Update: 2016-10-12 06:57 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.w~ya.} : expect a mix up with {a.wya.}, {a.vya.} and {a.bya.}

{a.sha.} / {sh} / {sh} : first member of Skt-Dev dental-fricative subgroup
/ {a.sha}


UKT notes :
Avici Purgatory
Sanskrit Dental-Fricatives and their derivatives
      In the following take care of the grapheme shapes: Ash and AeS
Effect of killed or Coda Consonants on vowel of syllable 
Phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> /
  See also p033.htm > Phoneme AeS formed from {a.a.} --> /
Sanskrit compound
Veda and Soma


अशकुन [ a-sakuna ]
- n. inauspicious omen.

अव्याक्षेप [ a-vykshepa ]
- m. absence of distraction, presence of mind.

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अवीचि  [ a-vki ] --> {a.wi-si.}
Skt: अवीचि  [a-vki] - m. a hell (waveless). - Mac032c1
Pal: {a.wi-si.} - UHS PMD0141
  UKT from UHS: mfn. waveless. m. {a.wi-si. nga.r:}
Bur: {a.wi-si.nga.r:} -- MLC PMD2006-090
  UKT's excerpts from PMD which gives meanings in English: Myanmar cosmology believes in eight levels of purgatory, the lowest being {a.wi-si.nga.r:}. Note: MLC uses the word "purgatory" -- not 'hell'.

UKT 140805: The ideas of Hell and Purgatory are different in many religious traditions. In Theravada Buddhism there is no Hell but only Purgatories.
See my note on Avici Purgatory

UKT 161004:
"In the Devaduta Sutta, the 130th discourse of Majjhima Nikaya, the Buddha teaches about hell in vivid detail."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_Buddhism 161004


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अवीतक [a-vtaka]
- unenclosed space


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अवीर [ . a-vr ]
- a. devoid of men; n. region without men; -purusha, m. weakling.



अवीर [ . a-v&isharp;ra ]
- a. unmanly: , f. woman without husband and children.



अवीर्य [ a-vry ]
- a. weak, powerless.


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अवृक [ a-vrik ]
- a. not hurting; safe; n. safety.



अवृजिन [ -vrigina ]
- a. not artful, guileless.



अवृत [ a-vrita ]
- pp. unchosen, uninvited.



अवृत्त [ a-vritta ]
- pp. not having taken place.



अवृत्ति [ a-vritti ]
- f. lack of sustenance, destitution: -ka, a. lacking means of support.



अवृथार्थ [ a-vrith‿artha ]
- a. having an appropriate meaning or name: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



अवृद्ध [ a-vriddha ]
= अ व ृ द ् ध
- pp. not aged.



अवृद्धिक [ a-vriddhi-ka ]
- a. free from interest.



अवृध [ a-vridh ]
- a. not gladdening.



अवृषण [ a-vrishana ]
- a. lacking testicles.



अवृष्ट [ a-vrishta ]
- pp. not having rained or sent rain.



अवृष्टि [ -vrishti ]
- f. drought.

( end of old p032-2.htm)

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अवेक्षण [ ava‿ksh-ana ]
- n. looking at; attention to, care of (g.); -anya, fp. to be paid attention to; -, f. care; attention to (lc.); -in, a. looking towards; attending to (ac.); -ya, fp. to be attended to.



अवेदन [ a-vedana ]
- n. ignorance.



अवेदविहित [ a-veda-vihita ]
- pp. not prescribed by the Veda.

UKT 161004: See my note on Veda and Soma


अवेद्य [ a-ved-ya ]
= अ व े द ् य
- fp. not to be wedded.



अवेलम्् [ a-velam ]
- ad. unseasonably.



अवेशसदृश [ a-vesa-sadrisa ]
- a. unlike prostitution.


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अवैकृत [ a-vaikrita ]
- a. not disfigured.



अवैदग्ध्य [ a-vaidagdhya ]
- n. want of sagacity; stupidity.



अवैद्य [ a-vaidya ]
- a. unlearned.



अवैरिजुष्ट [ a-vairi-gushta ]
- pp. that not even an enemy consents to.


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अवोक्षण [ ava‿ukshana ]
- n. sprinkling with water.



