Update: 2016-10-13 03:20 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p033.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

  Sanskrit dental-fricatives subgroup - cont
{sh}
  p033c1
{a.sh~ra.}
{a.sh~ra}
{a.sh~ri.}
{a.sh~ru.}
{a.sh~r}
{a.sh~rau:}
{a.sh~la.}
{a.sh~wa.}
  p033c2
{a.Sa.}
  p033c3
{a.a.} / {} --> Skt: {S~}
{a.n} : {a.a.} / {a.n} / {a.n~}

Before I can decide on a pronunciation, let us tentatively say it is {ash} if {a} were to stand as negative for some thing.  Otherwise, it may be changed to {sh}.

Tentatively:
Ash/Ish {ash}/{sh} & Shna {sh~na.} श ् न   = श्न 

Please note, I am on very shaky ground, and I expect to rewrite this note after more study.

 

UKT notes :
See my note on Sanskrit dental-fricatives and their derivatives on p032.htm .
Hemanta & Sisira Utu
Phoneme AeS formed from {a.a.} --> /
  See also  p032.htm > Phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> /  
Siddha

 

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{ish}

p033c1

p033c1-b00

अश््न [ s-na ]
- m. stone; N. of a demon.

 

p033c1-b01

[as -nav-a-t]
- 3 sg-sub. √as , obtain

 

p033c1-b02

अश््मक [ asma-ka ]
- m. N.: pl. N. of a people; -kutta, -ka, a. crushing with a stone; -t, f. stoniness, hardness of stone.

 

p033c1-b03

अश्मन्् [ s-man ]
- m. rock, stone; thunderbolt; heaven: lc. in the sky: du. heaven and earth; -mya, a. () made of stone.

UKT 140806, 161009: The "thunderbolt" given above means the weapon of Indra or Jove of the Greek/Roman legends which when used is accompanied by a flash of lighting and thunder. It is actually the discharge of static electricity between the thunder-cloud and the ground. Because of flashes of light the cut-diamond (a natural stone cut to give out flashes of light) has been related to thunderbolt. See Esoteric Buddhism, Vajrayana :
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 140806

अश्मन्  asman [ s-man ]
= अ श ् म न ्  --> / / {ash-mn}
Skt: - m. rock, stone; thunderbolt; heaven: lc. in the sky: du. heaven and earth; -- Mac033c1
*Pal: {a.a.ma.} UHS-PMD0145
- - UHS-PMD0145
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. not the same, no comparable person, unevenness. . m. stone, rock

UKT conjecture 131112, 161009 (3 yrs! and I haven't made much way):
   Though the Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan words are not exactly the same, from the meaning "rock, stone" given in Macdonell, I have placed them together. The meanings given by UHS in . and that given by Macdonell as "heaven and earth" shows the same idea of contrast.
   UHS shows that . & . should be pronounced differently. We can see that . is the antonym of {a.ma.}, whereas . seems to be a word 'rock, stone' without antonyms. And so, . should be represented as

{ash-mn}. This follows that . may be represented as {ash-mn}, from which we can easily get {a.sha.mn}:

{ash-mn} --> {a.sha.mn} --> {a.a.ma.}

 

p033c1-b04

  अश््ममय [ asma-mya ]
- a. id.; -mrdhan, a. having a head of stone.

 

p033c1-b05

अश्यर्थ [ asi‿artha ]
- a. meaning 'to eat' (asi = √as, eat).

 

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{a.sh~ra.}

p033c1-b06

अश्र [as-ra]
- - = [as -ri]

 

p033c1-b07

अश्रद्दधान [ -srad-dadhna ]
= अ श ् र द ् द ध ा न
- pr. pt. unbelieving (w. g.).

 

p033c1-b08

अश्रद्ध [ a-srad-dh ]
= अ श ् र द ् ध
Skt:  अश्रद्ध  asraddha  [ a-srad-dh ] - a. unbelieving. - Mac033c1
Pal: {a.d~Da.} - UHS MPD0144
  UKT from UHS: mfn. having no faith, unbelieving, disrespecting

 

p033c1-b09

अश्रद्धा [ -srad-dh ]
- f. lack of confidence; unbelief; -dheya, fp. incredible; unworthy of belief.

