Update: 2016-09-29 09:06 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p029.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a.la}

  p029c1
{a.li.}
{a.laing}
{a.lain}

{a.li}

{a.lu.}
{a.lu}

{a.l}

{a.lau:cf. Pal-Myan: {a.lau:Ba.}
{a.lau}

{al} : Similar to Repha in p027.htm: {a.} checked by killed {la.}/ {l}

  p029c2
{a.wa.}/ {ao} - the effect of killed-{wa.} is assumed to produce syllables ending in vowels
{a.wa.ka.}
{a.wa.ksa.} : Pseudo Kha
{a.wa.hka.} : Regular Kha
{a.wa.ga.}
{a.wa.sa.}
  p029c3
{a.wa.a.} : {a.} ञ, as part of conjunct {~sa.} ञ्च
{a.wa.Ta.}
{a.wa.ta.}
{a.wa.da.}
{a.wa.Da.}

UKT 150402: Bur-Myan speaker-writers must be careful to differentiate the basic r2c5 consonant Nya'le, {a.} ञ, from the vowel-letter "Akkhaya" {U.} उ . In old ink-on-paper books, the Myanmar letter-press printers had used moveable type with "slugs" cast using hot metal typesetting. And the same slug was used. See Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letterpress_printing 150402.
The inset pix (from unknown source) shows, the slugs used to print the phrase "in the beginning". This practice has been continued even when computer-font is in use. However, I have used different representation, shown in lengths of the "foot" of the glyph:  {a.} ञ with long foot, and vowel-letter {U.} उ with short foot. When Nya'le {a.} ञ, becomes the first member of a vertical conjunct, its foot is modified, e.g.  {~sa.} ञ्च . Remember "Akkhaya"  {U.} उ , can be modified only with {lon:kri:tn} as in Bur-Myan {U:} and {nhic-hkyan:ngn} as in Mon-Myan {U:}.

 

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UKT notes :
Avagraha अवग्रह avagraha ऽ
The problem of English vowel <u>

Orphan:
अवगति [ ava-gati ] f. understanding, apprehension;
-kkheda-ka, a. determining, distinguishing;
-dhra&ntod;a, n. restriction; emphasis on preceding word.

 

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{a.la}

UKT 140803: Short vowel {a.la.} lasting one eye-blink, is more complex than long vowel {a.la} with duration of 2 eye-blinks. Bur-Myan emphatic-long vowel {a.la:} is absent in Skt-Dev. See previous file - p028-3.htm

{a.la:.} (1/2 blk); {a.la.} (1 blk); {a.la} (2 blk); {a.la:} (2 blk with emphasis)

 

p029c1

p029c1-b00

अलाघव [ a-lghava ]
- n. no relief, to (g.).

 

p029c1-b01

अलात [ alta ]
- n. firebrand.

 

p029c1-b02

अलाबु alaNbu, ˚बू [ -b ]
- f. gourd; m. n. its fruit; gourd-bottle; -maya, a. made of a gourd.

अलाबु alābu
Skt: अलाबु [albu], ˚बू   [-b ] - f. gourd; m. n. its fruit; gourd-bottle - Mac029c1
Skt: अलाबु alābu - f. bottle-gourd, squash (Cucurbita pepo - Bot), pumpkin gourd. m.n. vessel made of bottle-gourd. n. fruit of the bottle-gourd -- SpkSkt
Bur: {bu:} or {Bu:} -- MED2006-313, -323

UKT 131027: When we were young the regular spelling was {Bu:}, but during the time of Myanmar Way to Socialism government , the MLC, changed it to {bu:} - citing that {Ba.}-words belonging to column c4 - were of 'foreign origin'. [This theory about c4 is widely held to be true by the majority including myself. With present study of BEPS, I am finding that this theory is simply false.] It took place during my lecturing days at RIT when we were forced into translating - under the threat of dismissal - all 'foreign words', primarily the scientific terms including chemical, chemical engineering, and medicine into Bur-Myan. The Burmese terms had to be mostly coined, which were equally 'foreign' to us. However, the MLC did not have the courage to change words such as 'Party', 'Unit', and 'Cadre'. The person, who came to RIT to enforce the change was the late U Tun Myint from Rangoon University Press.