- 3 sg. aor. √vak

( end of old p032-3.htm)

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{a.w~ya.} / {a.bya.}

UKT 150415, 150707: I expect a mix up of {a.wya.} & {a.wra.}, with {a.bya.} & {a.bra.}, resptly. The Ya'pin sign shows a monosyllabic medial found mostly in Bur-Myan, and which the IE (English and Hindi) speakers cannot pronounce. On the other hand, the Ra'ric sign signifying a rhotic accent is easily handled by IE speakers, but not by Bur-Myan. Bur-Myan speakers of the Irrawaddy dialect, particularly those in Mandalay and Yangon, pronounce Ra'ric words and the Ya'pin words the same.

We should note that {wa.} & {ya.} lying side by side need not join up, e.g. UHS-PMD0135 gives a Pal-Myan word: {a.wa.ya.wa.} 'part' 'body-part' where the {wa.}- {ya.}-pair remains separate. For 'sheep', UHS-PMD0137 gives {a.wi.} - see p030.htm

However, {wa.}- {ra.}-pair can easily join up. And so can the {ba.}- {ra.}-pair can easily joined up especially if followed by a glottal as in {brah}. See p022.htm .

{brah} is found in Brahma {brah-ma} 'Brahma - the Great God' -- UHS PMD0718 .

The Great God {brah-ma} ब्रह्मा (= ब ् र ह ् म ा) is spelled Brahman  ब्रह्मन्  /'brɑːmən/ in English: see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman 150415. The spelling for humans is {braah-ma.Na.}. To avoid confusion, {braah-ma.Na.} is usually compounded with {poaN~Na:} to {braah-ma.Na. poaN~Na:}


अव्य  [ vya ]
= अ व ् य  -- > {a.w~ya.} (conjunct form)
Skt: अव्य  [ vya ] - a. pertaining to sheep, woollen; n. Soma-strainer. - Mac032c1
Pal: {a.bya.} (medial form) (not listed) -- UHS-PMD0103

UKT 161004: See my note on Vda and Soma


अव्यक्त [ a-vi‿akta ]
= अ व ् य क ् त
- pp. not manifest, imperceptible; indistinct; m. universal soul; n. unevolved primordial matter; primordial spirit; -rpa, a. indistinct, indefinite; of uncertain sex.



अव्यग्र [ a-vyagra ]
- a. unconcerned, quiet: -m, ad. -ly.



अव्यङ्ग [ a-vyaṅga ]
- a. having all one's limbs.



अव्यञ्जन [ a-vyagana ]
- a. beardless; lacking signs of puberty.



अव्यतिरिक्त [ a-vi‿ati-rikta ]
- pp. not separated from.



अव्यथ [ a-vyath-a ]
- a. unwavering, undaunted; efficacious; -, a. unwavering, undaunted; -in, a. not becoming discomposed.



अव्यभिचारिन्् [ a-vyabhi-krin ]
- a. infallible; -kra, m. conjugal fidelity; a. faithful.



अव्यय [ a-vyaya ]
- m. non-expenditure; a. imperishable, immutable; stingy; n. indeclinable word: -tva, n. imperishableness; -‿tman, a. of imperishable nature; -bhva, m. indeclinable compound.

अव्यय  avyaya [ a-vyaya ]
Skt: अव्यय  [a-vyaya] - m. non-expenditure; a. imperishable, immutable; stingy; n. indeclinable word - Mac032c1
Pal: {a.bya.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0103
   UKT from UHS: mfn. indestructible

UKT 150706, 161006: See my note on Sanskrit Compound
and a separate article:
Compound formation in Sanskrit with examples from English -- Skt-compd.htm (link chk 161004)
See also The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, by Andrew Simpson,
  Prof. of Linguistics & East Asian Languages and Cultures, Univ. of Southern California.
  in Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script
  - BurMyan-indx.htm > Nominalizer.htm (link chk 161006)
Simpson uses the term "Nominalizer" which I have found to be {wi.bt} in Bur-Myan grammar.


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अव्यवधान [ a-vyava-dhna ]
- n. non-interruption; a. uncovered, bare; uninterrupted; -dhya-ka, a. not intervening: -tva, n. non-intervention.



अव्यवसायिन्् [ a-vyavasyin ]
- a. un-enterprising, remiss.



अव्यवस्थ [ a-vyava-stha ]
- a. not enduring: , f. unsettled state; -sthita-kitta, a. fickle-minded.



अव्यसनिन्् [ a-vyasanin ]
- a. exempt from vice.


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अव्याकृत [ -vi‿-krita ]
- pp. unsevered, undivided.



अव्याज [ a-vyga ]
- m. no deception; a. natural, real.



अव्यापन्न [ a-vi‿-panna ]
- pp. not having died, alive.