 

p033c1-b10

अश्रम [ -srama ]
- m. absence of fatigue; a. (or m) indefatigable.

 

p033c1-b11

अश्रवण [ a-sravana ]
- n. non-mention; lack of a word, suffix, &c.

 

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{a.sh~ra}

p033c1-b12

अश्रान्त [ -srnta ]
- pp. indefatigable: m, ad. assiduously.

 

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{a.sh~ri.}

p033c1-b13

अश्रि [ as-r ]
- f. edge (-- also -ka).

 

p033c1-b14

अश्री [ a-sr ]
- f. mishap; goddess of misfortune.

UKT 140807, 161009: Whenever you see the word "goddess", do not translate it as "Dvi". The Indians of India have a habit of personalizing everything and every event.
See: Goddesses in Ancient India by P K Agrawala -- meiy-tau-indx.htm
The "goddesses" are being "created" by worshippers even to this day. The most recent entity is Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India comparable to {a.mi. mrn-ma}.

 

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{a.sh~ru.}

p033c1-b15

अश्रु [ s-ru ]
- n. (m.) tear: w. kri or muk, shed tears; -karman, n. shedding of tears.

 

p033c1-b16

अश्रुत [ -sruta ]
- pp. unheard; unlearned: , f. N.; -t, f. being unknown; -vat, ad. as if unheard.

 

p033c1-b17

अश्रुति [ -sruti ]
- f. not hearing; oblivion: -m abhi-n, do as if one had heard nothing; -virodhin, a. not opposed to scripture.

 

p033c1-b18

अश्रुपरिप्लुत [ asru-pari-pluta ]
- pp. bathed in tears: -prna, pp. filled with tears; -pramrgana, n. wiping away of tears,=weeping; -plvita, n. flood of tears; -lesa, m. tear-drop.

 

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{a.sh~r}

p033c1-b19

अश्रेयस्् [ a-sreyas ]
- cpv. a. worse, inferior; n. misfortune.

 

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{a.sh~rau:}

p033c1-b20

अश्रोत्र [ a-srotr ]
- a. earless.

 

p033c1-b21

अश्रोत्रिय [ a-srotriya ]
- a. at which no trained Brhman {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} is present.

 

Skt: अश्रौत azrauta
- adj. not sanctioned by the Vdas
- SpkSkt

 

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{a.sh~la.}

p033c1-b22

अश््लाघ्य [ a-slgh-ya ]
- fp. unpraiseworthy, disgraceful.

 

p033c1-b23

अश््लीक [ a-sl-ka ]
- a. pernicious.

pernicious - adj. . a. Tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly: a pernicious virus. b. Causing great harm; destructive: pernicious rumors. . Archaic Evil; wicked. -- AHTD

 

p033c1-b24

अश््लील [ a-sll ]
- a. ugly; unrefined; indecent.

 

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{a.sh~wa.}

p033c1-b25

अश्व [ s-va ]
= अ श ् व
- m. horse: , f. mare; -kut, f. stable; -kusala, a. skilled in horses; -kovida, a. id.; -khura, m. horse's hoof: -vat, ad. like a horse's hoof; -ghma, m. N. of a place; -ghsa, m. horse fodder; N.; -kalana-sl, f. riding-hall; -tama, spv. best horse; -tar, m., &isharp;, f. mule.

अश्व [ s-va ]
Skt: अश्व [ s-va ] - m. horse - Mac033c1 
Pal: {~a.} = - UHS PMD0150
 
  UKT from UHS:
  . m. shoulder. . m. edge, corner. . m. horse.

