Update: 2017-04-21 09:06 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  Sanskrit dental-fricatives subgroup - cont
{a.a.} / {} --> Skt: {S~}
{a.n} : {a.a.} / {a.n} / {a.n~}

Before I can decide on a pronunciation, let us tentatively say it is {ash} if {a} were to stand as negative for some thing.  Otherwise, it may be changed to {sh}.

Ash/Ish {ash}/{sh} & Shna {sh~na.} श ् न   = श्न 

Please note, I am on very shaky ground, and I expect to rewrite this note after more study.


UKT notes :
See my note on Sanskrit dental-fricatives and their derivatives on p032.htm .
Ashvini : the First Nakshatra
  Before we came to the file-entry on Nakshatra, this note is to serve as the introduction.
Hemanta & Sisira Utu
Phoneme AeS formed from {a.a.} --> /
  See also  p032.htm > Phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> /  


Contents of this page




अश््न [ s-na ]
- m. stone; N. of a demon.



[as -nav-a-t]
- 3 sg-sub. √as , obtain



अश््मक [ asma-ka ]
- m. N.: pl. N. of a people; -kutta, -ka, a. crushing with a stone; -t, f. stoniness, hardness of stone.



अश्मन्् [ s-man ]
- m. rock, stone; thunderbolt; heaven: lc. in the sky: du. heaven and earth; -mya, a. () made of stone.

UKT 140806, 161009: The "thunderbolt" given above means the weapon of Indra or Jove of the Greek/Roman legends which when used is accompanied by a flash of lighting and thunder. It is actually the discharge of static electricity between the thunder-cloud and the ground. Because of flashes of light the cut-diamond (a natural stone cut to give out flashes of light) has been related to thunderbolt. See Esoteric Buddhism, Vajrayana :
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 140806

अश्मन्  asman [ s-man ]
= अ श ् म न ्  --> / / {ash-mn}
Skt: - m. rock, stone; thunderbolt; heaven: lc. in the sky: du. heaven and earth; -- Mac033c1
*Pal: {a.a.ma.} UHS-PMD0145
- - UHS-PMD0145
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. not the same, no comparable person, unevenness. . m. stone, rock

UKT conjecture 131112, 161009 (3 yrs! and I haven't made much way):
   Though the Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan words are not exactly the same, from the meaning "rock, stone" given in Macdonell, I have placed them together. The meanings given by UHS in . and that given by Macdonell as "heaven and earth" shows the same idea of contrast.
   UHS shows that . & . should be pronounced differently. We can see that . is the antonym of {a.ma.}, whereas . seems to be a word 'rock, stone' without antonyms. And so, . should be represented as

{ash-mn}. This follows that . may be represented as {ash-mn}, from which we can easily get {a.sha.mn}:

{ash-mn} --> {a.sha.mn} --> {a.a.ma.}



  अश््ममय [ asma-mya ]
- a. id.; -mrdhan, a. having a head of stone.



अश्यर्थ [ asi‿artha ]
- a. meaning 'to eat' (asi = √as, eat).


Contents of this page



अश्र [as-ra]
- - = [as -ri]



अश्रद्दधान [ -srad-dadhna ]
= अ श ् र द ् द ध ा न
- pr. pt. unbelieving (w. g.).



अश्रद्ध [ a-srad-dh ]
= अ श ् र द ् ध
Skt:  अश्रद्ध  asraddha  [ a-srad-dh ] - a. unbelieving. - Mac033c1
Pal: {a.d~Da.} - UHS MPD0144
  UKT from UHS: mfn. having no faith, unbelieving, disrespecting



अश्रद्धा [ -srad-dh ]
- f. lack of confidence; unbelief; -dheya, fp. incredible; unworthy of belief.



अश्रम [ -srama ]
- m. absence of fatigue; a. (or m) indefatigable.



अश्रवण [ a-sravana ]
- n. non-mention; lack of a word, suffix, &c.


Contents of this page



अश्रान्त [ -srnta ]
- pp. indefatigable: m, ad. assiduously.


Contents of this page



अश्रि [ as-r ]
- f. edge (-- also -ka).



अश्री [ a-sr ]
- f. mishap; goddess of misfortune.

UKT 140807, 161009: Whenever you see the word "goddess", do not translate it as "Dvi". The Indians of India have a habit of personalizing everything and every event.
See: Goddesses in Ancient India by P K Agrawala -- meiy-tau-indx.htm
The "goddesses" are being "created" by worshippers even to this day. The most recent entity is Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India comparable to {a.mi. mrn-ma}.