अव्यापार [ a-vypra ]
- m. not one's business.



अव्याप्त [ a-vi‿pta ]
- pp. not filled or mixed with.



अव्यावर्तनीय [ a-vi‿vart-anya ]
- fp. not to be taken back.



अव्याहृत [ a-vyhrita ]
= अ व ् य ा ह ृ त
- (pp.) n. not speaking; silence.


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अव्युच्छिन्न [ a-vi‿uk-khinna ]
= अ व ् य ु च ् छ ि न ् न
- pp. uninterrupted.



अव्युत्पन्न [ a-vi‿utpanna ]
= अ व ् य ु त ् प न ् न
- pp. not resulting; having no etymology: -mati, a. uneducated.



अव्युष्ट [ -vi‿ushta ]
- pp. (√vas) not yet arisen.


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UKT 150416: {wa.} & {ra.} need not joined up, e.g., {a.wa.ra.} 'inferior' - UHS PMD0135. If they did, we can expect a mix up of {a.wra.} and {a.bra.}. The Ra'ric sign gives a rhotic accent, because of which monosyllabic medial and disyllabic conjunct becomes indistinguishable.



अव्रत [ a-vrat ]
= अ व ् र त
- a. ungodly; not fulfilling religious duties.

( end of old p032-4.htm)

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{a.sha.} / {sh}

UKT 150705: See my note on the Effects of killed or Coda Consonants on the Nuclear Vowel of the syllable .
See also p004.htm on killed {sa.} and killed {nga.}.

अशकुन  asakuna [ a-sakuna ]
- n. inauspicious omen.

अव्याक्षेप  avyaksepa [ a-vykshepa ]
- m. absence of distraction, presence of mind.


अश्  [as ],
- . v. as-nu , reach; attain; befal; enjoy. abhi, ud , reach; dominate, upa , nam-upa , pra , vi , sam , id.



अश् [as ],
- . ix, p., as-n-ti , eat, take (meat and drink); taste; enjoy; pp. a-ita , eaten; cs. saya , cause (ac.) to eat (ac.), feed; pp. -sita , fed; satiated; des. asisisha , wish to eat. upa , pra , sam , = simple verb; abhi-pra , eat in addition to (ac.).



. अश् [as],
- grammatical designation of all soft letters.



अशक्त [ a-sakta ]
= अ श क ् त
Skt: अशक्त [ a-sakta ] - pp. incapable of (inf., d., lc.). - Mac032c2
Pal: {a.ak~ka.} - UHS PMD0142
  UKT from UHS: mfn. incapable



अशक्ति [ a-sakti ]
- f. inability; weakness.



अशक्नुवत्् [ a-sak-nuvat ]
- pr. pt. unable to (inf.); -ya, fp. impossible: -‿artha, a. id.; ineffectual.



अशङ्क [ a-saṅk-a ]
- a. fearless: -m, ad. -ly; -anya, fp. not to be feared; -ita, pp. fearless: -m, ad. without hesitation; suddenly.



अशन्् [ s-an ]
- m. stone, rock; firmament.

firmament - n. . The vault or expanse of the heavens; the sky. - AHTD



अशन [ asan ]
- n. eating; food; --, a. feeding on; -kriy, f. taking of food; -‿anasan, n. eating and fasting.



अशनापिपासे [ asan-pipse ]
- f. du. hunger and thirst.



अशनाया [ asan&asharp;y (or &asharp;) ]
- f. hunger; -vat, a. hungry.



अशनि [ as-ni ]
- f. (C. also m.) thunderbolt, lightning-flash; -grvan, m. diamond; -hata, pp. struck by lightning.



अशनैस्् [ a-sanais ]
- ad. highly, violently.



अशब्द [ -sabda ]
- a. silent, mute.



अशम्् [ -sam ]
- ind. disaster.

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अशरण [ a-saran-a ]
- n. defencelessness; a. unprotected, helpless; --kri, render defenceless; -ya, a. affording no protection; defenceless.



अशरीर [ a-sarra ]
Skt: अशरीर [ a-sarra ] - a. bodiless, lacking a substantial body;
  m. Kma (cp. anaṅga). - Mac032c3
Pal: {a.a.ri-ra.} - UHS PMD0147
  - UKT from UHS: mfn. lacking a substantial body. n. non-matter (ref. to Mass & Matter of Physical Science)

UKT 150416: Refer to the story of Kma {ka-ma. d-wa.} aka the Hindu Cupid whose body was burnt by the ray from Siva's Third-Eye. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamadeva 150416



अशर्मन्् [ a-sarman ]
- n. suffering, sorrow.



