Update: 2016-10-07 07:52 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.wi.ka.} - cont





Inset pix: Vaisnavite view of the Buddha. Probably there were two Buddhas:
- Buddha - of the Atta doctrine - the Vaisnavite's Buddha, and
- Gautama Buddha - of the Anatta doctrine.

UKT notes :
Saivites, Vaisnavites, and Buddhists

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{a.wi.ka.} - cont



अविकल्प [ a-vikalpa ]
- a. not hesitating: -m, ad. without hesitation.



अविकार [ a-vikr-a ]
- m. no change, no disfigurement; a. subject to no change; -in, a. not changing; not moving a muscle: -i-t, f. abst. ɴ.; -ya, fp. unchangeable.



अविकृत [ -vi-krita ]
- pp. not changed; not prepared, natural; undeveloped; not misshapen.



अविक्रम [ a-vikrama ]
- a. not valorous.



अविक्रियत्व [ a-vi-kriya-tva ]
- n. unchangeableness; -kriy, f. no change: -‿tmaka, a. subject to no change.



अविक्रीत [ -vi-krta ]
- pp. not having sold; -kreya, fp. not for sale; -kshata, pp. uninjured; -kshubdha, pp. not disarranged.


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अविख्यातदोष [ a-vi-khyta-dosha ]
= अ व ि ख ् य ा त द ो ष
- a. having committed no notorious crime.


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अविगान [ a-vigna ]
- a. unanimous.



अविग्रह [ a-vigraha ]
- a. indisputable.


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अविघ्न [ a-vighna ]
= अ व ि घ ् न
- a. unimpeded, undisturbed; n. lack of hindrance: in. without hindrance: -tas, ad. without obstacles; i-ta, pp. unhindered, undisturbed.


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अविचक्षण [ a-vikakshana ]
- a. not subtile, stupid.



अविचल [ a-vikala ]
- a. not wavering, steadfast; i-ta, pp. unaverted.



अविचार [ a-vikr-a ]
- m. lack of reflexion; a. not reflecting: -m, ad. without delay, -ga, a. unacquainted with reflexion; -ana, n. lack of reflexion; -ayat, pr. pt. unreflecting; -ita, pp. unconsidered: -m, ad. without hesitation; -ya, fp. needing no reflexion.



अविच्छिन्न  [ a-vi-kkhinna ]
= अ व ि च ् छ ि न ् न  
- pp. not severed, continuous; -kkheda, m. uninterruptedness: ab. uninterruptedly; -kyuta, pp. not to be lost: -m, ad. faultlessly.


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अविजानत्् [ a-vi-gnat ]
= अ व ि ज ा न त ्
- pr. pt. not knowing, ignorant; -ga, a. undiscerning: -t, f. stupidity; -gta, pp. unknown, unrecognised; -gna, n. lack of knowledge: ab. unawares; a. lacking knowledge; -geya, fp. unrecognisable.

अविजानत्् [ a-vi-gnat ]
= अ व ि ज ा न त ्
Skt: अविजानत् [ a-vi-gnat ]- pr. pt. not knowing, ignorant; -- Mac031c1
Skt: अविजानत् avijānat - adj. not understanding or knowing, ignorant -- SpkSkt


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अवितथ [ a-vitatha ]
- a. not false, true; favourable: -m, ad. truly; n. a metre; -vk, a. truth-speaking.



[av-i-tr ]
- m. helper, protector



अवितृप्त [ a-vi-tripta ]
- pp. unsatiated: -ka, a. not yet sated with (g.).


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अविदग्ध [ a-vi-dagdha ]
- pp. not burnt; not clever.



अविदासिन्् [ a-vidsin ]
- a. unfailing, perennial.



अविदित [ -vid-ita ]
- pp. unknown: -m, ad. unawares.



अविदुष्टर [ -vidush-tara ]
- cpv. of vidvas.



अविद्ध [ a-viddha ]
- pp. unpierced.



अविद्य [ a-vidya ]
= अ व ि द ् य --> {a.wi.d~ya.}
- a. uncultured; destitute of knowledge; , f. ignorance.



अविद्यमान [ a-vidya-mna ]
- pr. pt. not existing: -vat, ad. as if non-existent: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



अविद्वस्् [ -vidvas ]
- pr. pf. pt. not knowing, ignorant.