 

p029c1-b03

अलाभ [ a-lbha ]
- m. non-obtainment; absence; loss; -kla, m. unfit time for obtainment.

 

p029c1-b04

अलास्य [ a-lsya ]
- a. not dancing.

 

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{a.li.}

p029c1-b05

अलि [ ali ]
- m. bee; -kula, n. swarm of bees.

 

p029c1-b06

अलिक [ alika ]
- m. forehead.

 

p029c1-b07

अलिङग  alinaga [ a-liṅga ]
= अ ल ि ङ ग  --> {a.lain~ga.} (vertical conjunct in Mac)
Skt: अलिङग  [ a-liṅga ] - a. lacking characteristics; lacking gender. -- Mac029c1
Pal: {a.lain~ga.}
- - UHS-PMD
  UKT: mfn. absence of gender (characteristics)

 

p029c1-b08

अलिङ्गिन् [ a-liṅgin ]
- a. not entitled to wear badges.

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{a.lain}

p029c1-b09

अलिन् [ alin ]
- m. bee; -, f. female bee; swarm of bees.

 

p029c1-b10

अलिन्द [ alinda ]
- m. terrace.

 

p029c1-b11

अलिमत् [ ali-mat ]
- a. covered with bees: (d)-dalin, a. having petals covered with bees; -ml, f. swarm of bees.

 

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{a.li}

p029c1-b12

अलीक [ alka ]
- a. disagreeable; false; n. disagreeable thing; untruthfulness, falsehood; forehead; -nimlana, n. feigned closing of the eyes; -pandita, m. philosophaster; -mantrin, m. dishonest minister; -vda-sla, a. lying; -supta, -ka, n. feigned sleep.

Philosophaster is a Latin satirical comedy by Robert Burton (15771640). He began writing the play in 1606 and completed it by 1615. ... Since the play is about someone who pretends to be a philosopher, the term itself has been used in more recent times to refer to a pretender to philosophy.
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophaster 160924

 

p029c1-b13

अलीन [ a-lna ]
- pp. not adhering.

 

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{a.lu.}

p029c1-b14

अलुप्तसत्त्वकोश [ a-lupta-sattva-kosa ]
- a. having a full treasure of courage.

 

p029c1-b15

अलुब्ध [ a-lubdha ]
- pp. not covetous; -tva, n. contentment.

 

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{a.lu}

p029c1-b16

अलून [ a-lna ]
- pp. unplucked, unhurt.

 

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{a.l}

p029c1-b17

अलेख्य [ a-lekhya ]
- fp. not to be reckoned among (lc.).

 

p029c1-b18

अलेपक [ a-lepaka ]
- a. untainted, pure.

 

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{a.lau:cf. Pal-Myan: {a.lau:Ba.}

UKT 131028: Can it also be {a.lo}? Remember both {a.lo} & {a.lau:} are split-vowels similar to   ো & ৌ in Bangla-Bengali. They are not diphthongs. Compare them to English vowels containing "silent E". What we hear as vowels in the human voice depends not only on how they are produced, but also on how they are heard. Our hearing is so imperfect in this area that, we may never be able to solve the problem of Thawun-Athawun pairs.
See: How sound is produced and heard in HUMAN VOICE
- indx-HV.htm > snd-hear.htm (link chk 160924)

 

p029c1-b19

अलोकसामान्य [ a-loka-smnya ]
- a. not shared by ordinary people.

 

p029c1-b20

अलोक्य [ a-loky ]
- a. unusual; improper, inadmissible; excluding from heaven.

UKT 140803, 160825: The word "heaven" is to be taken in the sense of Hindu religion, and I would interpret is it as the "abode of Dva" or {d-wa.lau:ka.}.

It is not Nirvana in the Theravada Buddhist sense. The religious leaders would just point to the celestial sphere above studded with fix stars and moving luminaries which they take to be celestial entities.

 

 

p029c1-b21

अलोपयत् [ a-lopayat ]
- cs. pr. pt. not causing to desist from (ab.).

 

p029c1-b22

अलोभ [ a-lobha ] cf. Pal-Myan: {a.lau:Ba.}
- m. freedom from confusion; lack of cupidity; moderation; a. moderate, contented.