Contents of this page



अश्रु [ s-ru ]
- n. (m.) tear: w. kri or muk, shed tears; -karman, n. shedding of tears.



अश्रुत [ -sruta ]
- pp. unheard; unlearned: , f. N.; -t, f. being unknown; -vat, ad. as if unheard.



अश्रुति [ -sruti ]
- f. not hearing; oblivion: -m abhi-n, do as if one had heard nothing; -virodhin, a. not opposed to scripture.



अश्रुपरिप्लुत [ asru-pari-pluta ]
- pp. bathed in tears: -prna, pp. filled with tears; -pramrgana, n. wiping away of tears,=weeping; -plvita, n. flood of tears; -lesa, m. tear-drop.


Contents of this page



अश्रेयस्् [ a-sreyas ]
- cpv. a. worse, inferior; n. misfortune.


Contents of this page



अश्रोत्र [ a-srotr ]
- a. earless.



अश्रोत्रिय [ a-srotriya ]
- a. at which no trained Brhman {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} is present.


Skt: अश्रौत azrauta
- adj. not sanctioned by the Vdas
- SpkSkt


Contents of this page



अश््लाघ्य [ a-slgh-ya ]
- fp. unpraiseworthy, disgraceful.



अश््लीक [ a-sl-ka ]
- a. pernicious.

pernicious - adj. . a. Tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly: a pernicious virus. b. Causing great harm; destructive: pernicious rumors. . Archaic Evil; wicked. -- AHTD



अश््लील [ a-sll ]
- a. ugly; unrefined; indecent.


Contents of this page



अश्व [ s-va ]
= अ श ् व
- m. horse: , f. mare; -kut, f. stable; -kusala, a. skilled in horses; -kovida, a. id.; -khura, m. horse's hoof: -vat, ad. like a horse's hoof; -ghma, m. N. of a place; -ghsa, m. horse fodder; N.; -kalana-sl, f. riding-hall; -tama, spv. best horse; -tar, m., &isharp;, f. mule.

अश्व [ s-va ]
Skt: अश्व [ s-va ] - m. horse - Mac033c1 
Pal: {~a.} = - UHS PMD0150
  UKT from UHS:
  . m. shoulder. . m. edge, corner. . m. horse.

UKT Conjecture 131112, 161010: See - p001-1.htm (link chk 161010). Below is my suggestion on . 'horse':

Skt-Myan: / {ash-wa.} --> {a.sha.wa.} --> {a.a.a.}
--> Pal-Myan: {a~a.}

As for . & ., I have to explain citing the absence of r1c5 phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ in Skt-Dev. The Sanskrit speakers, the new comers into India from the Iranian or Persian highlands are IE (Indo-European) speakers. They adopted many customs and beliefs including the language of the indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent who speak dialects of Vdic (Tib-Bur), the most important being Magadhi speech written in Asokan script in which the r1c5 phoneme /ŋ/ is important. As a supporting evidence I cite the word for 'fish' in Nwari न्या ; ङा {nga}, and in Burmese {nga:} which is the same except in emphasis.
#1. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161010)
#2. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- Turner-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161002)
On p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}.
The intruders adopted the belief in Mantras of the old Vdic religion. They promoted their male gods over those of the indigenous peoples in which Indra, Agni, and Soma were the foremost gods. They wrote "stories" which were presented as "ancient treaties" {pu-rN kym:} which resulted in Gautama Buddha calling them heretics and their language, Sanskrit, not fit to be used for Buddhist liturgy.
See: Language problem of primitive Buddhism, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 2009) in LANGUAGE AND RELIGION
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm (update 151130)
In those "ancient treatises", the intruders portrayed their chief gods, Vishnu and Siva as superior to Indra, Agni and Soma.

Based on the presence/absence of r1c5 phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ , I suggest that Skt-Dev (IE - IndoEuropean) was been derived from Vedic (Tib-Bur) of the Tib-Bur speakers (the aboriginal peoples) by Panini for the intruders who may been called the rhotic hissing-hushing speakers.

