furnished with bones; -maya, a. () consisting of or full of bones.



अस्थिर [ -sthira ]
- a. not firm, unsteady.



अस्थिशेष [ asthi-sesha ]
- a. of which only bones are left; -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -sthna, a. having a framework of bones.



अस्थूल [ -sthla ]
- a. not coarse, slender; subtle.


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अस्नातृ [a-sntr ]
Skt: अस्नातृ [a-sntr ] - a. not of bathing, disliking water - Mac035c3
Skt: अस्नातृ asnātṛ - adj. fearing the water, not a swimmer, not fond of bathing - SpkSkt


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अस्पर्शन [ a-sparsana ]
- n. absence or avoidance of contact.



अस्पष्ट [ a-spashta ]
- pp. indistinct, not clear: -‿updhi, a. whose conditioning associate is not clear: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



अस्पृशत्् [ a-spris-at ]
- pr. pt. not touching.



अस्पृश्य [ a-sprisya ]
- fp. not to be touched.



अस्पृष्ट [ a-sprishta ]
- pp. untouched; unattained, lacking: -purusha‿antara, a. applying to no other person.



अस्पृहा [ a-sprih ]
- f. no desire.


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अस्म [ . a-sm ]
- prn. stem of 1 prs. pl.



अस्म [ . -sma (or ) ]
- prn. stem of 3 prs. sg.



अस्म [ . a-sma ]
- a. unconnected with the particle sma (gr.).



अस्मत्कूलीन [ asmat-klna ]
- a. belonging to our family; -sampa-tas, ad. near us.



-- (=ab. samt), from us



अस्मत्रा [ asma-tr&asharp; ]
- ad. among or with us.



अस्मदर्थे [ asmad-arthe ]
- lc. ad. for my sake.



अस्मदीय [ asmad-ya ]
- poss. prn. our.



- a. turned to us; -dri‿ak , ad. towards us



  अस्मद्वत्् [ asmad-vat ]
- ad. like us; -vidha, a. like us.



अस्मयु [ asma-y ]
- a. attached to us.



अस्माक [ asma‿acute;aka ]
- poss. prn. our.



अस्मादृश [ asm-drisa ]
- a. like us.



अस्मृति [ a-smriti ]
- f. forgetting.


अस्मे [ asm ]
- V. d., lc. of asm, we.



अस्मेहिति [ asm-hiti ]
- f. mission to us.

( end of old p035-4.htm)

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UKT 150428, 161016: Beginning with {ya.}, we are in uncharted waters of the Approximants. If we were to go by the Akshara table, the first 4 are semi-consonants (aka semivowels), {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}. The phoneme {wa.} is not properly pronounced by Skt-Dev speakers and becomes {va.}.

The next 3 are fricatives, {sha.}, {Sa.}, {a.}. These three is further subdivided into dental hissing-sibilants {sha.}, {Sa.}, and non-hissing thibilant {a.}. The phoneme {sha.} is not easily handled by Bur-Myan speakers and is commonly mis-spelled {rha.}, and sometimes {hya.}. The dental hissing-sibilant {Sa.} is not present in Bur-Myan phonology. What it has is the palatal plosive tenuis voiceless-stop {sa.}. To avoid havoc in transcription between Burmese and English, I have to use the same glyph for both {sa.} and {Sa.}, differentiated only the killed-aksharas:

{sa.} --> {c}
{Sa.} --> {S}

The situation becomes more complex by English not having the plosive tenuis voiceless-stops, but only having only ordinary voiceless-stops, e.g. English has no {ka.} sound, but only {hka.}. English speakers simply dismiss {ka.}- {hka.} problem simply as allophones not realizing that the problem is due to their inability to "hear" the sounds correctly. The sounds are clearly differentiated in our hearing.

Our ability to articulate the phonemes depends on our hearing which is curtailed by our home language, the L1, which itself is an aspect of our culture.

Finally, the problem is climaxed by Eng-Lat not having the palatal plosive-stops, but only the affricates.