UKT 150401: Compare अलोभ [ a-lobha ] with Pal-Myan: {a.lau:Ba.} 'freedom from greed'

 

p029c1-b23

अलोमक [ a-lmaka (or ka) ]
- a. (ak or ik) hairless.

UKT 140803, 160924: In Pal-Myan, there are two terms for "hair": head-hair & body-hair. The above mean body-hair.

 

p029c1-b24

[a-loman]
- a. id.

 

p029c1-b25

अलोल [ a-lola ]
- a. not fickle, not greedy; -tva, n. constancy.

 

p029c1-b26

अलोलुप्यमान [ a-lolupya-mna ]
- int. pr. pt. not greedy.

 

p029c1-b27

अलोहित [ a-lhita (or t) ]
- a. bloodless.

 

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{a.lau}

p029c1-b28

अलौकिक [ a-laukika ]
- a. () unusual, extraordinary.

 

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{al}

UKT 160924: Similar to Repha in p027.htm: {a.} checked by killed {la.}/ {l}. The question is whether to use a similar Lepha {al-} or a conjunct . Note: "Lepha" is my coined word because of its similarity to Repha. Also keep in mind the interchange of /l/ (in Tib-Bur) and /r/ (in IE) which can be seen in Lāghula {la-Gu.la.} becoming Rāhula {ra-hu.la.}. See: F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, - BHS-indx.htm (link chk 160924)

{al} can also be represented in Lepha - the {king:si:}-form
  #1. size of repha < l > small , #2. no ~ between <a> & < l >.

However, in order to show its similarity to Pal-Myan, it can also be presented as a conjunct. See Pal-Myan words in UHS PMD, p.0130, e.g. {al~la.} 'dampness'.

 

p029c1-b29

अल्ग [ alg ]
= अ ल ् ग  
- m. du. groin, loins.

 

p029c1-b30

अल्प [ lpa ]
= अ ल ् प  
- a. small, little, short, trifling, insignificant, feeble; n. a little: -m, ad. slightly; in., ab. easily, quickly; -k, a. (ik) id.; m. wretched wight; n. a little: -m, ad. slightly; -krya, a. insignificant; -kla-tva, n. shortness of time; -ga, a. knowing little: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -tara, cpv. quite small; -t, f., -tva, n. smallness, insignificance; shortness; -tegas, a. of little energy; -dhana, a. of small means, poor; -dh, a. of small wit, foolish.

 

p029c1-b31

अल्पपरीवार [ alpa-parvra ]
- a. of slender retinue; -pyin, a. sucking badly (leeches); -punya, a. whose good works are few; -prabhva, a. insignificant; -bala, n. small force; -bala-prna, a. weak and short-winded; -buddha, pp. only just awakened; -buddhi, a. of mean intellect; -bhgya, a. luckless: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -bhuga‿antara, a. narrow-chested; -medhas, a. of small wit.

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p029c2

p029c2-b01

अल्पय [ alpa-ya ]
- den. P. lessen, depreciate.

 

p029c2-b02

अल्पविद्य [ alpa-vidya ]
- a. of little learning; -vishaya, a. of small extent, limited.

 

p029c2-b03

अल्पशक्ति [ alpa-sakti ]
- a. weak; -ss, ad. slightly, to a small extent; rarely; -sesha, a. having little wanting; almost completed; -sattva, a. of little courage, cowardly; -sra, a. weak; worthless; insignificant; -snyu, a. having few sinews; -svara, a. weak-voiced, quiet.

 

p029c2-b04

अल्पाङ्ग [ alpa‿aṅga ]
- a. small-bodied: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -‿yus, a. short-lived; -‿alpa, a. little by little, moderate: -bhs, a. of very slight lustre; -‿avasishta, pp. little left: -tva, n. condition of little being left.

 

p029c2-b05

[alp-bh]
- be diminished

 

p029c2-b06

अल्पीयस् [ alp-yas ]
- cpv. smaller; very small.

 

p029c2-b07

अल्पेच्छु [ alpa‿ikkhu ]
- a. of moderate wishes; -‿itara, a. great, considerable: -tva, n. -ness.

UKT: p029c2-b08, [av] or {aw}, belongs to another file, and it and others following it have been moved to the next file.