अविद्विषे [ -vidvishe ]
- d. inf. so as to avoid enmity.



अविद्वेष [ -vidvesha ]
- m. freedom from enmity, amity.


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अविधवा [ a-vidhav&asharp; ]
- f. no widow.


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अविधान [ a-vidhna ]
- n. non-prescription: -tas, ad. not according to prescription.



अविधिपूर्वकम्् [ a-vidhi-prvakam ]
- ad. against prescribed rules, irregularly.



अविधुर [ a-vidhura ]
- a. not lacking a pole; cheerful.



अविधेय [ a-vi-dheya ]
- fp. perverse; -t, f. perverseness.


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अविनय [ a-vinaya ]
- m. unseemly behaviour; -vat, a. ill-mannered, uncivil.



अविनश््वर [ a-vinasvara ]
- a. imperishable.



अविनाश [ a-vins-a ]
- m. non-corruption; non-detraction; -n, a. imperishable; undecaying.



अविनिवर्तिन्् [ a-vinivartin ]
- a. not turning back, not fleeing.



अविनीत [ a-vi-nta ]
- pp. ill-bred.



अविनोद [ a-vinoda ]
- m. ennui.



अविन्दत्् [ a-vind-at ]
- pr. pt. not finding, not finding out.


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अविपक्वकरण [ a-vipakva-karana ]
- a. having immature organs.



अविपर्यय [ . a-viparyaya ]
- den. P. not to fail.



अविपर्यय [ . a-vipary-aya ]
- m. no transposition; no error; -sa, m. no inversion: in. without inversion.



अविपाल [ avi-pl ]
- m. shepherd.



अविप्रयुक्त [ a-vi-pra-yukta ]
- pp. not severed; -pluta, pp. inviolate; true to one's vow.


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अविभक्त [ a-vi-bhakta ]
= अ व ि भ क ् त
- pp. undivided; having community of goods; -bhga, m. no division.



अविभावित [ a-vi-bhv-ita ]
- pp. not clearly perceived; -ya-mna, pr. pt. ps. being unnoticed.



अविभिन्न [ a-vi-bhinna ]
- pp. undivided (from, ab.); unchanged; -klam, ad. at the same time.



अविभूषणपरिच्छद [ a-vibhshana-pari-kkhada ]
- a. lacking ornaments and furniture.



अविभ्रम [ a-vibhrama ]
- a. unaffected.



अविभ्रान्त [ a-vi-bhrnta ]
- pp. immovable.


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अविमर्शितव्य [ a-vi-mars-itavya ]
- fp. not deserving further consideration.



  अविमुक्तशैव [ a-vi-mukta-saiva ]
- m. Saiva monk of a certain grade; -‿pda, m. N. of a king; -‿sa, m. Siva.

See my note on Saivites, Vaiṣnavites, and Buddhists



अविमोचन [ a-vimokana ]
- n. not freeing; not aiding.

( end of old p031-1.htm)

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अवियुक्त [ a-vi-yukta ]
- pp. unseparated from (in.); -yoga, m. non-separation from (in.); -rata, pp. not desisting from (ab.); ceaseless: -m, ad.; -ramat, pr. pt. not desisting fr. (ab.).

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अविरल [ a-virala ]
- a. close; frequent; vehement: -m, ad. firmly; heartily.



अविरह [ a-virah-a ]
- m. non-separation; union; -ita, pp. unseparated; united.



अविरामम्् [ a-virmam ]
- ad. without ceasing.



अविरुद्ध [ a-vi-ruddha ]
= अ व ि र ु द ् ध
- pp. unhindered; unopposed to (in., g., --); not at enmity with; not unpleasant; -roddhri, a. not fighting; -rodha, m. no conflict with, no disadvantage for (--); -rodhin, a. not conflicting with, not prejudicing (g., --).


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अविलम्ब [ a-vilamb-a ]
- m. no hesitation; a. not hesitating: -m, in. without delay; -ita, pp. unhesitating: -m, ad. without delay; -in, a. not delaying; -ya, gd. without hesitating.


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अविलीन [ a-vi-lna ]
- pp. not annihilated: with bh, remain alive.



अविलुप्य [ a-vilup-ya ]
- fp. indestructible.


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अविवाह [ a-vivh-a ]
- a. not living in wedlock; -in, a. not suitable for marriage.



