Update: 2018-08-13 10:50 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p028.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

  There are many entries under repha. For a quick chk,
  see - dictall-SktGlos<> / bkp<> (link chk 160823)
  (pdf 018/221 to 019/221)

{ar~hta.} - cont
  p028c1
{ar~da.}
{ar~Da.}
  p028c2

{ar~pa.}
{ar~ba.}
{ar~Ba.}
{ar~ma.}

{ar~ya.}
{ar~wa.}

{ar~sha.}
{ar~Sa.}
{ar~ha.} : cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}
  p028c3

{a.la.} : pronunciation of {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}
{a.la.ka.}
{a.lak~Sa.} : Pseudo Kha क्ष kṣa is a conjunct which can break up:
  cf. with Pal-Myan {a.lak~hka.Na}
{a.la.hka.} : Regular Kha ख kha is a basic akshara and it will not break up
{a.la.ga.}
{a.ln-ka.} / {a.ln~ka.} which stand for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}.
{a.ln~Ga.}

{a.liz~za.}

{a.la.ta.}

{a.la.ba.}
{a.la.Ba.}
{a.la.ma.}

{a.la.ya.}
{a.la.la.}
{a.la.a.}

 

----- on line : 180812 : p028.htm - search for अर्थोत्सर्ग

 

UKT notes :
Arhat : the problem of Female Order of Monks in Theravada Buddhist tradition
Lac {hkyaip}
Pitri पितृ - {prait~ta} 'the hungry ghost".
  "According to these [ Matsya Purana and Padma Purana  ] accounts there are different classes of the Pitṛs and they have different origins, forms, grades and abodes. A broad distinction exists between the devāḥ pitaraḥ (divine Pitṛs) and the manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (Pitṛs who were deceased human beings). Some of the Pitṛs dwell in the heavenly abodes while other dwell in the netherworlds. The former who dwell in the heaven were considered as the gods and the gods were also considered as the Pitṛs". - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitrs 131024

 

Contents of this page

{ar~hta.}

p028c1

p028c1-b00/ not online

अर्थिसात्कृ arthi-satkri
= (अर्थि) स ा त ् क ृ
- grant a supplicant's request (ac)

 

p028c1-b01/ p029

अर्थीयx{093c} [ arth-ya ]
- a. serving the purpose of (--).
अर्थीयx{093c}   arth-ya serving the purpose of (--). 

 

p028c1-b02/ p029

अर्थोत्सर्ग [ artha‿utsarga ]
- m. expenditure; -‿shman, m. glow of wealth.
अर्थोत्सर्ग   artha̮utsarga expenditure; -̮shman, m. glow of wealth.

 

p028c1-b03/ p029

अर्थ्य [ arth-ya ]
- a. suitable, judicious; rich.
अर्थ्य arth-ya suitable, judicious; rich.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~da.}

p028c1-b04/ p029

अर्द् [ ARD ]
- v.  RID.
अर्द्   ARD RID. 

 

p028c1-b05/ p029

अर्दन [ ard-ana ]
- a. afflicting, tormenting (--).
अर्दन   ard-ana afflicting, tormenting (--).

 

p028c1-b06

[ard-ta.]
pp. (√rid) afflicted.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~Da.}

p028c1-b07/ not online

अर्ध् [ARDH]
- prosper, v. RIDH

 

p028c1-b08/ p029

अर्ध [ . ardh- ]
Skt: अर्ध [ . ardh- ] - a. half (in a. & ad. often --); m. n. half; middle. - Mac028c1
अर्ध   1. ardh- half (in a. & ad. often --); m. n. half; middle.
Skt: अर्ध (ardha) = half - dictall-SktGlos

 

p028c1-b09/ p029

अर्ध [ . rdh-a ]
- m. side, part; place, region.
अर्ध   2. rdh-a side, part; place, region.