(end of old p029-1.htm)

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{a.wa.}

UKT 150403: {a.wa.} is an important prefix, and is the second-member of the Bur-Myan word-pair {a.lon:a.wa.} 'entire, whole'. The first-member is {a.lon:} 'ball, sphere', from which we may extend the meaning of {a.wa.} to 'circle'.

p029c2-b08

अव् [av], i.p.
va , urge; favour, help; comfort, satisfy; protect; like. upa , assent, agree. pra = simple verb

 

p029c2-b09

अव [ 1. va ]
- verbal and nominal prefix off; down; prp. w. ab. down from.

 

p029c2-b10

अव [ 2. v-a ]
Skt: अव [ 2. v-a ] - m. favour, grace. - Mac029c2
Pal: {a.wa.} -- UHS-PMD0130
   UKT from UHS: prefix. for downward, incomparable, oppression, knowing, purity, decision, region, stealing, etc.
UKT 140804: the prefix seems to take on diverse meanings depending on its following word.

 

p029c2-b11

अवंश [ a-vamsa ]
- m. mean descent.

 

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{a.wa.ka.}

p029c2-b12

अवकर [ ava-kara ]
- m. sweepings; -kta, m. n. dust-heap.

 

p029c2-b13

अवकर्णय [ ava-karna-ya ]
- den. P. not listen to, set at nought.

 

p029c2-b14

अवकर्त  avakarta [ ava-kart-a ]
= अ व क र ् त  
Skt: अवकर्त  [ava-kart-a ] - m. chip; -ana, n. cutting off; -in, a. cutting off (--). -- Mac029c2
Pal: {a.kat~ta.} - UHS-PMD0130
  UKT from UHS: mfn. cutting up

 

p029c2-b15

अवकाश [ ava-ks ]
- m. space, room; opportunity; interval; access: -m d, make room; grant admittance (to, d., g.); -da, a. harbouring; m. receiver of stolen goods; -vat, a. roomy, spacious.

p029c2-b16

अवकीर्णिन् [ ava-krnin ]
- a. having broken his vow of chastity; -kes, a. having pendent hair; -kotaka, m. crane (Ardea nivea).

UKT 140803: The water-bird Ardea nivea , is a bird of Ardea genus. There are many kinds of water-birds catching fish in paddy-fields in the Kungyangon area where I was born. They are all {byeing:} to us, and they are noted for their long legs. See MED2006-317 for dictionary definitions

p029c2-b17

अवक्रग [ a-vakra-ga ]
- a. going straight.

 

p029c2-b18

अवक्रय [ ava-kraya ]
- m. letting, leasing.

 

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{a.wa.ksa.} : Pseudo Kha

p029c2-b19

अवक्षेप [ ava-kshepa ]
- m. derision, mockery; -na, n. throwing down; mockery.

 

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{a.wa.hka.} : Regular Kha

p029c2-b20

अवखण्डन [ ava-khandana ]
- n. splitting, dismembering; -khd, m. consumption; consumer.

 

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{a.wa.ga.}

अवगति  avagati [ ava-gati ]
- f. understanding, apprehension; -kkheda-ka, a. determining, distinguishing; -dhra&ntod;a, n. restriction; emphasis on preceding word.

 

p029c2-b21

अवगन्तव्य [ ava-gantavya ]
- fp. to be understood; to be concluded from (ab.); -gantri, m. one who understands; -gama, m., -na, n. understanding, cognizance, ascertainment; -gha, m. immersion; washing; bathing: -na, n. id.; -ghin, a. reaching to; engaging in (--); -gunthana, n. veiling; veil: -vat, a. veiled; -grana, n. roaring, raging; -graha, m. hindrance; obstacle; drought; division of a word; pause, mark of elision (gr.); -grha, m. drought; -grham, abs. separating the words; -grhin, a. separating; -gharshana, n. rubbing off; -ghta, m. blow; unhusking by pounding.