अविविक्त [ a-vi-vikta ]
- pp. undistinguished; not decided; -vrita, pp. not uncovered; unknown, hidden; not showing one's weak points.



अविवेक [ a-vivek-a ]
- m. want of discrimination; lack of judgment; a. lacking judgment: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -in, a. undivided; lacking insight; having no discriminating people.



अविवेनत्् [ -vi-ven-at ]
- pr. pt. not turning away, well-disposed.


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अविशङ्क [ a-visaṅk-a ]
- a. unhesitating; fearless; , f. freedom from hesitation or timidity; -ita, pp. fearless; unhesitating; -in, a. not assuming or supposing.



अविशद [ a-visada ]
- a. indistinct; rigid.



[a-visastr ]
- m. bad carver



अविशिष्ट [ a-vi-sishta ]
- pp. not different: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -suddha, pp. impure; not thoroughly investigated.



अविशेष [ a-visesh-a ]
- m. no difference: -tas, in. ad. without difference; a. indiscriminate, -ga, a. undiscriminating; -ita, pp. unspecified.



अविश्रम [ a-vi-srama ]
- a. unceasing, unremitting; -srambha, m. mistrust: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -srnta, pp. unceasing; -srma, a. not resting; unceasing, unremitting: -m, ad. without resting.



अविश््वसत्् [ a-vi-svas-at ]
- pr. pt. distrustful; -anya, fp. not to be trusted: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -ta, pp. distrustful.



अविश््वास [ a-visvs-a ]
- m. distrust; a. distrustful: -m, ad. -ly, -ganaka, a. arousing distrust; -in, a. distrustful.


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अविष [ a-visha ]
Skt: अविष [ a-visha ] - n. no poison; a. () not poisonous. - Mac031c3
Pal: {a.wi.a.} - UHS PMD0140
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not poisonous



अविषक्त [ a-vi-shakta ]
- pp. not attached to or set on (--); irresistible.



अविषम [ a-vishama ]
- a. not unequal; even; friendly.



अविषय [ a-vishaya ]
- m. no sphere; no object or concern; impracticable matter; no suitable object for (g.): lc. in the absence of (g.); a. having no object; -manas, a. whose mind is not directed to the objects of sense; unworldly; --karana, n. not making something (g.) an object of (g.).



अविषह्य [ a-vi-shahya ]
- fp. intolerable.



अविषाद [ a-vishd-a ]
- m., i-tva, n. undauntedness; -in, a. undaunted.



अविष्ठ [ v-ishtha ]
- a. (spv.) accepting very gladly.



अविष्या [ avi-shy&asharp; ]
- f. desire, zeal, passion; -shy, a. eager; revengeful.


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अविस्तीर्ण [ a-vi-strna ]
= अ व ि स ् त ी र ् ण
- pp. not extensive; -spandita, pp. not quivering; -spashta, pp. indistinct; dim: -m, ad. -ly; -smita, pp. not astonished or taken aback; -smrita, pp. not forgotten.


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अविहतगति [ a-vi-hata-gati ]
- a. of unimpeded course; -hita-siddha, pp. unfeigned, unartificial.


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अविह्वल [ a-vihvala ]
- a. firm; cheerful.

( end of old p031-2.htm)

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अवीक्षित [ a-vi‿kshita ]
- pp. not recognised.

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UKT notes

Saivites, Vaisnavites, and Buddhists

- UKT 150705, 161003:

UKT 161003: Read interesting articles on skull-cups in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skull_cup 161003
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kapala 161003
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhairava 161003
Excerpt from 2nd article: "A kapala {ka.pa-la.} कपाल (Skt: "skull") or skullcup is a cup made from a human skull used as a ritual implement (bowl) in both Hindu Tantra and Buddhist Tantra (Vajrayana). ... Hindu deities that may be depicted with the kapala include Durga {dur~ga. m-tau}, Kālī {ka-li m-tau} and Shiva {i-wa. nt}, especially in his Bhairava {B:ra.wa.} भैरव form.
Note: I have given the Bur-Myan rendition and Romabama for ease of reading by the Bur-Myan audience. Goddess Durga {dur~ga. m-tau} is the first Hindu deity to whom I was exposed to at age 10, in Durga purja held at Ramakrishna Society in Rangoon in 1945. I was living with my parents and my elder brother, U Saw Tun, at 221 Thompson St. across the Ramakrishna Society. With this little note I honour my older friends who took great care of us, especially Mr. K. C. Sen.

