Update: 2016-08-25 12:54 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p028.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

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  There are many entries under repha. For a quick chk,
  see - dictall-SktGlos<> / bkp<> (link chk 160823)
  (pdf 018/221 to 019/221)

{ar~hta.} - cont
  p028c1
{ar~da.}
{ar~Da.}
  p028c2

{ar~pa.}
{ar~ba.}
{ar~Ba.}
{ar~ma.}

{ar~ya.}
{ar~wa.}

{ar~sha.}
{ar~Sa.}
{ar~ha.} : cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}
  p028c3

{a.la.} : pronunciation of {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}
{a.la.ka.}
{a.lak~Sa.} : Pseudo Kha क्ष kṣa is a conjunct which can break up:
  cf. with Pal-Myan {a.lak~hka.Na}
{a.la.hka.} : Regular Kha ख kha is a basic akshara and it will not break up
{a.la.ga.}
{a.ln-ka.} / {a.ln~ka.} which stand for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}.
{a.ln~Ga.}

{a.liz~za.}

{a.la.ta.}

{a.la.ba.}
{a.la.Ba.}
{a.la.ma.}

{a.la.ya.}
{a.la.la.}
{a.la.a.}

 

UKT notes :
Arhat : the problem of Female Order of Monks in Theravada Buddhist tradition
Lac {hkyaip}
Pitri पितृ - {prait~ta} 'the hungry ghost".
  "According to these [ Matsya Purana and Padma Purana  ] accounts there are different classes of the Pitṛs and they have different origins, forms, grades and abodes. A broad distinction exists between the devāḥ pitaraḥ (divine Pitṛs) and the manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (Pitṛs who were deceased human beings). Some of the Pitṛs dwell in the heavenly abodes while other dwell in the netherworlds. The former who dwell in the heaven were considered as the gods and the gods were also considered as the Pitṛs". - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitrs 131024

 

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{ar~hta.}

p028c1

p028c1-b00

अर्थिसात्कृ arthi-satkri
= (अर्थि) स ा त ् क ृ
- grant a supplicant's request (ac)

 

p028c1-b01

अर्थीयx{093c} [ arth-ya ]
- a. serving the purpose of (--).

 

p028c1-b02

अर्थोत्सर्ग [ artha‿utsarga ]
- m. expenditure; -‿shman, m. glow of wealth.

 

p028c1-b03

अर्थ्य [ arth-ya ]
- a. suitable, judicious; rich.

 

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{ar~da.}

p028c1-b04

अर्द् [ ARD ]
- v.  RID.

 

p028c1-b05

अर्दन [ ard-ana ]
- a. afflicting, tormenting (--).

 

p028c1-b06

[ard-ta.]
pp. (√rid) afflicted.

 

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{ar~Da.}

p028c1-b07

अर्ध् [ARDH]
- prosper, v. RIDH

 

p028c1-b08

अर्ध [ . ardh- ]
Skt: अर्ध [ . ardh- ] - a. half (in a. & ad. often --); m. n. half; middle. - Mac028c1
Skt: अर्ध (ardha) = half - dictall-SktGlos

 

p028c1-b09

अर्ध [ . rdh-a ]
- m. side, part; place, region.

 

p028c1-b10

अर्धकथन [ ardha-kathana ]
- n. incomplete narration; -kapisa, a. brownish; -krishta, pp. half drawn out; -kot, f. five millions; -kosha, m. half one's treasure.

 

p028c1-b11

अर्धचन्द्र [ ardha-kandra ]
- m. half-moon; arrow with half-moon-shaped head; hollowed hand: -m d, seize by the throat; -ka, m. bent hand; -bhgin, a. seized by the throat; -mukha, a. having a half-moon-shaped point.

 

p028c1-b12

अर्धज्वलित [ ardha-gvalita ]
- pp. half-ignited.

 

p028c1-b13

अर्धत्रयोदश [ ardha-trayodasa ]
- a. pl. twelve & a half; -dagdha, pp. half-burnt; -danda, m. fine of half the amount; -divasa, m. midday; -dev, m. demi-god; -dvi-katur-asraka, m. kind of posture; -nish-panna, a. half completed.