अवग्रह avagraha
= अ व ग ् र ह --> {a.wa.g~ra.ha.}
Skt: [-graha] - m. hindrance; obstacle; drought; division of a word; pause, mark of elision (gr.) -- Mac029c2
Pal: {a.wag~ga.ha.} - UHS-PMD0131
  UKT from UHS: m. to obstruct

UKT 140803: The above Skt-Dev word अवग्रह avagraha is a compound of {a.wa.} & {g~ra.ha.}. The second word {g~ra.ha.} is a common Astrological term in Bur-Myan {grah} 'planet' or "catcher" which can capture a certain period in a person's life. See UTM-PDMD043.
See my note on Avagraha अवग्रह avagraha ऽ

 

Orphan
अवगति  avagati [ ava-gati ]
- f. understanding, apprehension; -kkheda-ka, a. determining, distinguishing; -dhra&ntod;a, n. restriction; emphasis on preceding word.

 

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{a.wa.sa.}

p029c2-b22

अवचन [ a-vakana ]
- a. speechless; -kara, a. not following --, disregarding advice.

 

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p029c3

p029c3-b00

अवचनीय [ a-vakanya ]
- fp. not to be said.

 

p029c3-b01

अवचय ava-kaya, ˚चाय [ -kya ]
- m. plucking, gathering; -kyin, a. plucking, gathering; -krana, n. treatment, application: -ya, fp. applicable; -kiksh, f. desire to pluck; -k-da, m. pendent tuft; -kla, m. id.

 

p029c3-b02

अवच्छेद [ ava-kkheda ]
- m. piece cut off; section; distinction; -gaya, m. conquest; -g, f. contempt, disrespect, disparagement (of, g., lc.): in. with perfect indifference; -gna, n. id.; -geya, fp. to be despised.

 

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{a.wa.a.} : {a.} ञ, as part of conjunct {~sa.} ञ्च

p029c3-b03

अवञ्चनता [ a-vakana-t ]
= अ व ञ ् च न त ा  =  अ व ञ्च न त ा 
- f. honesty.

 

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{a.wa.Ta.}

p029c3-b04

अवट [ ava-t ]
- m. pit; cavity.

 

p029c3-b05

अवटुज [ avatu-ga ]
- m. pl. hair on the neck.

( end of old p029-2.htm)

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{a.wa.ta.}

UKT 131204, 140806, 160929: The Eng-Latin vowel <u> can have two pronunciations /ʌ/ or /ʊ/ as the peak vowel. See Daniel Jones Pronouncing Dictionary, DJPD16-555 - let-u.htm (link chk 160929) . I have noted that one of the first problem faced by a Myanmar ESL learner is pronouncing the letters [ut] in <put> /pʊt/ and <but> /bʌt/. The corresponding sounds in Bur-Myan are {ut} /ʊt/ and {t} /ʌt/. See my note on the problem of English vowel <u>

 

p029c3-b06

अवत् [ v-at ]
= अ व त ्  --> {a.wut}
- pr. pt. friendly; m. N.

 

p029c3-b07

अवत [ ava-t ]
- m. well.

 

p029c3-b08

अवतंस ava-tamsa, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. n. wreath, diadem; ring-shaped ornament; -nya, fp. to be made into a wreath.

 

p029c3-b09

अवतंसय [ ava-tamsa-ya ]
- den. P. make into a wreath.

 

p029c3-b10

अवतंसिनी [ avatams-in ]
- f. woman wearing a wreath.

 

p029c3-b11

[avatam-kri ]
- use as a wreath

 

p029c3-b12

अवतमस [ ava-tamasa ]
- n. decreasing darkness.

 

p029c3-b13

अवतरण [ ava-tar-ana ]
- n. coming down, descent: -maṅgala, n. solemn welcome; -itavya, fp. n. one must descend; -tra, m. descent (esp. of gods to earth); incarnation; manifestation: -na, n. causing to descend; laying aside, -mantra, m. spell causing one to descend from the air; -trin, a. appearing, entering; -titrshu, a. wishing to descend.