अशस्् [ a-ss ]
- a. cursing, hating.



अशस्त्र [ a-sastra ]
- a. swordless, unarmed: -pni, a. having no sword in the hand; -pta, pp. not consecrated by the sword; -vadha, m. murder without a weapon.


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/ {a.sha}


अशान्ततनु [ a-snta-tanu ]
- a. whose body is not satisfied.



अशान्तता [ a-snta-t ]
- f. lack of tranquillity, passionateness.



अशासत्् [ a-ss-at ]
- pr. pt. not punishing.



अशास्त्रचक्षुस्् [ a-sstra-kakshus ]
- a. not seeing with the eye of the sstras. शास्त्र śāstra (= श ा स ् त ् र ),  

UKT 161007: Bur-Myan term for  शास्त्र śāstra is {hyt~ta.ra.} (MLC MED2006-528) or {shaat~ta.ra} (Romabama). In English, it is "precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise" in a general sense. It is generally used as a suffix for technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area of practice:
bhautikashastra "physics", rasayanashastra "chemistry", jīvashastra "biology", vastushastra "architectural science", shilpashastra "science of mechanical arts and sculpture", arthashastra "science of politics, economics", nitishastra "compendium of ethics or right policy
From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shastra 161007


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अशिक्षित [ a-sikshita ]
- pp. unlearnt; not instructed or learned, in (ac., lc., inf.).



अशित [ as-it ]
- pp. √2. as; -itvya, fp. to be eaten.



अशिरस्् [ a-siras ]
- a. headless.



अशिल्पिन्् [ a-silpin ]
- m. no artist or artisan.



अशिव [ -siva ]
- a. baneful, ominous; n. evil, mischief: -samsin, a. ill-boding.



अशिशिर [ a-sisira ]
- a. hot; -t, f. heat; -kara, -kirana, -rasmi, m. sun.



अशीत [ . asta ]
- a. eightieth.



अशीत [ . a-sta ]
- a. not cold, hot; -kara, -marki, -ruk, -ruki, m. sun.



अशीति [ as-t ]
- f. eighty; -tama, a. eightieth.



अशीतिक [ asti-ka ]
- a. eighty years old: -‿avara, a. at least eighty years old.


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अशुचि [ a-suki ]
- a. impure: -tva, n. impurity; -bhakshana, n. eating impure things; -bhva, m. impurity; -varna, a. of impure colour: -t, f. impurity of colour.



अशुद्ध [ -suddha ]
- pp. unclean; unknown, suspicious; -prakriti, a. having dishonest ministers.



अशुद्धि [ a-suddhi ]
- f. impurity.



अशुभ [ -subha ]
- a. ill-favoured; ill-omened; evil; disagreeable; -mati, a. ill-disposed; -‿tmaka, a. id.



अशून्य [ a-snya ]
- a. not empty; not vain: -m kri, not leave undone, execute; -‿artha, m. clearing up: -m, ad. by way of explanation; a. clear, intelligible.


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अशृङ्ग [ a-sriṅga ]
- a. () hornless.


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अशेष [ a-sesha ]
- m. no remainder; a. whole, all, entire: -tas, -m, in. without reserve; completely, fully.



अशेषय [ asesha-ya ]
- den. P. end entirely: pp. annihilated.


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अशोक [ -soka ]
- a. free from sorrow; m. Asoka tree; n. Asoka flower (orange and scarlet); -kara, m. N. of a fairy: , f. N.; -taru, m. Asoka tree; -datta, m. N.; -naga, m. Asoka tree; -ml, f. N.; -vriksha, m. Asoka tree.

अशोक  asoka [ -soka ]
Skt: अशोक  [ -soka] - a. free from sorrow; m. Asoka tree; n. Asoka flower (orange and scarlet) -- Mac032c3
Pal: {a.au:ka.} -- UHS-PMD0150
  UKT from UHS: mfn. without anxiety. m. N. of a plant  Jonesia asoka



अशोचनीय [ a-sok-anya ]
- fp. not to be pitied or grieved for; -ya, fp. id.



अशोधयित्वा [ a-sodhayitv ]
- gd. without settling.



अशोष्य [ a-soshya ]
- fp. not to be dried up.



अशौच [ a-sauk-a ]
- n. impurity: -tva, n. id.; -in, a. impure.