The Sanskrit speakers overcame the Tib-Bur speakers militarily, took over the mother-goddess religion of the Tib-Bur and incorporated it into the male-dominated dva religion of the IE. The Sanskritists rewrote the Veda in which they married their male gods taking over the Mother-goddesses of the conquered: Mahabrahma to Saraswati and Vishnu to Lakshmi. Finally, another group of invader-conquerors speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, entered the subcontinent from the south. They married their god Siva to Parvati and many other Mother-goddesses.

The newcomers took over the Vedic language and its mantras, perfected a language which they called Sanskrit meaning "refined". They made themselves Masters (kings and ruling class) and Teachers of the Masters, and Controllers of Trade and Commerce. They made the conquered aboriginals their servants - Sudra. Some were made to do the most menial jobs such as night-soil. These were branded as Outcasts - the Chandalas. See:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shudra 140807
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandala 140807



अश््वत्थ [ asva-tth ]
- m. [standing-place (ttha for stha) for horses], sacred fig-tree; -tthman, m. N. of a son of Drona; -da, -d&asharp;, a. giving horses; -pda, m. N. of a Siddha; -pdta-srameya-maya, a. () consisting of horses, pedestrians, and dogs; -pla, m. groom; -prishtha, n. horseback; -pluta, n. horse's leap; -budhna, a. borne by steeds; -budhya, a. characterised by horses; -mandur, f. stable; -mukh, m. Kimnara; , f. Kimnara's wife; -medh, m. horse-sacrifice; N.; -yg, a. yoking or yoked with horses; f. sg. & du. N. of a lunar mansion; -rga, m. king of horses (Ukkaihsravas); -rdhas, a. horse equipping; -vat, a. rich in horses; -vra, m. horseman; -vrish, m. stallion; -sl, f. stable; -sd, -sdin, m. rider; -srathya, n. training of horses and charioteering; -sena, m. N. of a serpent demon.

UKT 150416: Kiṃnara class of mythical beings, either half human and half bird or half human and half horse, who make celestial music. In Buddhism, they are one of the eight kinds of nonhuman beings who protect the Buddha's teachings, as are the heavenly musicians called gandharvas. - http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Kimnara 150416

अवपाद avapāda
Skt: -pda, m. N. of a Siddha - Mac033c1
Skt: अवपाद avapāda - m. falling -- SpkSkt

See my note on Siddha सिद्ध --> {aid~Da.}.

अश्वपाल aśvapāla
Skt: -pla, m. groom; -- Mac033c1
Skt: अश्वपाल aśvapāla m. groom, one who has to guard the sacrificial horse - SpkSkt

: अश्वमेध aśvamedh
Skt: -medh, m. horse-sacrifice; - Mac033c1

UKT 170325: There are those who dispute अश्वमेध aśvamedh as the sacrificial killing of a horse. See:
- https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-Ashwamedh-Yagya 170325
Read also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_horse_in_South_Asia 170325
"The horse has been present in South Asia from at least the middle of the second millennium BC, more than two millennia after its domestication in Central Asia. ... According to RV 7.18.19, Dasyu tribes (the Ajas, Shigrus and Yakshus) also had horses. McDonnell and Keith point out that the Rigveda does not describe people riding horses in battle (see Bryant 2001: 117). ... The Ashvamedha or horse sacrifice is a notable ritual of the Yajurveda. ...".
See also Irish horse-sacrifice by D. Fickett-Wilbur, 2012 in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- DFickettWilbur-IrishHorseSacrifie<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170325)


Contents of this page



अश््वस्तन [ a-svas-tana ]
- a. having nothing for to-morrow: i-ka, a. id.



अश्वस्थान [ asva-sthna ]
- n. stable; -hridaya, n. knowledge of horses; -‿adhyaksha, m. master of the horse; -‿anka, n. cavalry army.



अश््वाधिक [ asva‿adhika ]
- a. superior in cavalry; -‿anrita, n. falsehood respecting horses; -‿rdha, pp. mounted on horseback; -‿roha, m. rider.



अश््वावत्् [ sv-vat ]
- a. rich in horses; n. property in horses.



अश््विन्् [ asv-n ]
- a. rich in horses; m. charioteer: du. the Asvins, twin gods of the dawn.


अश्विनी aśvinī
= अ श ् व ि न ी
- f. head of Aries or the first of the 28 [or 27] nakSatras - SpkSkt

UKT 170421: See my note on Ashwini


अश््वीय [ asv-ya ]
- n. troop of horse.



अश््वैत्् [ -svait ]
- V. 3 sg. aor. of √svit.