 

p028c1-b10/ p029

अर्धकथन [ ardha-kathana ]
- n. incomplete narration; -kapisa, a. brownish; -krishta, pp. half drawn out; -kot, f. five millions; -kosha, m. half one's treasure.
अर्धकथन   ardha-kathana incomplete narration; -kapisa, a. brownish; -krishta, pp. half drawn out; -kot, f. five millions; -kosha, m. half one's treasure.

 

p028c1-b11/ p029

अर्धचन्द्र [ ardha-kandra ]
- m. half-moon; arrow with half-moon-shaped head; hollowed hand: -m d, seize by the throat; -ka, m. bent hand; -bhgin, a. seized by the throat; -mukha, a. having a half-moon-shaped point.
 अर्धचन्द्र   ardha-kandra half-moon; arrow with half-moon-shaped head; hollowed hand: -m d, seize by the throat; -ka, m. bent hand; -bhgin, a. seized by the throat; -mukha, a. having a half-moon-shaped point.

 

p028c1-b12/ p029

अर्धज्वलित [ ardha-gvalita ]
- pp. half-ignited.
अर्धज्वलित   ardha-gvalita half-ignited.

 

p028c1-b13/ p029

अर्धत्रयोदश [ ardha-trayodasa ]
- a. pl. twelve & a half; -dagdha, pp. half-burnt; -danda, m. fine of half the amount; -divasa, m. midday; -dev, m. demi-god; -dvi-katur-asraka, m. kind of posture; -nish-panna, a. half completed.
अर्धत्रयोदश   ardha-trayodasa twelve & a half; -dagdha, pp. half-burnt; -danda, m. fine of half the amount; -divasa, m. midday; -dev, m. demi-god; -dvi-katur-asraka, m. kind of posture; -nish-panna, a. half completed. 

 

p028c1-b14

[ardha-paka-n]
- -ma, a. 4 1/2; -pa-k-at , f. twenty-five

विंशति  viṃśati - num. twenty -- Spk Skt
-- पञ्चविंसति  pacaviṃsati - f. twenty-five  -- SpkSkt

 

p028c1-b15/ p029

अर्धपण [ ardha-pana ]
- m. half a pana; -patha, m. half-way; -pda, m. tip of the foot; -pdika, a. having half a foot; -pta, pp. half-drunk; -pulyita, n. kind of gait in the horse; -brigal, n. half a piece; -bhakshita, pp. half eaten; -bhagna, pp. half-broken; -bhgika, a. receiving half a portion; -bhg, a. receiving the half; -mgadh, f. semi-Mgadh (dialect); -mrga, m. half-way; -ms, m. half a month; -msika, a. lasting half a month; -mlita, pp. half-closed; -mukulkri, half close (eyes); -mundita, pp. having the head half shaved.
 अर्धपण   ardha-pana half a pana; -patha, m. half-way; -pda, m. tip of the foot; -pdika, a. having half a foot; -pta, pp. half-drunk; -pulyita, n. kind of gait in the horse; -brigal, n. half a piece; -bhakshita, pp. halfeaten; -bhagna, pp. half-broken; -bhgika, a. receiving half a portion; -bhg, a. receiving the half; -mgadh, f. semi-Mgadh (dialect); -mrga, m. half-way; -ms, m. half a month; -msika, a. lasting half a month; -mlita, pp. half-closed; -mukulkri, half close (eyes); -mundita, pp. having the head half shaved.

 

p028c1-b16/ p029

अर्धयाम [ ardha-yma ]
- m. half-watch.
 अर्धयाम   ardha-yma half-watch.

 

p028c1-b17/ p029

अर्धरात्र [ ardha-rtra ]
- m. midnight: -samaya, m. midnight hour; -rdha, pp. half-grown.
अर्धरात्र   ardha-rtra midnight: -samaya, m. midnight hour; -rdha, pp. half-grown.

 

p028c1-b18/ p029

अर्धर्च [ ardha‿rik ]
- m. half-verse, hemistich.
अर्धर्च   ardha̮rik half-verse, hemistich.