( end of old p032-5.htm)

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UKT notes

Avici Purgatory 

UKT 140805: MLC uses the word "Purgatory" and not 'Hell'.
UKT 161007: If Anatta were to mean the non-existence of a Soul, what is it that has to go through a Purgatory. I take the Anatta doctrine to be the embodiment of impermance - the ever-changing world. Was there a life before this present, or will there be life after death? As a physical scientist I confine my thinking on this life: Before and After is of no interest to me.

-- UKT 131113, 140805:

Trying to instill fear with unscientific accounts of hell and purgatory might have disciplined the unbelievers in ancient times, but in modern times such teachings turn the modern man against religion.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purgatory 140805

Purgatory, according to Catholic Church doctrine, is an intermediate state after physical death in which those destined for heaven "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven". [1] [UKT ]

Only those who die in the state of grace but have not in life reached a sufficient level of holiness can be in Purgatory, and therefore no one in Purgatory will remain forever in that state or go to hell. This theological notion has ancient roots and is well-attested in early Christian literature, but the poetic conception of Purgatory as a geographically existing place is largely the creation of medieval Christian piety and imagination. [2]

The notion of Purgatory is associated particularly with the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church (in the Eastern sui juris churches or rites it is a doctrine, though it is not often called "Purgatory", but the "final purification" or the "final theosis"); Anglicans of the Anglo-Catholic tradition generally also hold to the belief, along with many Lutherans of High Church Lutheranism. Eastern Orthodox Churches believe in the possibility of a change of situation for the souls of the dead through the prayers of the living and the offering of the Divine Liturgy, and many Orthodox, especially among ascetics, hope and pray for a general apocatastasis. [3] [UKT ]

Judaism also believes in the possibility of after-death purification and may even use the word "purgatory" to present its understanding of the meaning of Gehenna. [4] However, the concept of soul "purification" may be explicitly denied in these other faith traditions.

The word "Purgatory", derived through Anglo-Norman and Old French from the Latin word purgatorium, [5] has come to refer also to a wide range of historical and modern conceptions of postmortem suffering short of everlasting damnation, [2] and is used, in a non-specific sense, to mean any place or condition of suffering or torment, especially one that is temporary. [6]

UKT 140805: Even in this modern world with man-made satellites circling overhead in Space which the Ancients believed to be Heaven, there are those who believe that Heaven and Hell are real physical places. So it is not surprising to read of those who believe in such notions. I have one ex-student with a degree in Industrial Chemistry from Rangoon Arts & Sc. Univ., who really believes that Hell exists deep below the surface of the Earth. Continue reading the present Wikipedia article:

In 1206, a peasant named Thurkhill in England claimed that Saint Julian took him on a tour of Purgatory. He gave precise details, including descriptions of what he called Purgatory's "torture chambers", and was widely believed, including by the Church historian Roger of Wendover. [53]

In Dante's fourteenth century work The Divine Comedy, Purgatory is depicted as a mountain in the southern hemisphere. It is apparently the only land there. Souls who loved God and man half-heartedly find themselves at Mt. Purgatory, where there are two levels, then Seven Levels representing the Seven deadly sins with ironic punishments. For example, on the first level for Pride the inhabitants are weighed down by huge stones which forces them to look at examples of Pride on the pavement like Arachne. When they reach the top they will find themselves at Jerusalem's antipode, the Garden of Eden itself. Thus cleansed of all sin and made perfect, they wait in Earthly paradise before ascending to Heaven.

In 1999 Pope John Paul II referred to Purgatory as "a condition of existence", [19] implying that it is most likely not an actual physical location or place.

In 2011 Pope Benedict XVI, speaking of Saint Catherine of Genoa (14471510), said that in her time the purification of souls (Purgatory) was pictured as a location in space, but that the saint saw Purgatory as a purifying inner fire, such as she experienced in her profound sorrow for sins committed, when compared with God's infinite love. She said that being bound still to the desires and suffering that derive from sin makes it impossible for the soul to enjoy the beatific vision of God. The Pope commented: "We too feel how distant we are, how full we are of so many things that we cannot see God. The soul is aware of the immense love and perfect justice of God and consequently suffers for having failed to respond in a correct and perfect way to this love; and love for God itself becomes a flame, love itself cleanses it from the residue of sin." [54]

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avici 120117

In [Mahayana] Buddhism, Avīci (Skt and Pali: "without waves"; also transliterated Avichi, Japanese and Chinese language: 無間地獄, むげんじごく and 阿鼻地獄, あびじごく) is the lowest level of the Naraka or "hell" realm, into which the dead who have committed grave misdeeds may be reborn. It is said to be a cube 20,000 yojanas to a side. [1]

People reborn in Avīci generally have committed one or more of the Five Grave Offenses:

Intentionally murdering one's father
Intentionally murdering one's mother
Killing an Arhat (enlightened being)
Shedding the blood of a Buddha
Creating a schism within the Sangha, the community of Buddhist monks and nuns.