['asya-vm' -iya]
- n. RV.I. 164

UKT 150521, 161016: Though not exactly the RV.I, 164: to show the mythical nature of the Vedas, I cite below Macdonell's, Vedic Mythology: in downloaded pdf file in TIL SD-Library:
- MacdonellVedicMyth<> / bkp<> (link chk 161016)


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{a.Sra.} / {~a.ra.}

UKT 150428: Beginning with {a.Sra.}, there is the possibility of the first two aksharas coming together as {S~ra.}.


अस्र [ as-r ]
= अ स ् र --> {S~ra.}
Skt: अस्र [ as-r ] - n. tear; blood; -pa, m. Rkshasa. - Mac035c3
Pal: {~ru.} - UHS-PMD0152
  UKT from UHS: . n. tear



अस्रिध्् a-sridh, अस्रिधान [ -sridhna ]
= अ स ् र ि ध ् ्
- a. unfailing.



अस्रेमन्् [ a-sremn ]
- a. untiring.



अस्रोत्तरम्् [ asra‿uttaram ]
- ad. bathed in tears.


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{S~wa.}/ {S~va.}/ {a.a.wa.}

UKT 150422: The idea of Sva-dharma {~wa. Dm~ma.} in Hinduism, though prevalent in Myanmarpr, is always overruled by Theravada Buddha-Dmma. The word Swarga Loka, स्वर्ग, is any of the seven loka or planes in Hindu cosmology, which sequentially are Bhu loka (Prithvi Loka, Earth), Bhuvar loka, Swarga loka, Mahar loka, Jana loka, Tapa loka, and the highest, Satyaloka (Brahmaloka). The layman, who can see only appreciate the surface of the Earth on which he lives, Sva being the Sky is Heaven.


अस्व [ a-sva ]
- a. lacking goods; -tva, n. poverty.



अस्वगता [ a-svag-t ]
- f. homelessness.

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UKT notes

Aspirated and Stop consonants 

- UKT 161005: It is very difficult to teach the pronunciation of PTK consonants to Bur-Myan, and to Eng-Lat speakers because two reasons: #1,English speakers cannot hear nor articulate the tenuis consonants, and #2, Bur-Myan has no Dental hisser {Sa.} /s/ instead of which it has Dental thibilant {a.} /θ/. Though English speakers can both hear and articulate the Dental thibilant {a.} /θ/ (in common English words such as <thin>, speakers of other European languages, and Sanskrit can neither hear nor articulate it. They have to use the {Sa.} /s/ in its place.

To familiarize with this problem see the following Wikipedia articles:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirated_consonant 161015
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_consonant 161015
See also Google Search:
3. A first book of Old English by Robert D. Stevick,
- http://faculty.washington.edu/stevickr/graphotactics/sounds_contents.html 161016
- http://faculty.washington.edu/stevickr/graphotactics/PDF_files/Sounds23.pdf 161016
or, downloaded file in TIL SD-Library:
- Stevick-SoundsOldEnglish<> / bkp<> (link chk 161016)

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirated_consonant  161015

Aspirated consonants:

In Phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of pre-aspiration, the closure of some obstruents. [UKT ]

In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian [ and Bur-Myan - the Tibeto-Burman language], and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive.

To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say pin [pʰɪn] and then bin [bɪn]. One should either feel a puff of air or see a flicker of the candle flame with pin that one does not get with bin. In most dialects of English, the initial consonant is aspirated in pin and unaspirated in bin.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_consonant 161015

Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Aspirat-Stop-note-b 

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Fricative consonants

UKT 131118, 140808, 161015:

In the update of 130818 on Base consonants and vowels of BEPS
- MCc-indx.htm (link chk 161016), I have written on Nasal phonemes, {nga.} /ŋ/, {} /ɲ/, {Na} /ɳ/, {na.} /n/, {ma.} /m/. I have left out the hissing Sibilants, {sha.} /ʃ/ & {Sa.} /s/, and non-hissing Thibilant {a.} /θ/. 

Eng-Latin speakers can neither articulate nor hear the phonetically important tenuis triplet consonants PTK {pa.}, {ta.} & {ka.}, unless the consonants are preceded by /s/. The /s/ is given by {Sa.}/ {S} which Bur-Myan does not have. What Bur-Myan has is {sa.}/ {c}.