 

p028c1-b19/ p029

अर्धर्चशस् [ ardharka-ss ]
- ad. by half-verses.
 अर्धर्चशस्   ardharka-ss by half-verses.

 

p028c1-b20/ p029

अर्धलक्ष्य [ ardha-lakshya ]
- fp. half-visible; -likhita, pp. half-painted; -vastra, n. half a garment; -vriddhi, f. half the interest; -vaisasa, n. semi-homicide.
 अर्धलक्ष्य   ardha-lakshya half-visible; -likhita, pp. half-painted; -vastra, n. half a garment; -vriddhi, f. half the interest; -vaisasa, n. semi-homicide.

 

p028c1-b21/ p029

अर्धशत [ ardha-sata ]
- n. 50; 150; -syma, a. half black, half clouded over; -sruta, pp. half heard; -sloka, m. half sloka; -samgta-sasya, a. whose produce is but half grown; -sama-vritta, n. semi-identical metre (Pda 1= 3, 2=4); -siddha, pp. half-completed; -srin, m. husbandman who receives half the produce for his labour; -hra, m. pearl necklace of 64 strings.
अर्धशत   ardha-sata 50; 150; -syma, a. half black, half clouded over; -sruta, pp. halfheard; -sloka, m. half sloka; -samgta-sasya, a. whose produce is but half grown; -sama-vritta, n. semi-identical metre (Pda 1= 3, 2=4); -siddha, pp. half-completed; -srin, m. husbandman who receives half the produce for his labour; -hra, m. pearl necklace of 64 strings. 

 

p028c1-b22/ p029

अर्धाक्षि [ ardha‿akshi ]
- n. side glance; -‿aṅgkri, turn into half a body; -‿-kita, pp. half studded (w. jewels); -‿adhta, pp. half-learnt; -‿ardha, a. quarter: -bhga, m. id., -hni, f. deduction of half each time; -‿ava-ldha, pp. half-licked; -‿-vishta, pp. half-faltering; -‿sana, n. half one's seat (offered to a guest).
अर्धाक्षि   ardha̮akshi side glance; -̮aṅgkri, turn into half a body; -̮-kita, pp. halfstudded (w. jewels); -̮adhta, pp. half-learnt; -̮ardha, a. quarter: -bhga, m. id., -hni, f. deduction of half each time; -̮ava-ldha, pp. half-licked; -̮-vishta, pp. half-faltering; -̮sana, n. half one's seat (offered to a guest).

 

Contents of this page

p028c2

p028c2-b01/ p029

अर्धिक [ ardh-ika ]
- a. () amounting to a half; -n, a. half; receiving the half.
अर्धिक   ardh-ika () amounting to a half; -n, a. half; receiving the half.

 

p028c2-b02/ p029

अर्धेन्दुमौलि [ ardha‿indu-mauli ]
- m. (crescent-crested), ep. of Siva.
 अर्धेन्दुमौलि   ardha̮indu-mauli (crescent-crested), ep. of Siva.

 

p028c2-b03/ p029

अर्धोक्त [ ardha‿ukta ]
- pp. half-said, half-told; n. half-speech; -‿ukkhishta, pp. half left over; -‿udita, pp. half-risen; -‿upa-bhukta, pp. half-consumed; -‿uruka, a. reaching half way down the thigh; n. short overcoat.
अर्धोक्त   ardha̮ukta half-said, half-told; n. half-speech; -̮ukkhishta, pp. half left over; -̮udita, pp. half-risen; -̮upa-bhukta, pp. half-consumed; -̮uruka, a. reaching half way down the thigh; n. short overcoat.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~pa.}

p028c2-b04/ p029

अर्पण [ arp-ana ]
- a. () procuring; making over, entrusting; n. throwing; attaching; placing upon; application; offering; consignment, making over, transference; restitution; -anya, fp. to be given up, to be handed over; -ita, cs. pp. (√ri) placed in or on, applied; made over to.
 अर्पण   arp-ana () procuring; making over, entrusting; n. throwing; attaching; placing upon; application; offering; consignment, making over, transference; restitution; -anya, fp. to be given up, to be handed over; -ita, cs. pp. (√ri) placed in or on, applied; made over to.