Buddhism teaches that rebirth into Naraka is temporary, while the offending being works off the karma they performed. Similarly, rebirth into Avīci hell is not eternal. However, suffering in Avīci is the longest of all the levels of hell, by some accounts over 1018 years long . Some sutras state that rebirth in Avīci will be for innumerable kalpas (eons). When the offending being passes away after one kalpa, he is again reborn in the same place, undergoing suffering for another kalpa, and on and on until he has exhausted his bad karma. [2] For this reason, Avīci hell is also known as the "non-stop way" (無間道).

Nichiren famously wrote that Buddhist monks who ignored the passages in the Lotus Sutra, which claimed its superiority over other sutras would fall into the Avīci hell. [3] Outside of Nichiren, it is extremely rare for a Buddhist monk to condemn anyone to Avīci hell. Although the Lotus Sutra itself states "when his [those who slander] life comes to an end, he will enter the Avichi Hell."

UKT 131113: Rev. Nichiren (February 16, 1222 October 13, 1282) was a Japanese Mahayana Buddhist monk who lived during the Kamakura period (11851333) in Japan. Nichiren taught devotion to the Lotus Sutra (entitled Myōhō-Renge-Kyō in Japanese)   which contained Gautama Buddha's teachings towards the end of his life as the exclusive means to attain enlightenment. Nichiren believed that this sutra contained the essence of all of Gautama Buddha's teachings relating to the laws of cause and effect and karma. This devotion to the sutra entails the chanting of Nam(u)-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō (referred to as "daimoku") as the essential practice of the teaching. [1] -- From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nichiren 131113

The Lotus Sutra is a Mahayana Sutra which the Buddha was said to have preached to the Nagas {na.ga:} initially, only to be revealed to the humans years later at an appropriate time. This brought to mind the idea of non-human Naga being superior to human Man - an idea that is uncomfortable with the Theravada Buddhists.

Rebirth in Avīci (or any lower realm for that matter) should be seen as a process of purification rather than a form of punishment as there is no supernatural being that determines anyone's fate of its own will [4] and everyone is responsible for their own actions and their consequences: "[...] beings are owners of kamma, heir to kamma, born of kamma, related through kamma, and have kamma as their arbitrator. Kamma is what creates distinctions among beings in terms of coarseness & refinement." [5] Thus, being reborn in Avīci is purely the inevitable result of one's evil deeds and not the decision of, for example, a malevolent deity.

UKT: End of Wiki article

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Sanskrit Dental-fricatives and their derivatives

{a.sha.} / {a.Sa.} / {a.a.} // {} / {S~} 

- UKT 150422:

Note: Skt-Dev p032.htm, p033.htm, p034.htm, p035.htm, p036-1.htm must be treated as a group for transcription-transliteration with Pal-Myan in UHS-PMD pages 0142-0153, for words such as Pal: {a.a.} & {~a}.

Inability of the IE speakers to pronounce {a.} as /θ/, is an obstacle in transcription-transliteration of English (IE) into Burmese (Tib-Bur). My approach to solving this problem lies in the same phenomenon between Skt-Dev (IE) and Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur as is spoken in Myanmarpr). Since there is no way out, I am forced to accept the pronunciation of {a.} as /s/ in Sanskrit. From the meaning of many Pal-Myan words and their corresponding Skt-Dev equivalents, the /s/ is seen to be not the palatal plosive-stop, {sa.} च , but dental hissing-sibilant, {Sa.} ष . Remember that the "hisser" {Sa.} ष is not present in Bur-Myan, and that under virama, {a.t}, gives rise to {S}. The "husher" {Sha.}/{sha.}, on the other hand, is present in Bur-Myan. See {a.sha.}. Whether it is derived from {Sa.} ष or {sa.} च, is immaterial because both in the onset position gives rise to the same phoneme /ʃ/. Because of Skt: {Sa.} ष & {Sha.}/{sha.} stand for Pal: {a.}, you should look for Pal: {a.a.} & {~a} whenever you see Skt: {S~}.