 

p028c1-b14

[ardha-paka-n]
- -ma, a. 4 1/2; -pa-k-at , f. twenty-five

विंशति  viṃśati - num. twenty -- Spk Skt
-- पञ्चविंसति  pacaviṃsati - f. twenty-five  -- SpkSkt

 

p028c1-b15

अर्धपण [ ardha-pana ]
- m. half a pana; -patha, m. half-way; -pda, m. tip of the foot; -pdika, a. having half a foot; -pta, pp. half-drunk; -pulyita, n. kind of gait in the horse; -brigal, n. half a piece; -bhakshita, pp. half eaten; -bhagna, pp. half-broken; -bhgika, a. receiving half a portion; -bhg, a. receiving the half; -mgadh, f. semi-Mgadh (dialect); -mrga, m. half-way; -ms, m. half a month; -msika, a. lasting half a month; -mlita, pp. half-closed; -mukulkri, half close (eyes); -mundita, pp. having the head half shaved.

 

p028c1-b16

अर्धयाम [ ardha-yma ]
- m. half-watch.

 

p028c1-b17

अर्धरात्र [ ardha-rtra ]
- m. midnight: -samaya, m. midnight hour; -rdha, pp. half-grown.

 

p028c1-b18

अर्धर्च [ ardha‿rik ]
- m. half-verse, hemistich.

 

p028c1-b19

अर्धर्चशस् [ ardharka-ss ]
- ad. by half-verses.

 

p028c1-b20

अर्धलक्ष्य [ ardha-lakshya ]
- fp. half-visible; -likhita, pp. half-painted; -vastra, n. half a garment; -vriddhi, f. half the interest; -vaisasa, n. semi-homicide.

 

p028c1-b21

अर्धशत [ ardha-sata ]
- n. 50; 150; -syma, a. half black, half clouded over; -sruta, pp. half heard; -sloka, m. half sloka; -samgta-sasya, a. whose produce is but half grown; -sama-vritta, n. semi-identical metre (Pda 1= 3, 2=4); -siddha, pp. half-completed; -srin, m. husbandman who receives half the produce for his labour; -hra, m. pearl necklace of 64 strings.

 

p028c1-b22

अर्धाक्षि [ ardha‿akshi ]
- n. side glance; -‿aṅgkri, turn into half a body; -‿-kita, pp. half studded (w. jewels); -‿adhta, pp. half-learnt; -‿ardha, a. quarter: -bhga, m. id., -hni, f. deduction of half each time; -‿ava-ldha, pp. half-licked; -‿-vishta, pp. half-faltering; -‿sana, n. half one's seat (offered to a guest).

 

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p028c2

p028c2-b01

अर्धिक [ ardh-ika ]
- a. () amounting to a half; -n, a. half; receiving the half.

 

p028c2-b02

अर्धेन्दुमौलि [ ardha‿indu-mauli ]
- m. (crescent-crested), ep. of Siva.

 

p028c2-b03

अर्धोक्त [ ardha‿ukta ]
- pp. half-said, half-told; n. half-speech; -‿ukkhishta, pp. half left over; -‿udita, pp. half-risen; -‿upa-bhukta, pp. half-consumed; -‿uruka, a. reaching half way down the thigh; n. short overcoat.

 

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{ar~pa.}

p028c2-b04

अर्पण [ arp-ana ]
- a. () procuring; making over, entrusting; n. throwing; attaching; placing upon; application; offering; consignment, making over, transference; restitution; -anya, fp. to be given up, to be handed over; -ita, cs. pp. (√ri) placed in or on, applied; made over to.

 

p028c2-b05

अर्पय [ ar-paya ]
- cs of √ri , go

 

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{ar~ba.}

p028c2-b06

अर्बुद [ arbuda ]
= अ र ् ब ु द
- m. () serpent; N. of a snake-demon (r-); snake-like mass; shape of the foetus in the second month; N. of a mtn. (Ab): pl. N. of a people; n. the hymn RV. X, 94; 10,000,000; -sikhara, m. N. of a mtn.

 

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{ar~Ba.}

p028c2-b07

अर्भ [ rbha ]
- a. small, weak; m. boy; -k, a. small, weak; m. boy; young of animals: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -ga, a. youthful.

 

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{ar~ma.}

p028c2-b08

अर्म [ r-ma ]
- m. pl. ruins.

(end of old p028-1.htm)

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{ar~ya.}

p028c2-b09

अर्य [ 1. ar-y ]
- a. kind, devoted; pious.

 

p028c2-b10

अर्य [ 2. rya ]
- m. man --, , f. woman of one of the three upper castes; man --, woman of the third caste.

 

p028c2-b11

अर्यमन् [ arya-mn ]
- m. intimate, comrade; N. of one of the dityas, chief of the Pitris; groomsman; sun.