( end of old p033-1.htm)

Contents of this page



अषाढ -shâdha, ˚ल्ह [ -lha ]
- pp. unconquerable; m. N.



अषाढिन्् [ ashdhin ]
- a. bearing a staff of palsa-wood.



अष्ट [ ash-ta ]
= अ ष ् ट --> {iS~Ta.}
- pp. √aksh & √as, obtain.



अष्टक [ shta-ka ]
= अ ष ् ट क
- a. eightfold; m. N.; , f. eighth day after full-moon, esp. in Hemanta & Sisira; sacrifice to the Ma'nes on that day; n. octad; -guna, a. eightfold; -taya, n. octad; -dh&asharp;, ad. eightfold.

UKT 140807: Hemanta & Sisira are divisions in a year divided into 6 groups.
See my note on Hemanta-Sisira {h-mn-ta. U.tu.} and {i.i.ra. U.tu.}

ऋतु [ ri-t ]
Skt: ऋतु [ ri-t ] - m. season; the menses - Mac057c1
Skt: ऋतु ṛtu - m. season, menses - SpkSkt
Pal: {U.tu.} - UHS-PMD0206
  UKT from UHS: m. meteorology   season, physiology  menses 



अष्टन्् [ ash-tn ]
- nr. eight: nm. -ta, -t&asharp;, or -t.



अष्टपद [ ashta-pada ]
- a. consisting of 8 words; -pda, a. eight-footed; -pushpik, f. wreath of 8 kinds of flowers; -bhga, m. eighth part.



अष्टम [ ashta-m ]
- a. () eighth; forming one-eighth of (g.); m. an eighth: , f. eighth day of a fortnight: -ka, a. eighth; -klika, a. eating only every eighth meal.

अष्टम aṣṭama
= अ ष ् ट म : cf. Bur-Myan conjunct {T~HTa.} --> ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt: अष्टम [ ashta-m ] - a. () eighth; forming one-eighth of (g.); m. an eighth: - Mac033c2
Skt: अष्टम aṣṭama - adj. the eighth, forming the eighth part of, eighth -- SpkSkt
Pal: {T~HTa.ma.} (= )- UHS PMD0025
  UKT from UHS: mfn the eighth (-item), the eighth (-time)



अष्टमूर्ति [ ashta-mrti ]
- m. Siva; -rasa‿sraya, a. containing the 8 emotions (drama); -‿rika, a. consisting of 8 verses; -varsha, a. 8 years old; -vidha, a. eightfold; -sata, n. 108; 800; -shashti, f. sixty-eight.



अष्टाक्षर [ ashta‿akshara ]
- a. having eight syllables; -‿aṅga, eight members (--); a. having eight parts: -pta, m. prostration with the eight members (hands, feet, knees, forehead, breast), profound obeisance.



अष्टादश [ asht-das ]
- a. eighteenth: -dh, ad. eighteenfold; (&asharp;)-dasan, nr. eighteen; -dasama, a. eighteenth.

UKT 140807: अष्टाध्यायी aṣṭādhyāyī can be any book with eight chapters. A famous book of eight chapters is the Sanskrit grammar of Panini पाणिनि> pāṇini. See Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panini  140807



अष्टाध्यायी [ ashta‿adhyy ]
- f. book of eight chapters.




अष्टानवति [ asht&asharp;-navati ]
- f. ninety-eight; -paksat, f. fifty-eight.



अष्टापद्् [ asht&asharp;-pad ]
- a. (nm. -pd, f. -pad), eight-footed.



अष्टापद [ asht-pada ]
- m. n. dice-board with 64 squares: -vypra, m. game of dice; -pdya, a. eightfold.



अष्टायुध [ ashta‿yudha ]
- a. furnished with eight weapons.



- m. N.



अष्टासीतिसहस्र [ ashta‿asti-sahasra ]
- n. pl. 88,000.



अष्टि [ ash-ti ]
- f. a metre of 64 syllables.



अष्टोत्तर [ ashta‿uttara ]
- a. plus eight.



अष्ट्रा [ sh-tr ]
- f. goad (for driving cattle).



अष्ठीला [ ashthl ]
- f. ball; pebble; anvil.



अष्ठीवत्् [ ashth-vt ]
- m. knee-cap; knee.