 

p028c2-b05/ not online

अर्पय [ ar-paya ]
- cs of √ri , go

 

Contents of this page

{ar~ba.}

p028c2-b06/ p029

अर्बुद [ arbuda ]
= अ र ् ब ु द
- m. () serpent; N. of a snake-demon (r-); snake-like mass; shape of the foetus in the second month; N. of a mtn. (Ab): pl. N. of a people; n. the hymn RV. X, 94; 10,000,000; -sikhara, m. N. of a mtn.
अर्बुद   arbuda () serpent; N. of a snake-demon (r-); snake-like mass; shape of the foetus in the second month; N. of a mtn. (Ab): pl. N. of a people; n. the hymn RV. X, 94; 10,000,000; -sikhara, m. N. of a mtn.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~Ba.}

p028c2-b07/ p029

अर्भ [ rbha ]
- a. small, weak; m. boy; -k, a. small, weak; m. boy; young of animals: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -ga, a. youthful.
 अर्भ   rbha small, weak; m. boy; -k, a. small, weak; m. boy; young of animals: -t, f. abst. n.; -ga, a. youthful.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~ma.}

p028c2-b08/ not online 

अर्म [ r-ma ]
- m. pl. ruins.
 

(end of old p028-1.htm)

Contents of this page

{ar~ya.}

p028c2-b09/ p029

अर्य [ 1. ar-y ]
- a. kind, devoted; pious.
अर्य   1. ar-y kind, devoted; pious.

 

p028c2-b10/ p029

अर्य [ 2. rya ]
- m. man --, , f. woman of one of the three upper castes; man --, woman of the third caste.
अर्य   2. rya man --, , f. woman of one of the three upper castes; man --, woman of the third caste.

 

p028c2-b11/ p029

अर्यमन् [ arya-mn ]
- m. intimate, comrade; N. of one of the dityas, chief of the Pitris; groomsman; sun.
 अर्यमन्   arya-mn intimate, comrade; N. of one of the dityas, chief of the Pitris; groomsman; sun.

UKT 131024: In Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, an ancestor who died still attached to his family, became a "ghost" or {prait~ta}. See my note on Hinduism Pitri

 

p028c2-b12/ p029

अर्यम्य [ aryamy ]
- a. intimate.
 अर्यम्य   aryamy intimate.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~wa.}

p028c2-b13/ p029

अर्वत् r-vat, अर्वन् [ r-van ]
- a. racing, swift; m. racer, steed; charioteer.
 अर्वत्   r-van racing, swift; m. racer, steed; charioteer. 

 

p028c2-b14/ p029

अर्वती [ rvat- ]
- f. mare.
अर्वती   rvat- mare.

 

p028c2-b15/ p029

अर्वाक् [ arvấk ]
- n. (of arvấk) ad. hitherwards: -kri, procure; prp. with in. or ab. on this side of; from; before (of fut.), after (of past).
 अर्वाक्   arvaNk arvaNk) ad. hitherwards: -- kri, procure; prp. with in. or ab. on this side of; from; before (of fut.), after (of past).

 

p028c2-b16/ p029

अर्वाक्कालिकता [ arvk-klika-t ]
- f. modern date; -klna, a. dating from a recent period.
 अर्वाक्कालिकता   arvk-klika-t modern date; -klna, a. dating from a recent period.

 

p028c2-b17/ p029

अर्वाचीन [ arvk&isharp;na (or ) ]
- a. hitherward; being on this side of (ab.); nearer.
अर्वाचीन   arvkna (or ) hitherward; being on this side of (ab.); nearer.

 

p028c2-b18

[ar-va'‿ ak ]
- a. (-vk-) turned towards; hitherward; -am kr , procure

 

Contents of this page

{ar~sha.}

p028c2-b19/ p029

अर्शस् [ rs-as ]
- n. pl. hemorrhoids.
 अर्शस्   rs-as hemorrhoids.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~Sa.}

p028c2-b20/ p029

अर्ष् [ ARSH ]
- v.  RISH.
अर्ष्   ARSH RISH.