UKT 131024: In Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, an ancestor who died still attached to his family, became a "ghost" or {prait~ta}. See my note on Hinduism Pitri

 

p028c2-b12

अर्यम्य [ aryamy ]
- a. intimate.

 

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{ar~wa.}

p028c2-b13

अर्वत् r-vat, अर्वन् [ r-van ]
- a. racing, swift; m. racer, steed; charioteer.

 

p028c2-b14

अर्वती [ rvat- ]
- f. mare.

 

p028c2-b15

अर्वाक् [ arvấk ]
- n. (of arvấk) ad. hitherwards: -kri, procure; prp. with in. or ab. on this side of; from; before (of fut.), after (of past).

 

p028c2-b16

अर्वाक्कालिकता [ arvk-klika-t ]
- f. modern date; -klna, a. dating from a recent period.

 

p028c2-b17

अर्वाचीन [ arvk&isharp;na (or ) ]
- a. hitherward; being on this side of (ab.); nearer.

 

p028c2-b18

[ar-va'‿ ak ]
- a. (-vk-) turned towards; hitherward; -am kr , procure

 

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{ar~sha.}

p028c2-b19

अर्शस् [ rs-as ]
- n. pl. hemorrhoids.

 

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{ar~Sa.}

p028c2-b20

अर्ष् [ ARSH ]
- v.  RISH.

 

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{ar~ha.} : cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}

p028c2-b21

अर्ह् [arh] ,
-  ip. (rha , claim; deserve; be liable to, incur; be bound to, be capable of (ac.); have a right, be obliged, be able to (inf.); be worth, be equal to (ac.); the 2nd pers. sg. is equivalent to a polite imperative = please to; pray; deign; cs. arhaya , honour with (in.). abhi , cs. pp. arhita , highly honoured.

 

p028c2-b22

अर्ह [ arh-a ]
- a. deserving, claiming, entitled to, justified in (ac., --); fit, suitable for (g., --); -na, a. claiming (--); n. honouring: , f. honour; -nya, fp. deserving of honour; -tva, n. worthiness for (--).

 

p028c2-b23

अर्हत् [ rh-at ]
= अ र ् ह त ् --> {ar~ht} --> {ar~ht~ta.}
- pr. pt. deserving; m. worthy person, Arhat (with Buddhists and Jains); -tva, n. dignity of an Arhat.
 cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}

See my note on Arhat - Please note I am only interested in language aspects of the word or the term - NOT on what the religions are saying about the Theravada "Arhat" or "Arahant " especially from the Mahayana on the Theravada.

 

p028c2-b24

अर्हन्तिका [ arhantik ]
- f. Buddhist nun.

(end of old p028-2.htm )

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p028c3

{a.la.}

UKT 150301: I am still uncertain of the pronunciation of {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}

{a.la.ka.}

p028c3-b00

अलक [ alaka ]
- m. n. lock, curly hair; , f. N. of Kubera's city; N. of a city in Nishadha.

अलक  alaka
Skt: अलक  [alaka] - m. n. lock, curly hair -- Mac028c3
Pal: {a.la.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0127
  UKT from UHS: mn. head-hair made wavy, head-hair that can be set in any desired form.

अलका [alak]
Skt: अलका [alak] - f. N. of Kubera's city; N. of a city in Nishadha. -- Mac028c3
Pal: {a.la.ka}
- UHS-PMD0127
  UKT from UHS: f. name of the capital city of {ku.w-ra.} Nat-king.

UKT 131025:
We have a village by the name Alakappa in Myinmu township, Sagaing division in Myanmarpr. Myinmu township is on the northern-bank of Irrawaddy river due west of Mandalay. Alakappa has been made into a model village during the time of the military government.
   Kubera is not a dva-god. He belongs to the class of yaksha-demons. The Theraveda Myanmar Buddhists described him simply as a Nat. Because of his wealth, the modern Hindus worship him whether he is a god or a demon. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubera 131025 

Listen Kubera Mantra: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWAuZ1ev2xw 160824

 

p028c3-b01

अलकम् [ lakam ]
- ad. in vain.

 

p028c3-b02

[alaka‿jsvara]
- m. N. of Kubera

 

p028c3-b03

अलक्त alakta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. (n.) red lac.

UKT 131025: Lac is a dye produced by insects on twigs of some kinds of tree. See my note on Lac .