UKT Conjecture 131112, 161010: See - p001-1.htm (link chk 161010). Below is my suggestion on . 'horse':

Skt-Myan: / {ash-wa.} --> {a.sha.wa.} --> {a.a.a.}
--> Pal-Myan: {a~a.}

As for . & ., I have to explain citing the absence of r1c5 phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ in Skt-Dev. The Sanskrit speakers, the new comers into India from the Iranian or Persian highlands are IE (Indo-European) speakers. They adopted many customs and beliefs including the language of the indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent who speak dialects of Vdic (Tib-Bur), the most important being Magadhi speech written in Asokan script in which the r1c5 phoneme /ŋ/ is important. As a supporting evidence I cite the word for 'fish' in Nwari न्या ; ङा {nga}, and in Burmese {nga:} which is the same except in emphasis.
#1. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161010)
#2. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- Turner-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161002)
On p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}.
The intruders adopted the belief in Mantras of the old Vdic religion. They promoted their male gods over those of the indigenous peoples in which Indra, Agni, and Soma were the foremost gods. They wrote "stories" which were presented as "ancient treaties" {pu-rN kym:} which resulted in Gautama Buddha calling them heretics and their language, Sanskrit, not fit to be used for Buddhist liturgy.
See: Language problem of primitive Buddhism, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 2009) in LANGUAGE AND RELIGION
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm (update 151130)
In those "ancient treatises", the intruders portrayed their chief gods, Vishnu and Siva as superior to Indra, Agni and Soma.

Based on the presence/absence of r1c5 phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ , I suggest that Skt-Dev (IE - IndoEuropean) was been derived from Vedic (Tib-Bur) of the Tib-Bur speakers (the aboriginal peoples) by Panini for the intruders who may been called the rhotic hissing-hushing speakers.

The Sanskrit speakers overcame the Tib-Bur speakers militarily, took over the mother-goddess religion of the Tib-Bur and incorporated it into the male-dominated dva religion of the IE. The Sanskritists rewrote the Veda in which they married their male gods taking over the Mother-goddesses of the conquered: Mahabrahma to Saraswati and Vishnu to Lakshmi. Finally, another group of invader-conquerors speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, entered the subcontinent from the south. They married their god Siva to Parvati and many other Mother-goddesses.

The newcomers took over the Vedic language and its mantras, perfected a language which they called Sanskrit meaning "refined". They made themselves Masters (kings and ruling class) and Teachers of the Masters, and Controllers of Trade and Commerce. They made the conquered aboriginals their servants - Sudra. Some were made to do the most menial jobs such as night-soil. These were branded as Outcasts - the Chandalas. See:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shudra 140807
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandala 140807

 

p033c1-b26

अश््वत्थ [ asva-tth ]
- m. [standing-place (ttha for stha) for horses], sacred fig-tree; -tthman, m. N. of a son of Drona; -da, -d&asharp;, a. giving horses; -pda, m. N. of a Siddha; -pdta-srameya-maya, a. () consisting of horses, pedestrians, and dogs; -pla, m. groom; -prishtha, n. horseback; -pluta, n. horse's leap; -budhna, a. borne by steeds; -budhya, a. characterised by horses; -mandur, f. stable; -mukh, m. Kimnara; , f. Kimnara's wife; -medh, m. horse-sacrifice; N.; -yg, a. yoking or yoked with horses; f. sg. & du. N. of a lunar mansion; -rga, m. king of horses (Ukkaihsravas); -rdhas, a. horse equipping; -vat, a. rich in horses; -vra, m. horseman; -vrish, m. stallion; -sl, f. stable; -sd, -sdin, m. rider; -srathya, n. training of horses and charioteering; -sena, m. N. of a serpent demon.

UKT 150416: Kiṃnara class of mythical beings, either half human and half bird or half human and half horse, who make celestial music. In Buddhism, they are one of the eight kinds of nonhuman beings who protect the Buddha's teachings, as are the heavenly musicians called gandharvas. - http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Kimnara 150416

अवपाद avapāda
Skt: -pda, m. N. of a Siddha - Mac-p033c1
Skt: अवपाद avapāda - m. falling -- SpkSkt

See my note on Siddha सिद्ध --> {aid~Da.}.

अश्वपाल aśvapāla
Skt: -pla, m. groom; -- Mac-p033c1
Skt: अश्वपाल aśvapāla m. groom, one who has to guard the sacrificial horse - SpkSkt

 

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p033c2

p033c2-b01

अश््वस्तन [ a-svas-tana ]
- a. having nothing for to-morrow: i-ka, a. id.