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Effect of killed or Coda Consonants, , on the
nuclear vowel, V, of the canonical syllable, CV

UKT 150705, 161007:

If only the effect of killed-{sha.} was similar to that of killed-{sa.}, a pronunciation similar to {ic} will be realized. See p004.htm .
  Because of uncertainty in case of other dental-approximants, I had planned to give only {sh}/{sh} or {esh}/{sh}. However, becoming more familiar with fricative sounds, I will use {sh} and {sh}

The effect of killed fricatives, {sh}, {Sa.} & {a.}, on the preceding nuclear vowel is expected to be quite different from that of the killed plosive-stops {s} & {z}. The main reason being, killed fricatives cannot stop the vowel sound completely, whereas the killed stops can. The effects of killed {} & {ng} follow somewhat of killed {sa.} & {za.}. I propose the term semi-nasals for {a.} & {nga.}.

The effect of killed true-nasals, {ma.}, {na.} & {} is 'ineffective' just like those of vowel endings.

In Pal-Myan, killing {a.} with an {a.t}, breaks it apart because it is a horizontal conjunct: {} --> {} + {a.}. Whereas in Bur-Myan we can have killed Nya'gyee {}.

In Bur-Myan {kic~s:} is legitimate, whereas in Pal-Myan it is {kic~si~a.} pronounced as "Kic'sin'nya" almost the same as in International Pali.

Remember {sha.}-killed is expected to be different from that of  {sa.}-killed giving {ic}.
{sa.}-killed ends the nuclear vowel with a stop.
{sha.}-killed ends the nuclear vowel with a hush.
{Sa.}-killed ends the nuclear vowel with a hiss.
{a.}-killed ends the nuclear vowel with an "Theta" /θ/ .
See also p004.htm on killed {sa.} and killed {nga.}

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The phoneme Ash formed from {a.sha.} --> /  

UKT: 131111, 140805, 161008:

My peers and I have been trying to come up with Romabama representation for the phoneme Ash - the transliteration, and the following are our decisions which may have to be revised :

Pronunciation: From the transliteration {a.sha.} --> {sh.} / {sh~} ,
we have to come up with a transcription which will be close to pronunciation.

We will have to note the formation of special graphemes which are conjuncts but have to be treated as basic consonants, like Pseudo Kha Ksa {k~Sa.} क्ष --> {ksa.}; and Pseudo Za Jna {z~a.} ज्ञ  . 

Pseudo Kha Ksa {k~Sa.} क्ष --> {ksa.}, is comparable to Regular Kha {hka.} in many Pal-Myan (Tib-Myan) words to Skt-Dev (IE) words. Example:
  {sak~hku.} 'eye' 'sight' (UHS PMD0379) cf.
  चक्षुष्पति cakṣuṣpati [kakshush-pati] 'lord of all eyes' (Mac090c2)
Note: Take care of Skt-Dev transliterations. ... gives IAST transliterations, and [...] Macdonell's which follows the system used by Max Mller in Sacred Books of the East
See Wikipedia articles:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari_transliteration 161010
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_Books_of_the_East 161010

Pseudo Za Jna {z~a.} ज्ञ , is comparable to Regular Za {Za.} of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur), and to {zya.}/ {zhya.} of Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi = Austro-Asiatic). Example:
  {Zaan} (Bur-Myan), (Pal-Myan) 'insight' 'knowledge' (UHS PMP0420) cf.
  ज्ञ [ g ] = ज ् ञ --> {z~a.} Pseudo-Za 'knowing' 'understanding' (Mac102c3)
Note: I conjecture the introduction of {na.} is due to mix up {a.} which is either absent or plays only a minor role in IE languages like Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev.

Do not forget the possibility of {za.} with hanging Nya'gyi {a.} in Mon-Myan as: {Z~a.}
Hanging Nya'gyi {a.} is not far-fetched when you have placed it in the Palatal approximant position close to {ya.} which gives rise to {ya.pn.} placed under {sa.} or {za.}.

Remember that in regular Bur-Myan, /ʃ/ is represented in two forms:
  #1. {hya.} derived from {a.} : not allowed under virama.
  #2. {rha.} derived from {ra.} : not allowed under virama.
Since {a.} is /θ/, and {ra.} is /ɹ/, both are not suitable to represent /ʃ/. This has led me to adopt {Sha.} derived from {Sa.} for transcribing Skt-Dev. In this form it can be under virama:
  #3. {sha.} / {sh}

Whether you write {Sha.} or {sha.} is immaterial. It does not effect the pronunciation, because both {sa.} and {Sa.} have the same sound in the onset of the syllables: they only differ in the coda.