Eng-Latin speakers can neither hear nor articulate the Palatal Stop {sa.}/ {c}. In its place, they have the aspirated Palatal Affricate {hkya.} and its allophone {kya.} which is a tenuis. Because {kya.} (voiceless-tenuis) and its allophone (an ordinary voiceless) {hkya.} are medials (conjuncts), they cannot be under Virama {a.t} 'the killer'. Placing them under the Viram sign breaks them apart.

Since in words and syllables that begin with /s/ sound, it is immaterial whether consonant is Palatal-stop or Dental-fricative, since both {sa.} and {Sa.} have the same onset-sound. However, in words and syllables that end with this sound (i.e. in the coda), the pronunciation becomes vastly different. Thus, Romabama has to differentiate:

{kc} /kɪc/ equivalent of <kick> (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/)
{kS} /kɪs/ equivalent of <kiss> (DJPD16-301)

UKT 161015: Note that in English syllables of the canonical form CVC, there can be two or more letters in the onset and in the coda. E.g., <cc> & <ss> in <success>, and <kn> & <ght> in <knight>. Such a practice is a major obstacle in inter-transcription in BEPS languages.

The voiceless-tenuis is realized in Eng-Lat only in {S~ka.} /sk/, {S~ta.}  /st/ , and {S~pa.} /sp/. When nasals, and approximants are included we have {S~na.} /sn/, {S~ma.} /sm/,  {S~la.} /sl/ & {S~wa} /sw/. However, in entries in this file in which we are dealing with {a.}, we have to accept a change from {a.} to {Sa.}:

  {a.~ka.} --> {a.S~ka.}

See also Sibilant consonants in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibilant 131117

To pronounce these Skt-Dev words as close as possible to Sanskrit pronunciation, Bur-Myan speakers would have to pronounce the non-hisser {a.} as a hisser resulting in
   {a.~ka.} --> pronounced as / {a.S~ka.}/
   {a.~ta.} --> pronounced as / {a.S~ta.}/
   {a.~pa.} --> pronounced as / {a.S~pa.}/
   {a.~ma.} --> pronounced as / {a.S~ma.}/
without a change in Skt-Dev from स --> ष

Go back Fricative-note-b

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- UKT 150422

Pal: {a.wa.} - UHS PMD1014
  UKT from UHS: m. yajna sacrifice.
In Hinduism, Skt: Yajna यज्ञ yaja = य ज ् ञ --> {yiz~a.} is an offering accompanied by chanting Vedic mantras. {yiz~a.} is spelled in Bur-Myan as {yiz} - MLC MED2006-386
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajna 150422

The first time I heard the word {~wa.} or Sva was early in life as a child when there was a Nine-god Puja - a Buddhist puja - in my family home in Kungyangon where I was born. If you want to know what a Nine-god Puja is, read
Ch 02. Nine Gods in Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 161013)

From: http://www.philtar.ac.uk/encyclopedia/hindu/ascetic/sva.html 150422

Sva-dharma {~wa. Dm~ma.}, means literally "own dharma" and has been translated as "own duty" and "particular responsibilities." Dharma is derived from the Sanskrit root dhr, "sustain, support, uphold," and has a wide range of meanings, including truth, cosmic law, reality, righteousness, correctness, integrity, duty, and caste duty. The term Sva-dharma is a brahmanic creation that came relatively late and applies especially to the meanings of dharma as duty and caste duty. Thus it is duty according to one's caste (varna or jati; see Social Castes), one's age group within the caste, and one's stage of life (asrama). This system of social responsibilities is varnasramadharma and the term is nearly synonymous with Sva-dharma.

Every person has unique duties and responsibilities and this "own dharma" or Sva-dharma is unique to that person because everyone has different capacities for righteousness. This capacity is determined by one's birth, which is a result of karma, actions in a previous life.

Because of differing levels of purity between the castes, everyone cannot be expected to meet the same standard of social behaviour. However, the duties of the different members of the different varnas and asramas interact and support each other. It is necessary to follow one's Sva-dharma so that the carrying out of one's duties and responsibilities maintains harmony in society and the world. Brahmanic doctrine holds that social and cosmic harmony is dependent on following one's Sva-dharma at all times.