 

p033c2-b02

अश्वस्थान [ asva-sthna ]
- n. stable; -hridaya, n. knowledge of horses; -‿adhyaksha, m. master of the horse; -‿anka, n. cavalry army.

 

p033c2-b03

अश््वाधिक [ asva‿adhika ]
- a. superior in cavalry; -‿anrita, n. falsehood respecting horses; -‿rdha, pp. mounted on horseback; -‿roha, m. rider.

 

p033c2-b04

अश््वावत्् [ sv-vat ]
- a. rich in horses; n. property in horses.

 

p033c2-b05

अश््विन्् [ asv-n ]
- a. rich in horses; m. charioteer: du. the Asvins, twin gods of the dawn.

 

p033c2-b06

अश््वीय [ asv-ya ]
- n. troop of horse.

 

p033c2-b07

अश््वैत्् [ -svait ]
- V. 3 sg. aor. of √svit.

( end of old p033-1.htm)

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{a.Sa.}

p033c2-b08

अषाढ -shâdha, ˚ल्ह [ -lha ]
- pp. unconquerable; m. N.

 

p033c2-b09

अषाढिन्् [ ashdhin ]
- a. bearing a staff of palsa-wood.

 

p033c2-b10

अष्ट [ ash-ta ]
= अ ष ् ट --> {iS~Ta.}
- pp. √aksh & √as, obtain.

 

p033c2-b11

अष्टक [ shta-ka ]
= अ ष ् ट क
- a. eightfold; m. N.; , f. eighth day after full-moon, esp. in Hemanta & Sisira; sacrifice to the Ma'nes on that day; n. octad; -guna, a. eightfold; -taya, n. octad; -dh&asharp;, ad. eightfold.

UKT 140807: Hemanta & Sisira are divisions in a year divided into 6 groups.
See my note on Hemanta-Sisira {h-mn-ta. U.tu.} and {i.i.ra. U.tu.}

ऋतु [ ri-t ]
Skt: ऋतु [ ri-t ] - m. season; the menses - Mac057c1
Skt: ऋतु ṛtu - m. season, menses - SpkSkt
Pal: {U.tu.} - UHS-PMD0206
  UKT from UHS: m. meteorology   season, physiology  menses 

 

p033c2-b12

अष्टन्् [ ash-tn ]
- nr. eight: nm. -ta, -t&asharp;, or -t.

 

p033c2-b13

अष्टपद [ ashta-pada ]
- a. consisting of 8 words; -pda, a. eight-footed; -pushpik, f. wreath of 8 kinds of flowers; -bhga, m. eighth part.

 

p033c2-b14

अष्टम [ ashta-m ]
- a. () eighth; forming one-eighth of (g.); m. an eighth: , f. eighth day of a fortnight: -ka, a. eighth; -klika, a. eating only every eighth meal.

अष्टम aṣṭama
= अ ष ् ट म : cf. Bur-Myan conjunct {T~HTa.} --> ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt: अष्टम [ ashta-m ] - a. () eighth; forming one-eighth of (g.); m. an eighth: - Mac033c2
Skt: अष्टम aṣṭama - adj. the eighth, forming the eighth part of, eighth -- SpkSkt
Pal: {T~HTa.ma.} (= )- UHS PMD0025
  UKT from UHS: mfn the eighth (-item), the eighth (-time)

 

p033c2-b15

अष्टमूर्ति [ ashta-mrti ]
- m. Siva; -rasa‿sraya, a. containing the 8 emotions (drama); -‿rika, a. consisting of 8 verses; -varsha, a. 8 years old; -vidha, a. eightfold; -sata, n. 108; 800; -shashti, f. sixty-eight.

 

p033c2-b16

अष्टाक्षर [ ashta‿akshara ]
- a. having eight syllables; -‿aṅga, eight members (--); a. having eight parts: -pta, m. prostration with the eight members (hands, feet, knees, forehead, breast), profound obeisance.

 

p033c2-b17

अष्टादश [ asht-das ]
- a. eighteenth: -dh, ad. eighteenfold; (&asharp;)-dasan, nr. eighteen; -dasama, a. eighteenth.