 

p028c3-b04

अलक्तकाङ्क [ alaktaka‿aṅka ]
- a. red-coloured.

 

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{a.lak~Sa.}

UKT 150301: Pseudo Kha क्ष kṣa is a conjunct which can break up: cf. with Pal-Myan {a.lak~hka.Na}

p028c3-b05

अलक्षण [ a-laksh-an ]
- n. evil omen; a. lacking marks or characteristics; insignificant; harmful; -ita, pp. unmarked; unobserved: -m, ad.

 

p028c3-b06

अलक्ष्मी [ a-lakshm ]
- f. evil destiny; a. calamitous; -ka, a. unfortunate.

 

p028c3-b07

अलक्ष्य [ a-lakshya ]
- fp. invisible, unobserved; insignificant; -ganma-t, f. insignificant birth.

 

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{a.la.hka.} : Regular Kha ख kha is a basic akshara and it will not break up.

p028c3-b08

अलखान [alakhna]
-- m. N. of a prince

 

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{a.la.ga.}

p028c3-b09

अलगर्द [ ala-gard ]
- m. kind of snake; , f. kind of leech.

 

p028c3-b10

अलघु [ a-laghu ]
- a. clumsy; slow; not insignificant; -bhava, m. no degradation; -sarra, a. fatigued.

 

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{a.ln-ka.} / {a.ln~ka.} which stand for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}.

UKT 131025: Skt-Dev speakers did not have a dedicated grapheme for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}. They had to borrow the r3c3 akshara and add a dot to it:

ड + dot --> ङ

UKT 160824: When there is a need to check a vowel with this akshara, they had to invent the {::tn} to represent the resultant of checking. This is not the case with Bur-Myan which has a dedicated grapheme for r1c5 phoneme. They simply had its intrinsic vowel killed and show the resultant with a {king:si:}. I contend that {a.ln-ka.} is just a form of {a.ln~ka.}. Because of this there is a very noticeable pronunciation difference between Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan (or Pal-Myan).

 

p028c3-b11

अलंकरण [ alam-kar-ana ]
- n. ornamenting; ornament; -in, a. ornamented; -ishnu, a. fond of dress; adorning (ac.); -tri, m. adorner.

 

p028c3-b12

अलंकार [ alam-kr ]
- m. adornment; ornament, trinket; rhetorical figure; -ka, m. ornament; -vat, f. T. of the 9th Lambaka in the Kath-sarit-sgara; -sla, m. N.

The Kathāsaritsāgara  कथासरित्सागर "Ocean of the Streams of Stories" is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales as retold in Sanskrit by a Shaiva (follower Shaivism) named Somadeva. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 160824

 

p028c3-b13

अलंकृत [ alam-krita ]
- pp. √kri; -kriti, f. ornament; rhetorical figure; -kriy, f. adorning; ornament.

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{a.ln~Ga.}

p028c3-b14

अलङ्घनीय [ a-laṅgh-anya ]
- fp. not to be over taken; not to be overstepped; unapproachable; -ayat, pr. pt. not infringing.

 

p028c3-b15

अलङ्घित [ a-laṅgh-ita ]
- pp. untrodden; untouched, unattained; -prva, a. not infringed before; -‿tman, a. not forgetting oneself.

 

p028c3-b16

अलङ्घ्य [ a-laṅgh-ya ]
- fp. unfordable; not to be trodden, -touched; not to be infringed.

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{a.liz~za.}

p028c3-b17

अलज्ज [ a-lagga ]
- a. shameless; , f. -ness: -kara, a. not disgraceful.

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{a.la.ta.}

p028c3-b18

अलतिका [ a-latik ]
- f. a. creeperless (soil).

 

p028c3-b19

अलंतराम् [ alam-tarm ]
- (cpv.) ad. highly; with inf. much better; -dhana, a. having sufficient property.

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{a.la.ba.}

p028c3-b20

अलब्ध [ a-labdha ]
- pp. unacquired, unobtained; -pada, a. having made no impression on (lc.); -vat, pf. pt. act. not having obtained (ac.).

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{a.la.Ba.}

p028c3-b21

अलभमान [ a-labha-mna ]
- pr. pt. not gaining; not making out.

 

p028c3-b22

अलभ्य [ a-labh-ya ]
- fp. unattainable; that cannot be incurred.

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{a.la.ma.}

p028c3-b23

अलम् [ lam ]
- ad. enough, sufficiently, thoroughly, adequately, plenteously; highly; sufficient or fit for; equal to, a match for (d.); able to (inf.); enough of, away with (in.); have done w., cease, do not (inf. or gd.=impv.). (See also √kri & √bh.)