( end of old p033-2.htm)

Contents of this page


{a.a.} / {} --> Skt: {S~}

See the Phoneme Aeth formed from {a.a.} --> /
Also see the Phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> / on p032.htm


अस् [1. AS]. [II. P.]
 s-ti ( 2 sg. A. se, in V. only in periphrasticft.), be, exist; happen, take place; dwell, be found in (Ic.); w. d. or g. be for, belong or accrue to, often = have or possess; be present in, be peculiar to (Ic.); be ready for, be equal to, be capable of (d.); be sufficient for (g.); occur to (g.); w. na, not exist; be lost or undone: na‿asti, + = I have nothing to give; asti, it is so: at the beginning of sentences with another finite verb = it so happens or happened that, it sometimes happen that -; asmi, w. Ist sg. = I happen  to be; astu + ebam, so be it, very well; astu or santu, w. following nm. = to say nothing of-. ati, surpass (ac.). anu, be ready; reach (ac.) api, be near or in (Ic.). abhi, surpass, overcome (ac.); be more than (ab.) to (d. or g.); *fall to the share of (g). upa, be in (ac.). pari, overtake; allow to pass by (time). pra, be to the fore, be prominent, excel. sam, equal (ac.); be united with (saha) be , exist.

नास्ति nāsti
= न ा स ् त ि
Skt:  na‿asti, + = I have nothing to give; - Mac033c3
Skt: नास्ति nāsti - m. non-existence - SpkSkt



अस् 2. AS, IV. P.
s-ya, cast, throw, shoot, at (d., g., Ic); cast off, abandon (only pp. asta-).  adhi, misunderstand: cs. pp. adhyasita, meant by (in. of abst. N.). apa, cast, throw, or take of; lay down upon; leave, abandon; give up; put aside: gd. apsya, in spite of, excepting (ac.). abhi (also I. P. A.), throw towards; discharge (arrows); apply oneself to, practise, transact, perform; study; repeat: pp. abhyasta, reduplicated; cs. cause any one to practise; teach. ud, throw or lift up: rise from (ac.). vi‿ud, strew about; discharge; give up, abandon. ni (also I.P.), throw, lay or put down or aside; place or set in or on, pour upon (Ic.); fix the gaze on (Ic.); deposit with, entrust or make over to (Ic.) sam-ni (also I. P.), put together; lay down or aside; place upon (Ic.) ; entrust to (g., Ic); abandon; renounce worldly concerns, become an ascetic. nis, pull out; eject; expel from (ab.); dispel, banish; reject; destroy; refute. para, throw away or down; abandon, expose (a child); quit (a place); refute. pri, throw or move about; roll (the eyes); cast down, overthrow; surround, ensnare; turn round; overspread; string; put around (A.): pp. paryasta, fallen down upon (Ic.); overspreading (-); strung upon (-); upset by (-). vipari, invert, reverse; overturn: pp. viparyasta, inverted; reverse; thinking erroneously; standing around. pra, throw, into (Ic.); upset. prati, throw to; cast off, abandon. vi, dissipate, dismember, scatter, separate: pp. vyasta, divided, separated, single; multiplied. sam, put together, unite: ps. be compounded: pp. united; forming a unity; compounded; whole, all.



Contents of this page



असंयम [ a-sam-yama ]
- m. lack of control; -ygya, fp. with whom a sacrifice should not be shared; -lakshita, pp. unobserved; -vigta, pp. unconscious or not consenting; -vigna, a. unintelligible; -vta, pp. imperfectly covered; -vrita, pp. uncovered, bare; n. N. of a hell.

UKT 150421: The number of Hells, नरक naraka,  in Buddhism is just eight. Early texts like the Rigveda do not have a detailed description of Naraka. It is simply a place of evil and a dark bottomless pit. The Atharvaveda describes a realm of darkness, where murderers are confined after death. The number varies in Hinduism according to text: 4, 7, 21 or 28. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_Hinduism 150421

Contents of this page


असंशय a-saṃsaya
= अ स ं श य --> {a.n-sha.ya.}
- m. no doubt: nom. used adverbially = without doubt; a. doubtless: -m, ad. undoubtedly, unquestionably; -srava, m., -na, n. only lc. sg. beyond the ear-shot of (g.); -slesha, m. non-attachment; no contact.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Ashvini : the First Nakshatra

- UKT 170421 : Before we came to the file-entry on Nakshatra, this note is to serve as the introduction.