 

अवतार avatāra 
Skt: [-tra] - m. descent (esp. of gods to earth); incarnation; manifestation -- Mac029c3
Skt: अवतार avatāra  - m. appearance of any deity upon earth -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.wa.ta-ra.} - UHS-PMD0133
  UKT from UHS: m. insertion, descent, water-front

UKT 160929: A devotee of lord Krishna, Stephen Knapp (Sri Nandanandana dasa)
http://www.stephen-knapp.com/were_there_two_buddhas.htm 160929
"...
 there was first the Avatara Buddha, the incarnation of Lord Vishnu who appeared near 1800 BCE, and then there was another person who became known as Gautama called Buddha, born around 560 BCE." UKT: It seems Stephen Knapp is referring to Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018, 160929

 

p029c3-b14

अवत्त [ va-tta ]
- pp. √d (dyati).

 

p029c3-b15

अवत्तिन् [ avattin ]
- a. dividing into (--, e.g. four) parts (--).

 

p029c3-b16

अवत्सा [ a-vats ]
- f. cow that has lost her calf.

 

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{a.wa.da.}

p029c3-b17

अवदात [ ava-dta ]
- pp. pure, white, clear: -t, f. whiteness; -dna, n. heroic deed; -dra, m. breach: -na, n. a. rending; bursting.

 

p029c3-b18

अवदावद [ a-vadvada ]
- a. undisputed.

 

p029c3-b19

अवदोल [ ava-dola ]
- m. swinging, rocking.

 

p029c3-b20

अवद्य [ a-vad-y ]
=  अ व द ् य
- fp. blameworthy; n. fault; abuse; blame; disgrace.

 

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{a.wa.Da.}

p029c3-b21

अवध [ a-vadha ]
- m. no murder; no beating.

 

p029c3-b22

अवधान [ ava-dhna ]
- n. attention, devotion; -dhrana, n. affirmation; restriction; singling out: -ya, fp. to be looked upon as settled; to be restricted to (in.); -dhrya, fp. to be ascertained; -dh, m. limit; terminus ad quem; respite: --, ad. up to, till (g.).

 

p029c3-b23

[avadh-kri ]
- fix a limit or date

 

p029c3-b24

  अवधीरण [ ava-dhrana ]
- n
., , f. refusal; disdain.

 

p029c3-b25

अवधीरय [ ava-dhra-ya ]
- den. P. refuse, disdain, neglect; surpass. sam, disregard: pp. ita, disregarded, slighted, unheeded.

 

p029c3-b26

अवधीरिन् [ ava-dhrin ]
- a. surpassing (--).

 

p029c3-b27

अवध्य [ a-vadh-y ]
- fp. inviolable: -vyavasya-vhya, a. foreign to the resolve that no thing should be killed; -t, f. inviolableness; -tva, n., -bhva, m. id.

 

p029c3-b28

अवध्र [ a-vadhr ]
- a. indestructible.

 

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UKT notes

Avagraha अवग्रह avagraha ऽ

-- UKT 131029

Studying BEPS, has certainly deflated my ego. I had thought I know Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat quite well. I am finding out time after time, that what I knew was just a scratch on the surface. Bur-Myan writes without white spaces which is very difficult to read for a foreigner. Pal-Myan is worse for I did not know much of the language. Now comes Skt-Dev with its own set of symbols. Avagraha is one of those. It seems that the Indic languages which all write without white spaces has Avagrahas. Do we have one for Burmese, Pali and Mon - the languages that write in Myanmar script? I still have to find out. 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avagraha 120705, 131029

Avagraha (Dev: अवग्रह avagraha) ऽ  is a Devanāgarī symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ  a. [UKT ]

Definition of Prodelision :
-- elision of the initial vowel of a word
<Latin bonum'st  for bonum est  is an example of prodelision >
-- http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/prodelision 120705

It is usually transliterated with an apostrophe, as in the Sanskrit philosophical expression शिवो ऽहम् Śivo ham (Śivaḥ aham without sandhi) I am Shiva. [UKT ]

The avagraha is also used for prolonging vowel sounds in modern languages, for example Hindi माँऽऽऽ!  for M! when calling to ones mother. Sometimes it is also used to signify long or heavy syllables in metrical poetry, for example can the syllables in the word छंदः  chandaḥ metre (in nominative) be expressed as ऽ ऽ , as two long syllables.

UKT: End of Wiki stub

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The problem of English vowel <u>

- UKT 131204, 140803, 160929  

When the English <w> & <t> are close together as in {a.wut} we have a pronouncing problem. Is the vowel /ʌ/ or /ʊ/ ? The corresponding sounds in Bur-Myan are {ut} /ʊt/ and {t} /ʌt/. The problem is accentuated in {a-wut} which we will meet in p043-1.htm (link chk 160929) .