UKT 140807: अष्टाध्यायी aṣṭādhyāyī can be any book with eight chapters. A famous book of eight chapters is the Sanskrit grammar of Panini पाणिनि> pāṇini. See Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panini  140807

 

p033c2-b18

अष्टाध्यायी [ ashta‿adhyy ]
- f. book of eight chapters.

 

 

p033c2-b19

अष्टानवति [ asht&asharp;-navati ]
- f. ninety-eight; -paksat, f. fifty-eight.

 

p033c2-b20

अष्टापद्् [ asht&asharp;-pad ]
- a. (nm. -pd, f. -pad), eight-footed.

 

p033c2-b21

अष्टापद [ asht-pada ]
- m. n. dice-board with 64 squares: -vypra, m. game of dice; -pdya, a. eightfold.

 

p033c2-b22

अष्टायुध [ ashta‿yudha ]
- a. furnished with eight weapons.

 

p033c2-b23

[asht-vakra]
- m. N.

 

p033c2-b24

अष्टासीतिसहस्र [ ashta‿asti-sahasra ]
- n. pl. 88,000.

 

p033c2-b25

अष्टि [ ash-ti ]
- f. a metre of 64 syllables.

 

p033c2-b26

अष्टोत्तर [ ashta‿uttara ]
- a. plus eight.

 

p033c2-b27

अष्ट्रा [ sh-tr ]
- f. goad (for driving cattle).

 

p033c2-b28

अष्ठीला [ ashthl ]
- f. ball; pebble; anvil.

 

p033c2-b29

अष्ठीवत्् [ ashth-vt ]
- m. knee-cap; knee.

( end of old p033-2.htm)

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p033c3

{a.a.} / {} --> Skt: {S~}

See the Phoneme Aeth formed from {a.a.} --> /
Also see the Phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> / on p032.htm

p033c3-b00

अस् [1. AS]. [II. P.]
 s-ti ( 2 sg. A. se, in V. only in periphrasticft.), be, exist; happen, take place; dwell, be found in (Ic.); w. d. or g. be for, belong or accrue to, often = have or possess; be present in, be peculiar to (Ic.); be ready for, be equal to, be capable of (d.); be sufficient for (g.); occur to (g.); w. na, not exist; be lost or undone: na‿asti, + = I have nothing to give; asti, it is so: at the beginning of sentences with another finite verb = it so happens or happened that, it sometimes happen that -; asmi, w. Ist sg. = I happen  to be; astu + ebam, so be it, very well; astu or santu, w. following nm. = to say nothing of-. ati, surpass (ac.). anu, be ready; reach (ac.) api, be near or in (Ic.). abhi, surpass, overcome (ac.); be more than (ab.) to (d. or g.); *fall to the share of (g). upa, be in (ac.). pari, overtake; allow to pass by (time). pra, be to the fore, be prominent, excel. sam, equal (ac.); be united with (saha) be , exist.

नास्ति nāsti
= न ा स ् त ि
Skt:  na‿asti, + = I have nothing to give; - Mac033c3
Skt: नास्ति nāsti - m. non-existence - SpkSkt

 

p033c3-b01

अस् 2. AS, IV. P.
s-ya, cast, throw, shoot, at (d., g., Ic); cast off, abandon (only pp. asta-).  adhi, misunderstand: cs. pp. adhyasita, meant by (in. of abst. N.). apa, cast, throw, or take of; lay down upon; leave, abandon; give up; put aside: gd. apsya, in spite of, excepting (ac.). abhi (also I. P. A.), throw towards; discharge (arrows); apply oneself to, practise, transact, perform; study; repeat: pp. abhyasta, reduplicated; cs. cause any one to practise; teach. ud, throw or lift up: rise from (ac.). vi‿ud, strew about; discharge; give up, abandon. ni (also I.P.), throw, lay or put down or aside; place or set in or on, pour upon (Ic.); fix the gaze on (Ic.); deposit with, entrust or make over to (Ic.) sam-ni (also I. P.), put together; lay down or aside; place upon (Ic.) ; entrust to (g., Ic); abandon; renounce worldly concerns, become an ascetic. nis, pull out; eject; expel from (ab.); dispel, banish; reject; destroy; refute. para, throw away or down; abandon, expose (a child); quit (a place); refute. pri, throw or move about; roll (the eyes); cast down, overthrow; surround, ensnare; turn round; overspread; string; put around (A.): pp. paryasta, fallen down upon (Ic.); overspreading (-); strung upon (-); upset by (-). vipari, invert, reverse; overturn: pp. viparyasta, inverted; reverse; thinking erroneously; standing around. pra, throw, into (Ic.); upset. prati, throw to; cast off, abandon. vi, dissipate, dismember, scatter, separate: pp. vyasta, divided, separated, single; multiplied. sam, put together, unite: ps. be compounded: pp. united; forming a unity; compounded; whole, all.