The followers of Vishnu-dva and Siva-dva could have been amicable to each other. However, I was surprised to find that they have been mortal enemies from time to time. The most militant seem to be the monks of Saiva sect. 

They had been responsible for uprooting Buddhism even from the very places where Gautama Buddha was born and had died - areas where Buddha spent most of his time. Unlike Shaivites, the Vaiṣṇavites are quite friendly towards Buddhists.

Books that are worth reading:
1. Political History of the Madura Country, by J.H. Nelson, First published 1868, (bookpreview): https://books.google.com.mm/ books? 150414
In the book are over 60 stories which told the greatness of Siva-dva, and how the followers of the Badd'ha religion, the enemies of those of Siva were defeated.
Inset pix from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madurai 150415 showing Madurai a major city in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.
2. A Survey of Hinduism, by Klaus K. Klostermaier, 3rd ed, 1933, (bookpreview): https://books.google.com.mm/books? 150414
An excerpt of p306:
"The counterpart to the Daśnāmi nāgas, the so-called catursaṃpradāya nāgas, are militant Vaiṣṇavas, organized into ākhāḍas. They are subdivided into two groups; one carries a banner with the image of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, the other into one with Sītā-Rāma. One of Vaiṣṇava nāga  it is reliably told that he had taken a vow not to eat one mouthful before he had killed at least on Śaiva monk. A Śaiva in his turn had sworn never to eat his daily meal, unless he had first slain at least one Vaiṣṇava. Bloody clashes, frequent in former centuries, have become rare nowadays, but they are not unknown. fn19."


From Wikipedia on: Decline of Buddhism in India
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_Buddhism_in_India 150705.

The decline of Buddhism in India, the land of its birth, occurred for a variety of reasons such as sectarian conflicts within Buddhism, a loss in public and royal support for Buddhism, socio-political developments, gains by competing Indian religions such as Vaishnavism & Shaivism Hinduism and Jainism, and the invasions of India from central Asia. [1] [2] [3]

UKT 161017: I have struck out the word "Hinduism" because the two separate religions, Vaishnavism and Shaivism, are quite different. First and foremost, Vaishnavism has as its head the Trinity (Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva) of Vaishnavism, and Shaivism has only a Creator (Shiva). Secondly, I base my view on the attitudes of the two towards Buddhism.

Vaishnavism is quite friendly towards Buddhism, claiming the Buddha to be the 9th incarnate of Vishnu. On the other hand, the monks of Shaivism, in particular the followers of Adi Shankara (788-820 CE) are very militant towards Vaishnavites , and also towards the Buddhists. They are said to have used brute force such as killing the male Buddhist monks if they refused to convert to Shaivism, and have forced the celibate female Buddhist monks and nuns into marriage (which may be viewed as rape in modern times).

Read an interesting diatribe in
- http://bapumraut.blogspot.com/2013/02/how-adi-shankara-destroyed-buddhism-and.html 161007
Some of the facts mentioned in the article should be checked before accepting them as true.

Buddhism expanded in India in the centuries after the death of the Buddha, particularly after receiving the endorsement and royal support of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. It spread even beyond the Indian subcontinent to Central Asia and China. A steady decline of Buddhism in India set in during the 1st millennium CE, though it continued to attract financial and institutional support during the Gupta era (4th to 6th century) and the Pala Empire (8th to 12th century). [4] [5]

Chinese monks travelling through the region between the 5th and 8th centuries CE, such as Faxian, Xuanzang, Yijing, and Song Yun, wrote of a decline of the Buddhist sangha, in the northwest Indian subcontinent, especially in the wake of the White Hun invasion followed by Turk-Mongol raids. [1] Buddhism largely disappeared from most of India with the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India. [1] [2] [6]

Apart from the Himalayas and niche locations, Buddhism was virtually extinct in India by the end of the 19th century. In recent times Buddhism has seen a revival in India due to the influence of Anagarika Dharmapala, Kripasaran Mahasthavir, B. R. Ambedkar and Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.