 

p028c3-b24

अलमर्थवचस् [ alam-artha-vakas ]
- n. prohibitive word, negative.

 

p028c3-b25

[alambush],
- f. N. of an Apsaras

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{a.la.ya.}

p028c3-b26

अलय [ a-laya ]
- a. restless.

 

p028c3-b27

अलर्क [ alarka ]
- m. mad dog; fabulous animal with eight legs; N. of a plant.

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{a.la.la.}

p028c3-b28

अललाभवत् [ alal-bhvat ]
- pr. pt. rippling.

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{a.la.a.}

p028c3-b29

अलस [ a-las ]
- a. dull, slack; weary; feeble, indolent; -gamana, a. of indolent gait; -‿kshana, a. dim-eyed.

(end of old p28-3.htm)

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UKT notes

Arhat

-- UKT 131025, 140801:

From Theravada Buddhist perspective, Macdonell's translation "Buddhist nun" is simply wrong. A female in the garb of a nun is not an arhat . In our tradition, both men and women can become an arhat only after he or she has realized the Four Noble Truths when the person becomes equal to the Gautama Buddha himself. The Buddha is counted as an arhat: with the distinction that he is first one or {zi.na.}. See UHS-PMD0415 .

It is such mis-translations that has given rise to the problem of Female Monks or {Baik~hku.ni} in Myanmarpr and Thailand. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhikkhuni 131025 . It is a strong point of dissention from the time of the First Buddhist Council in which the Theravada tradition dismiss the Female Order of Monks. The Mahayana tradition still has female monks, because of which the whole Mahayana tradition has been rejected in Myanmarpr. It simply has no connotation of discriminating of women of the country. To many in the country, the Dalai Lama belonging to Mahayana tradition is respected but not accepted as a Buddhist elder. Please note that my personal view on the Mahayana tradition is not necessarily the same as that of the majority in Myanmarpr.

I have been asked of my own view. My answer is simple: I am a down-to-earth scientist - a Skeptical Chemist. I claim myself to be Buddhist only because I hold that the Four Noble Truths, and the Signs of Anatta are scientific. There are no axioms such as the existence of Allah, God and YHVH.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arhat-Buddhism 120119

Arhat (Skt: अर्हत arhat; Pali: arahant), in Buddhism, signifies a spiritual practitioner who has realized certain high stages of attainment. The implications of the term vary based on the respective schools and traditions.

Etymology

The exact interpretation and etymology of words such as arahant and arhat remains disputed. In the Theravada tradition, and in early PTS publications, the word arahant or arhat is interpreted to mean the "worthy one" [1] This has been challenged by more recent research, resulting from the etymological comparison of Pali and early Jain Prakrit forms (arihanta and arahanta). [2] The alternative etymology is "foe-destroyer" or "vanquisher of enemies," which corresponds to the Jain definition. [3] The latter challenges the assumption that the root of the word is Pali araha (cf. Sk. arha); Richard Gombrich has proposed an etymology of ari + hanta, bringing the root meaning closer to Jina (an epithet commonly used of both the leaders of the Jain religion and Buddha). [4]

UKT: The phrase "vanquisher of enemies" is exactly my understanding of the term if the term "enemies" were to mean the inner-enemies such as Greed, Anger, Sensuality, and Pride. These four common-English words are understandable by everyone including my grandsons born and educated in the West.

My personal message to the Bur-Myan Buddhist elders who have their progeny growing up in the areas outside the country of Myanmar: I am finding that the only way to pass the essence of Bur-Myan Buddhism on to my grandsons is to use common English terms. No Bur-Myan or Pal-Myan words would do. They may listen to you out of respect but nothing will sink into their heads. Behind your back they may be complaining about the incessant religious lectures from their senile grandparents! -- UKT120119.

The term arhat was translated into East Asian languages phonetically as a transliterated term, exemplified in the Chinese āluhn (Ch. 阿羅漢), often shortened to simply luhn (Ch. 羅漢). However, the Tibetan term for arhat was translated by meaning from Sanskrit. This translation, dgra bcom pa, means "one who has destroyed the foes of afflictions." [5] This Tibetan translation of the meaning conforms with the Jain definition as well.