 

 

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{a.n}

p033c3-b02

असंयम [ a-sam-yama ]
- m. lack of control; -ygya, fp. with whom a sacrifice should not be shared; -lakshita, pp. unobserved; -vigta, pp. unconscious or not consenting; -vigna, a. unintelligible; -vta, pp. imperfectly covered; -vrita, pp. uncovered, bare; n. N. of a hell.

UKT 150421: The number of Hells, नरक naraka,  in Buddhism is just eight. Early texts like the Rigveda do not have a detailed description of Naraka. It is simply a place of evil and a dark bottomless pit. The Atharvaveda describes a realm of darkness, where murderers are confined after death. The number varies in Hinduism according to text: 4, 7, 21 or 28. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_Hinduism 150421

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p033c3-b03

असंशय a-saṃsaya
= अ स ं श य --> {a.n-sha.ya.}
- m. no doubt: nom. used adverbially = without doubt; a. doubtless: -m, ad. undoubtedly, unquestionably; -srava, m., -na, n. only lc. sg. beyond the ear-shot of (g.); -slesha, m. non-attachment; no contact.

 

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UKT notes

Hemanta & Sisira Utu

- UKT 140807, 161011

The Luni-Solar year may be divided in terms of Lunar months or Solar months. The festivals are usually based on Lunar months, in which the month begins on the day after the No-Moon day, through Full-Moon day, and ending in the following No-Moon day. As a very rough guide, you can take the beginning of the lunar as the middle of the Solar month. In the following article the author has given in terms of the Sun transiting the 12 Rasis of the Zodiac or Constellations.

We have a mix up in Bur-Myan Astrology. What we have thought to be Pali terms are actually Sanskrit terms, as can be seen in absence of {prai~a.} in UHS PMD. We find the term {prai~a.} in MLC MED2006-293.

Next, in Bur-Myan, we usually say {ra-i U.tu.} or {U.tu. ra-i} as a combined term meaning "weather".

If we are to combine {prai~a.} & {h-mn-ta.} to either {U.tu.} or {ra-i}, we usually say {prai~a. ra-i}, and {h-mn-ta. U.tu.}.

From Edava Pathy, the South West Monsoon strikes Kerala by Govind Kumar
Kerala Heritages -  http://www.keralaheritages.com/index.htm 140807
UKT note: the author is writing for a particular year which was given in the article. "Edava" in Telugu language means the 7th.

When the Sun enters the 15th degree of Sidereal Taurus {prai~a. ra-i}, Edava Pathi or the South West Monsoon is caused in Kerala.

The sidereal months of Sagittarius {Da.nu. ra-i} and Capricorn {ma.ka-ra. ra-i} constitute Hemanta Rithu {h-mn-ta. U.tu.}. The coldness has not left Kerala. This Hemanta Rithu will be there till the 12th of February.

Sisira Rithu {i.i.ra. U.tu.}, the sidereal months of Aquarius {kon ra-i} and Pisces {main ra-i}, is very hot indeed. It normally starts from the 13th of February to the 13th April! During this sixth season of India, hot spells are normal and more than 100 people perished last year due to sunstroke.

Now it is still cold in the morning and even during midday. No need for air conditioners during this season.

Evening is also characterised by cold winds. The Sun will be transiting Sravana, Alpha Aquilae, initiating Thiruvonam Njattuvela tomorrow. ( Jan 24 ).