Along what may be described as the Celestial Equator are usually found 27 nakshatras {nak~hkt} नक्षत्र nakṣatra, but in some years an extra one, 28. Abhijit, is included increasing the number to 28. The 27 nakshatras beginning of 0 deg. of Aries are:
01. Ashvinī , -------------- 02. Bharanī , ---------------------- 03. Kṛttikā
04. Rohinī , --------------- 05. Mrigashīra , ------------------- 06. Ārdrā
07. Punarvasu , --------- 08. Pushya , ----------------------- 09. Ashlesha
10. Maghā , -------------- 11. Pūrva Phalgunī (Pubbha) , 12. Uttara Phalgunī (Uttara)
13. Hasta , --------------- 14. Chitrā , ------------------------ 15. Svātī
16. Vishākhā , ----------- 17. Anurādhā , ------------------- 18. Jyeshtha
19. Mūla , ----------------- 20. Pūrva Ashādhā , ----------- 21. Uttara Ashādhā
22. Shravana , ----------- 23. Dhanistha , ------------------ 24. Shatabhisha
25. Pūrva Bhādrapadā , 26. Uttara Bhādrapadā , ------ 27.Revatī
28. Abhijit

A branch of Bur-Astrology always take the number to be 27 which can be grouped into 9 taras comprising of 3 nakshatras in each tara . Pix of Nine Tara, and Twelve Rasi are from MLC MED2006.


From: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvini 170421

Ashvini is the first nakshatra (lunar mansion) in Hindu astrology having a spread from 0-0'-0" to 13-20', corresponding to the head of Aries, including the stars β and γ Arietis. The name aśvinī is used by Varahamihira (6th century). The older name of the asterism, found in the Atharvaveda (AVS 19.7; in the dual [1]) and in Panini (4.3.36), was aśvayj "harnessing horses".

Ashvini is ruled by Ketu, the descending lunar node. In electional astrology, Asvini is classified as a small constellation, meaning that it is believed to be advantageous to begin works of a precise or delicate nature while the moon is in Ashvini. [2] Asvini is ruled by the Ashvins, the heavenly twins who served as physicians to the gods. Personified, Asvini is considered to be the wife of the Asvini Kumaras. [3] Ashvini is represented either by the head of a horse, or by honey and the bee hive. [4]

Traditional Hindu given names are determined by which pada (quarter) of a nakshatra the moon was in at the time of birth. In the case of Ashvini, the given name would begin with the following syllables: Chu, Che, Cho, La [5]

Go back Ashvini-note-b

Contents of this page

Hemanta & Sisira Utu

- UKT 140807, 161011

The Luni-Solar year may be divided in terms of Lunar months or Solar months. The festivals are usually based on Lunar months, in which the month begins on the day after the No-Moon day, through Full-Moon day, and ending in the following No-Moon day. As a very rough guide, you can take the beginning of the lunar as the middle of the Solar month. In the following article the author has given in terms of the Sun transiting the 12 Rasis of the Zodiac or Constellations.

We have a mix up in Bur-Myan Astrology. What we have thought to be Pali terms are actually Sanskrit terms, as can be seen in absence of {prai~a.} in UHS PMD. We find the term {prai~a.} in MLC MED2006-293.

Next, in Bur-Myan, we usually say {ra-i U.tu.} or {U.tu. ra-i} as a combined term meaning "weather".

If we are to combine {prai~a.} & {h-mn-ta.} to either {U.tu.} or {ra-i}, we usually say {prai~a. ra-i}, and {h-mn-ta. U.tu.}.

From Edava Pathy, the South West Monsoon strikes Kerala by Govind Kumar
Kerala Heritages -  http://www.keralaheritages.com/index.htm 140807
UKT note: the author is writing for a particular year which was given in the article. "Edava" in Telugu language means the 7th.

When the Sun enters the 15th degree of Sidereal Taurus {prai~a. ra-i}, Edava Pathi or the South West Monsoon is caused in Kerala.

The sidereal months of Sagittarius {Da.nu. ra-i} and Capricorn {ma.ka-ra. ra-i} constitute Hemanta Rithu {h-mn-ta. U.tu.}. The coldness has not left Kerala. This Hemanta Rithu will be there till the 12th of February.

Sisira Rithu {i.i.ra. U.tu.}, the sidereal months of Aquarius {kon ra-i} and Pisces {main ra-i}, is very hot indeed. It normally starts from the 13th of February to the 13th April! During this sixth season of India, hot spells are normal and more than 100 people perished last year due to sunstroke.