What do the ancient grammarians (who were really phoneticians) who were dealing with Pali and Sanskrit, such as Panini and Shin Kicsi {shn kic~s:} (aka Kaccayano) had to say? They were contemporaries of the Gautama Buddha. Panini was a Sanskrit scholar whilst Shin Kicsi {shn kic~s:} was on Pali. If you cannot pronounce the latter's name, don't worry. I have used his name as is known to Burmese Buddhist monks who are Tib-Bur speakers.

Panini by religion was a Brahmana-Hindu (an Atta-wardi) and Shin Kicsi {shn kic~s:} {an Anatta-wardi) was a Buddhist praised by Gautama Buddha himself. The Buddha made a ruling to be followed by his monks in passing on his teachings.

anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyāpunitum -- Gautama Buddha

In essence, the Buddha allowed his monks to preach so that the listener would know the ideas. He was not concerned with the correct pronunciation of the words. Since Sanskrit placed a heavy reliance on the pronunciation, he condemned the effort by some of his monks to use Sanskrit just for the sake of proper pronunciation.

It is noteworthy that Gautama Buddha, being born in an area of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages, and not being a Brahmin, had condemned the Sanskrit language (IE or Indo-European) as the language of a heretical religion. See Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism, by by Chi Hisen-lin, Journal of the Burma Research Society, XLIII, i, June 1960 [current spelling: Ji Xianlin ] - lang-probl.htm (link chk 160929) . Note: Chi Hisen-lin aka Ji Xianlin (季羡林; August 6, 1911 July 11, 2009) was a prominent Chinese Indologist Sanskrit scholar based in Peking University.

Yet, the Buddha accepted the work of ancient Vedic Rishis, because of which I contend that ancient Vedic language was a Tib-Bur language. The IE speakers, after conquering the Tib-Bur speakers by force of arms, had taken over religion of the conquered, placing their own gods - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Shiva - over the major gods of the Vedic such as Indra, Agni, and Soma. I came to this conclusion after noting that there were many more hymns to Indra, Agni, and Soma compared to those to Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Shiva.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 131204
(Note to TIL editor: leave the Wiki links for future work)

List of Rigvedic deities by number of dedicated hymns, after Griffith (1888). Some dedications are to paired deities, such as Indra-Agni, Mitra-Varuna, Soma-Rudra, here counted doubly.

Indra 289, Agni 218, Soma 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala)
Vishvadevas 70, the Asvins 56, Varuna 46 [2] , the Maruts 38
Mitra 28 [2] , Ushas 21, Vayu (Wind) 12, Savitr 11, the Rbhus 11, Pushan 10
the Apris 9 , Brhaspati 8 , Surya (Sun) 8 ,
Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth) 6, plus 5.84 dedicated to Earth alone
Apas (Waters) 6 , Adityas 6 , Vishnu 6 , Brahmanaspati 6 , Rudra 5
Dadhikras 4 , the Sarasvati River / Sarasvati 3
Yama , Parjanya (Rain) 3
Vāc (Speech) 2 (mentioned 130 times, deified e.g. in 10.125)
Vastospati 2 , Vishvakarman 2 , Manyu 2
Kapinjala (the Heathcock, a form of Indra) 2

Minor deities (one single or no dedicated hymn)

Manas (Thought), prominent concept, deified in 10.58
Dakshina (Reward for priests and poets), prominent concept, deified in 10.107
Jnanam (Knowledge), prominent concept, deified in 10.71
Purusha ("Cosmic Man" of the Purusha sukta 10.90)
Aditi , Bhaga , Vasukra , Atri , Apam Napat , Ksetrapati , Ghrta, Nirrti , Asamati ,
Urvasi , Pururavas , Vena , Aranyani , Mayabheda , Tarksya , Tvastar , Saranyu

The Hindu Brahmin-Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} - the IE speakers - married their gods to the mother-goddesses: Mahabrahma to Saraswati, Vishnu to Lakshmi, and Parvatti to Shiva. They rewrote many ancient stories in support of their claims.

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