Amongst the six Rithus or seasons, Vasanta ( Medam & Edavam ) is comparatively less hot, Greeshma ( Gemini and Cancer ) and Varsha ( Leo and Virgo ) are rainy seasons, Sarat ( Libra and Scorpio ) is less rainy, Hemanta {h-mn~ta. U.tu.} ( Sagittarius and Capricorn ) is cold and dry and Sisira ( Aquarius & Pisces ) is very hot indeed !

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The Phoneme AeS formed from {a.a.} --> /

UKT 150520: {a.a.} / {} / {S~} : see p035.htm
The negative of a derivative is नास्ति [ na‿asti ] nāsti.
Note that Pal-Myan {na-a.} (UHS-PMD0517) UKT from UHS: m. destruction ,
from which we get {na-a.ka.} (UHS-PMD0517) UKT from UHS: m. destroyer
Compare with नास्तिक nāstika - m. unbeliever, atheist -- SpkSkt

UKT 131114: From {a.a.} --> {a}, we get a special horizontal conjunct when followed by another {a.}: {a~a.}. The two syllables (or words) {a.a.} and {a~a.} sound almost the same as /a'θa/ - without a hissing sound in Pal-Myan. In Skt-Dev, it sounds as /a'ʃa/ - with a prominent hissing sound. The difference is due to Pal-Myan being Tib-Bur and Skt-Dev being IE.

The basic akshara {a.} is known as {a.l:} 'small tha', and the horizontal conjunct {a.kri:} 'big tha'. Being a conjunct {a.kri:} is mute in Bur-Myan - a fact unknown to most Bur-Myan speakers including senior monks. I did not know of it until I started studying the akshara system of writing.

We are faced with an unfortunate IAST transliteration problem in the study of Skt-Dev. The IAST transliteration tha refers to another grapheme थ /tʰ/ - the allophone of /t/. Since the common transcription for {a.} in Myanmarpr is <tha>, Romabama has to use the Old-English 'thorn' character for {a.} , and {hta.} for थ /tʰ/ avoiding <tha> in both cases.

 

UKT 131114: From {a.a.} --> {a}, we get a special horizontal conjunct when followed by another {a.}: {a~a.}. The two syllables (or words) {a.a.} and {a~a.} sound almost the same as /a'θa/ - without a hissing sound in Pal-Myan. In Skt-Dev, it sounds as /a'ʃa/ - with a prominent hissing sound. The difference is due to Pal-Myan being Tib-Bur and Skt-Dev being IE.

The basic akshara {a.} is known as {a.l:} 'small tha', and the horizontal conjunct {a.kri:} 'big tha'. Being a conjunct {a.kri:} is mute in Bur-Myan - a fact unknown to most Bur-Myan speakers including senior monks. I did not know of it until I started studying the akshara system of writing.

We are faced with an unfortunate IAST transliteration problem in the study of Skt-Dev. The IAST transliteration tha refers to another grapheme थ /tʰ/ - the allophone of /t/. Since the common transcription for {a.} in Myanmarpr is <tha>, Romabama has to use the Old-English 'thorn' character for {a.} , and {hta.} for थ /tʰ/ avoiding <tha> in both cases.

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Siddha

- UKT 161011: I became familiar with the word {aid~dhi.} in connection with consecrated objects especially counting beads or rosary, early in my life. The person, a layperson, a hermit, or a Buddhist monk, who consecrate the object must be a person of esoteric accomplishment and is known as {paid~dha.}.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddha 161011

Siddha (Tamil: 'Great thinker/wise man', Skt-Dev, {aid~Da.} सिद्ध (= स ि द ् ध) "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means "one who is accomplished". [1] [2] It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. In Jainism, the term is used to refer the liberated souls. Siddha may also refer to one who has attained a siddhi, paranormal capabilities.

Siddhas may broadly refer to siddhars, naths, ascetics, sadhus, or yogis because they all practice sādhanā. [3]

The Svetasvatara (II.12) presupposes a 'Siddha body'. [4] 

UKT: more in Wiki article.

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