Now it is still cold in the morning and even during midday. No need for air conditioners during this season.

Evening is also characterised by cold winds. The Sun will be transiting Sravana, Alpha Aquilae, initiating Thiruvonam Njattuvela tomorrow. ( Jan 24 ).

Amongst the six Rithus or seasons, Vasanta ( Medam & Edavam ) is comparatively less hot, Greeshma ( Gemini and Cancer ) and Varsha ( Leo and Virgo ) are rainy seasons, Sarat ( Libra and Scorpio ) is less rainy, Hemanta {h-mn~ta. U.tu.} ( Sagittarius and Capricorn ) is cold and dry and Sisira ( Aquarius & Pisces ) is very hot indeed !

Go back Hemanta-Sisira-note-b

Contents of this page

The Phoneme AeS formed from {a.a.} --> /

UKT 150520: {a.a.} / {} / {S~} : see p035.htm
The negative of a derivative is नास्ति [ na‿asti ] nāsti.
Note that Pal-Myan {na-a.} (UHS-PMD0517) UKT from UHS: m. destruction ,
from which we get {na-a.ka.} (UHS-PMD0517) UKT from UHS: m. destroyer
Compare with नास्तिक nāstika - m. unbeliever, atheist -- SpkSkt

UKT 131114: From {a.a.} --> {a}, we get a special horizontal conjunct when followed by another {a.}: {a~a.}. The two syllables (or words) {a.a.} and {a~a.} sound almost the same as /a'θa/ - without a hissing sound in Pal-Myan. In Skt-Dev, it sounds as /a'ʃa/ - with a prominent hissing sound. The difference is due to Pal-Myan being Tib-Bur and Skt-Dev being IE.

The basic akshara {a.} is known as {a.l:} 'small tha', and the horizontal conjunct {a.kri:} 'big tha'. Being a conjunct {a.kri:} is mute in Bur-Myan - a fact unknown to most Bur-Myan speakers including senior monks. I did not know of it until I started studying the akshara system of writing.

We are faced with an unfortunate IAST transliteration problem in the study of Skt-Dev. The IAST transliteration tha refers to another grapheme थ /tʰ/ - the allophone of /t/. Since the common transcription for {a.} in Myanmarpr is <tha>, Romabama has to use the Old-English 'thorn' character for {a.} , and {hta.} for थ /tʰ/ avoiding <tha> in both cases.


UKT 131114: From {a.a.} --> {a}, we get a special horizontal conjunct when followed by another {a.}: {a~a.}. The two syllables (or words) {a.a.} and {a~a.} sound almost the same as /a'θa/ - without a hissing sound in Pal-Myan. In Skt-Dev, it sounds as /a'ʃa/ - with a prominent hissing sound. The difference is due to Pal-Myan being Tib-Bur and Skt-Dev being IE.

The basic akshara {a.} is known as {a.l:} 'small tha', and the horizontal conjunct {a.kri:} 'big tha'. Being a conjunct {a.kri:} is mute in Bur-Myan - a fact unknown to most Bur-Myan speakers including senior monks. I did not know of it until I started studying the akshara system of writing.

We are faced with an unfortunate IAST transliteration problem in the study of Skt-Dev. The IAST transliteration tha refers to another grapheme थ /tʰ/ - the allophone of /t/. Since the common transcription for {a.} in Myanmarpr is <tha>, Romabama has to use the Old-English 'thorn' character for {a.} , and {hta.} for थ /tʰ/ avoiding <tha> in both cases.

Go back Phoneme-Aeth-note-b

Contents of this page


- UKT 161011: I became familiar with the word {aid~dhi.} in connection with consecrated objects especially counting beads or rosary, early in my life. The person, a layperson, a hermit, or a Buddhist monk, who consecrate the object must be a person of esoteric accomplishment and is known as {paid~dha.}.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddha 161011

Siddha (Tamil: 'Great thinker/wise man', Skt-Dev, {aid~Da.} सिद्ध (= स ि द ् ध) "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means "one who is accomplished". [1] [2] It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. In Jainism, the term is used to refer the liberated souls. Siddha may also refer to one who has attained a siddhi, paranormal capabilities.

Siddhas may broadly refer to siddhars, naths, ascetics, sadhus, or yogis because they all practice sādhanā. [3]

The Svetasvatara (II.12) presupposes a 'Siddha body'. [4] 

UKT: more in Wiki article.

Go back Siddha-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file