Please note, especially my friends at Myanmar Language Commission that had been headed by my old departed sayas such as Rector U Hla Shw, that my representation {sha.} is for transcribing Skt-Dev, and NOT for regular Bur-Myan. I have no wish to offend my old sayas.

Remember {sha.} श /ʃ/ and {Sa.} ष /s/, are not our regular phonemes: we are familiar only with non-hissing fricative {a.} स /θ/ and the plosive-stop {sa.} च ca.

Bur-Myan phonemes in coda are nonhissing (note: I am dropping the hyphen to use the combination as a regular word), whereas Skt-Dev phonemes {sha.} श /ʃ/ and {Sa.} ष /s/ are very prominent husher and hisser. Remember that going from the sibilant to thibilant changes the vowel, at least a change in length.

 Before I can decide on a pronunciation, let us tentatively say it is {ash}.  It may be changed to {sh}.

Ash/Ish {ash}/{sh} & Shna {sh~na.} श ् न   = श्न 

Please note, I am on very thin ice, and expect to rewrite this note after more study but before I went through!


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Sanskrit Compound

- UKT 150706, 161004

Compound words are words made by joining different words together. An example in English is <battlefield> from words <battle> & <field>. There is no hyphen between them. <Battlefield> is a complete word made up of 3 syllables. To transcribe such words into Bur-Myan, it is important to know the original words and the syllable breaks in them.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_compound 150706

One notable feature of the agglutinative nominal system of Sanskrit is the very common use of nominal compounds {a.ma-a.} समास samāsa, which may be huge (10+ or even 30+ words [1] [2] [3]), as in some languages such as German. [UKT ]

{a.ma-a.} - UHS PMD0990
  UKT from UHS: m. compounding, shortening, joining of words {waad}
See also {wi-bt} in Bur-Myan grammar.

Nominal compounds [formed from Nouns {naam} & Pronouns {naam-sa:}] occur with various structures, but morphologically speaking they are essentially the same: each noun (or adjective) is in its (weak) stem form, with only the final element receiving case inflection.

UKT: Wikipedia lists the following 6 classes of Skt-Dev compounds:

1. Avyayībhāva

2. Tatpuruṣa (determinative)
 2.1. Karmadhāraya (descriptive)
 2.2. Na-samāsa

3. Dvandva (co-ordinative) : द्वन्द्व = द्वन्द्व
 3.1. Itaretara dvandva :
Samāhāra dvandva

4. Bahuvrīhi (possessive)

5. Aluk-samāsa

6. Āmreḍita (iterative)

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Veda and Soma

UKT 131106, 140805, 161004:

Based on the number of hymns directed to the various gods and goddesses in the Veda, we can definitely say that the present-day Veda is an altered version. Gautama Buddha could accept the Rishis of the ancient Vedas, but would not accept those in the later Vedas. Therefore, the above "not prescribed by the Veda" must be taken with caution. For the number of hymns in the Veda, see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140805.

If we are go by the number of hymns, the present day Hindu Trinity, Mahabrahma , Vishnu, & Siva are minor gods, whereas Indra (289), Agni (218), & Soma (123) are the major ones.

"Soma" was an important god, which could also be taken as a "sleep inducing" plant or tranquilizer. There is no doubt that it could be misused leading to addiction. We should not be surprised to find the Ancients of both the Old and New Worlds to find something like it in their medicine chests.
See: Soma in the Americas - HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT
www.mushroomstone.com/somaintheamericas.htm 140805
The above well-written article, written by Carl de Borhegyi, 2011,  has to tried to identify Vedic Soma as a mushroon, Amanita muscaria (Fries ex L.) Quel. See Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanita_muscaria 140805


From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soma_drink 161024

Soma (Skt: soma) or Haoma (Avestan language), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-, was a Vedic ritual drink [1] of importance among the early Indo-Iranians. It is mentioned in the Rigveda, particularly in the Soma Mandala. In the Avestan literature, Haoma has the entire Yasht 20 and Yasna 9-11 dedicated to it.

It is described as being prepared by extracting the juice from a plant, the identity of which is now unknown and debated among scholars. In both Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, the name of the drink and the plant are the same.

There has been much speculation concerning what is most likely to have been the identity of the original plant. There is no consensus on the question, although some proposed candidates include Amanita muscaria, Psilocybe cubensis, Peganum Harmala and Ephedra sinica.

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