From Wikipedia: Gautama Buddha in Hinduism
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_Hinduism 161006

Gautama Budddha is viewed as an avatar of the god Vishnu {bai~a.no: nt} in Vaishnava Hinduism. Buddhist teachings do not rely on the Vedas, are non-theistic [1] [2] [3] and deny the reality of the self* or Ātman; consequently, Hindu philosophers classified Buddhism as nāstika or heterodoxy within the scheme of Hinduism. [4]

*UKT 161006: The mixing up of Self - which is usually written with lower case "s", and Ātman had been confusing to me since my father U Tun Pe (who was a Theosophist and a Theravada Buddhist) told me about Ātman. I was still in my teens. At present, I hold that Self is Atta {t~ta.}, which may be "real" or "not", but is subject to change whereas Ātman is not subject to change. Atta {t~ta.} to me is "consciousness", "awareness" or "knowledge" and is very much a part of human existence. We are aware of ourselves soon after birth, and become unconscious just before death. However to find a "permanent unchanging Self" is impossible which makes me accept the principal of Anatta {a.nt~ta.}. This is just my personal view as a physical scientist.

The Buddha is described in important Hindu scriptures, including almost all the major Puranas {pu.raaN kym:}. However, "not all of them refer to the same person: some of them refer to other persons, and some occurrences of 'buddha' simply mean 'a person possessing buddhi'; most of them, however, refer specifically to the founder of Buddhism. " [5] They portray him with two roles: preaching non-theistic Vedic views in order to restore the Dharma and criticizing animal sacrifice. [6] A partial list of major Puranic references of the Buddha is as follows:

Harivamsa (1.41)
Vishnu Purana (3.18)
Bhagavata Purana (1.3.24, 2.7.37, 11.4.23) [7]
Garuda Purana (1.1, 2.30.37, 3.15.26) [8]
Agni Purana (16)
Naradiya Purana (2.72)
Linga Purana (2.71)
Padma Purana (3.252) [9]

In the Puranic texts, he is mentioned as one of the ten Avatars of Vishnu, usually as the ninth one. Another important scripture that mentions him as an avatar is Parashara's Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra (2:1-5/7).

Buddha is often described as a yogi or yogācārya and as a sannyāsi. His father is usually called Śuddhodhana, which is consistent with the Buddhist tradition, while in a few places the Buddha's father is named Ajana or Jina. He is described as beautiful (devasundararūpa), of yellow skin, and wearing brown-red or red robes. [10]

Only a few statements mention the worship of Buddha, e.g. the Varahapurana states that one desirous of beauty should worship him. [11] In some of the puranas, he is described as having taken birth to "mislead the demons asuras":

UKT 161007: The later-day Hindus, those who worship Vishnu-dva and Shiva-dva, describe the asuras as demons.

mohanārthaṃ dānavānāṃ bālarūpī pathi-sthitaḥ ।
putraṃ taṃ kalpayām āsa mūḍha-buddhir jinaḥ svayam ॥

tataḥ saṃmohayām āsa jinādyān asurāṃśakān ।
bhagavān vāgbhir ugrābhir ahiṃsā-vācibhir hariḥ ॥
Brahmanda Purana, Bhāgavatatātparya by Madhva, 1.3.28

To delude the demons, he stood on the path in the form of a child. The foolish Jina (a demon), imagined him to be his son. Thus the lord Sri Hari expertly deluded Jina and other demons by his strong words of non-violence.

In the Bhagavata Purana, Buddha is said to have taken birth to restore the devas to power:

tataḥ kalau sampravṛtte sammohāya sura-dviṣām ।
buddho nāmnājana-sutaḥ kīkaṭeṣu bhaviṣyati ॥
 srimad-bhagavatam, 1.3.24

Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, for the purpose of confusing the enemies of the devas, [he] will become the son of Anjana, Buddha by name, in the Kīkaṭas. [7]

In many puranas, the Buddha is described as an incarnation of Vishnu who incarnated in order to bring either demons or mankind close to the Vedic dharma. The Bhavishya Purana contains the following:

At this time, reminded of the Kali Age, the god Vishnu became born as Gautama, the Shakyamuni, and taught the Buddhist dharma for ten years. Then Shuddodana ruled for twenty years, and Shakyasimha for twenty. At the first stage of the Kali Age, the path of the Vedas was destroyed and all men became Buddhists. Those who sought refuge with Vishnu were deluded. [12]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.



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