Arhat occurs as arhattā in the Rigveda [6] and as the first offer of salutation in the main Jain prayer, the Namokar Mantra. The latter word occurs mostly in Buddhist and Jain texts, but also in some Vaishnava works such as the Bhagavata Purana. [7] Arhattā also occurs in the Vaishnava Srī Narada Pacaratnam. [8]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

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Lac dye

-- UKT 131025 .

I was familiar with Lac {hkyaip} - used as "sealing wax" - since childhood. My father, U Tun Pe, used to send in his official reports - in English language which he himself typed on his Remington typewriter - in sealed brown manila  envelopes sealed with lac. There were two kinds of sealing wax: the superior kind is bright red, and the lesser kind jet black.

Red is the natural colour. The black kind is made from off-colored lac resin dyed black. Government officers were supplied with both kinds in the form of sticks. For application, the stick is held on to a candle flame when the lac rod catches fire and some drops of the wax can be dropped onto to the envelope.

Then while "the wax" is still hot, the brass-seal - usually worn by the officer as a signet ring - is impressed. When there were more than one envelope, the seal had to be cooled by dipping into water. The burning and molten lac gives off an unmistakable ordour which to me is very pleasant.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lac 131025

Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects, namely some of the species of the genera Metatachardia, Laccifer, Tachordiella, Austrotacharidia, Afrotachardina, and Tachardina of the superfamily Coccoidea, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.

The above-mentioned families are some of the 28 families of scale insects and mealybugs comprising a large group of about 8,000 described species of plant sucking insects, a few of which produce similar natural products (e.g., cochineal and crimson). Thousands of these tiny insects colonize branches of suitable host trees and secrete the resinous pigment. The coated branches of the host trees are cut and harvested as sticklac.

The harvested sticklac is crushed and sieved to remove impurities. The sieved material is then repeatedly washed to remove insect parts and other soluble material. The resulting product is known as seedlac. The prefix seed refers to its pellet shape. Seedlac which still contains 3-5% impurities is processed into shellac by heat treatment or solvent extraction.

UKT 140803: Don't be cowed by the phrase "heat treatment or solvent extraction". It is simply dissolving the solid with hot alcohol produced locally and taking the filtrate. Evaporation of the filtrate gives the purer solid. As a research chemist doing research on "medicinal plants", solvent extraction was my favorite tool. Of course, you can take a sip of the alcohol to relieve you of the tiresome work: but it is not necessary. There is enough alcohol vapor in the air and soon you become sick of the smell.

The leading producer of Lac is Jharkhand, followed by the Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, and Maharashtra states of India. Lac production is also found in Bangladesh, Myanmarpr, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, parts of China, and Mexico.

The use of lac dye goes back to ancient times. It has been used in India as a skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk. In China it is a traditional dye for leather goods. The use of lac for dye has been supplanted by synthetic dyes. It is used in medicine as a hepatoprotective [liver protective] and anti-obesity drug. It is used in violin and other varnish and is soluble in alcohol [denatured spirit or methylated spirit]. This type of lac was used in the finishing of 18th-century fowling guns in the United States.

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Pitri - पितृ

UKT note 131024: There is no <s> at the end of the word. The English spelling "Pitris" is therefore not correct.

-- UKT 131024: In Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, an ancestor who died still attached to his family, became a "ghost" or {prait~ta}. The world of {prait~ta} belongs to one of the four classes of undesirable worlds. See Thirty-ones Planes of Existence http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sagga/loka.html

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitrs 131024

The Pitris (पितृ 'the fathers'), are the spirits of the departed ancestors in Hindu culture. They are often remembered annually.

The most complete accounts about the Pitṛs are found in the Vayu Purana and Brahmanda Purana and both are practically identical. The account in the Harivamsha is shorter but agrees closely with them. The similar but brief accounts are also found in the Matsya Purana and Padma Purana. [UKT ]

According to these accounts there are different classes of the Pitṛs and they have different origins, forms, grades and abodes. A broad distinction exists between the devāḥ pitaraḥ (divine Pitṛs) and the manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (Pitṛs who were deceased human beings). Some of the Pitṛs dwell in the heavenly abodes while other dwell in the netherworlds. The former who dwell in the heaven were considered as the gods and the gods were also considered as the Pitṛs.

The Pitṛs are most primeval deities and they never cease to exist. The manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (ancestors of human beings) can attain the same level of the divine Pitṛs and live with them in heaven by righteousness.

They are reborn at the end of every thousand mahayugas and revive the worlds. From them all the Manus and all progeny at the new creation are produced.[1]

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