Interpretation of questions of dharma come from sruti, divine revelation in the form of the Vedas; smrti, the sacred tradition of the Vedangas, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, and the Dharma-shastras; practices of the wise; and conscience, this having the least weight.

Today Sva-dharma can be more liberally interpreted according to one's personal understanding of the position reached in life and the best course to take in the future to achieve the final goal.


Dharma in the Rg Veda (c. 1200 BCE) concerned the actions of the gods [represented by Rulers of Planets {groh} in traditional Myanmar-Astrology] that brought about or maintained cosmic harmony. In classical Vedic literature dharma is the system of activities which guides the world to uphold rta, universal harmony with all things in the world having a correct place and function. This proper action of the gods was linked to ritual and ascetic practises.

With the composition of the Brahmanas (c. 900 to 600 BCE), it was not only the actions of the gods that involved the laws of the cosmos but also rituals performed by priests [not Theravada Buddhist monks], which were prescribed in the texts. These rituals were to obtain a favourable rebirth. Dharma came to be closely aligned with the concept of karma, present actions determining the conditions of one's future life. Through the following centuries dharma and karma came to be strongly linked.

Dharma from at least the second century BCE, as seen in the Laws of Manu, was applied to normal social life and came to mean all one's obligations by which one fits in with nature and society. This became the system of varnasramadharma. Conflicting views in Hindu theory and practice over such concepts as ahimsa, non-injury, needed to be resolved. The basic structure of the Bhagavad Gita is the view that taking part in a war is perfectly acceptable as long as it can be interpreted as one's Sva-dharma. There are common moral obligations for everyone and these are known as sadharanadharma, dharma pertaining to everybody. Brahmanic doctrine says one must follow one's Sva-dharma at all times even if it means breaking the rules of sadharanadharma. Therefore the soldier must fight. But in the flux of religious thought in India, Vedantic traditions, Jainism, and Buddhism taught that the rules of sadharanadharma [Theravada Buddha-Dmma] always overrule those of Sva-dharma.

UKT: End of article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarga 150423

In Hinduism, Svarga (or Swarga) (Skt: स्वर्ग), also known as Swarga Loka, is any of the seven loka or planes in Hindu cosmology, which sequentially are Bhu loka (Prithvi Loka, Earth), Bhuvar loka, Swarga loka, Mahar loka, Jana loka, Tapa loka, and the highest, Satyaloka (Brahmaloka). [1] It is a set of heavenly worlds located on and above Mt. Meru. It is a heaven [UKT: Christian Heaven - which is equivalent to Bur-Myan {nt-pr}] where the righteous live in a paradise before their next incarnation. During each pralaya, the great dissolution, the first three realms, Bhu loka (Earth), Bhuvar loka, Swarga loka, are destroyed. Below the seven upper realms lie seven lower realms, of Patala, the underworld and netherworld.

Svarga is seen as a transitory place for righteous souls who have performed good deeds in their lives but are not yet ready to attain moksha, or elevation to Vaikunta, the abode of Lord Vishnu, considered to be the Supreme Abode (Rig Veda (1.22.20) states, Oṃ tad viṣṇoḥ paramam padam sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ: "All the suras (i.e., devas- divinities) look toward the feet of Lord Vishnu as the Supreme Abode"). The capital of Svarga is Amaravati and its entrance is guarded by Airavata. Svarga is presided over by Indra, the chief deva.

UKT: End of article

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Logas 150423

According to Ayyavazhi mythology there are Seven Logas (Seven Upper Worlds). The Sanskrit term for Loga is "loka." Akilam six and Akilam seven of Akilattirattu Ammanai speaks about it. The Seven logas are;

1. Deiva Loga Skt:  Devaloka
2. Yama Loga
3. Swarga Loga Skt: Svarga
4. Brahma Loga
5. Vaikunda Loga Skt: Vaikunta
6. Siva Loga Skt: Sivaloka or Kailasa
7. Para Loga

UKT 150423

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