 

Contents of this page

{ar~ha.} : cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}

p028c2-b21/ not online

अर्ह् [arh] ,
-  ip. (rha , claim; deserve; be liable to, incur; be bound to, be capable of (ac.); have a right, be obliged, be able to (inf.); be worth, be equal to (ac.); the 2nd pers. sg. is equivalent to a polite imperative = please to; pray; deign; cs. arhaya , honour with (in.). abhi , cs. pp. arhita , highly honoured.

 

p028c2-b22/ p029

अर्ह [ arh-a ]
- a. deserving, claiming, entitled to, justified in (ac., --); fit, suitable for (g., --); -na, a. claiming (--); n. honouring: , f. honour; -nya, fp. deserving of honour; -tva, n. worthiness for (--).
 अर्ह   arh-a deserving, claiming, entitled to, justified in (ac., --); fit, suitable for (g., --); -na, a. claiming (--); n. honouring: , f. honour; -nya, fp. deserving of honour; -tva, n. worthiness for (--).

 

p028c2-b23/ p029

अर्हत् [ rh-at ]
= अ र ् ह त ् --> {ar~ht} --> {ar~ht~ta.}
- pr. pt. deserving; m. worthy person, Arhat (with Buddhists and Jains); -tva, n. dignity of an Arhat.
 अर्हत्   rh-at deserving; m. worthy person, Arhat (with Buddhists and Jains); -tva, n. dignity of an Arhat.
 cf. Pal-Myan: {a.ra.ht~ta.}

See my note on Arhat - Please note I am only interested in language aspects of the word or the term - NOT on what the religions are saying about the Theravada "Arhat" or "Arahant " especially from the Mahayana on the Theravada.

 

p028c2-b24/ p029

अर्हन्तिका [ arhantik ]
- f. Buddhist nun.
अर्हन्तिका   arhantik Buddhist nun.

(end of old p028-2.htm )

Contents of this page

p028c3

{a.la.}

UKT 150301: I am still uncertain of the pronunciation of {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}

{a.la.ka.}

p028c3-b00/ p029

अलक [ alaka ]
- m. n. lock, curly hair; , f. N. of Kubera's city; N. of a city in Nishadha.
 अलक   alaka lock, curly hair; , f. N. of Kubera's city; N. of a city in Nishadha.

अलक  alaka
Skt: अलक  [alaka] - m. n. lock, curly hair -- Mac028c3
BPal: {a.la.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0127
  UKT from UHS: mn. head-hair made wavy, head-hair that can be set in any desired form.

अलका [alak]
Skt: अलका [alak] - f. N. of Kubera's city; N. of a city in Nishadha. -- Mac028c3
BPal: {a.la.ka}
- UHS-PMD0127
  UKT from UHS: f. name of the capital city of {ku.w-ra.} Nat-king.

UKT 131025:
We have a village by the name Alakappa in Myinmu township, Sagaing division in Myanmarpr. Myinmu township is on the northern-bank of Irrawaddy river due west of Mandalay. Alakappa has been made into a model village during the time of the military government.
   Kubera is not a dva-god. He belongs to the class of yaksha-demons. The Theraveda Myanmar Buddhists described him simply as a Nat. Because of his wealth, the modern Hindus worship him whether he is a god or a demon. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubera 131025 

Listen Kubera Mantra: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWAuZ1ev2xw 160824

 

p028c3-b01/ p029

अलकम् [ lakam ]
- ad. in vain.
अलकम्   lakam in vain.

 

p028c3-b02

[alaka‿jsvara]
- m. N. of Kubera

 

p028c3-b03/ p029

अलक्त alakta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. (n.) red lac.
अलक्त   -ka red lac.

UKT 131025: Lac is a dye produced by insects on twigs of some kinds of tree. See my note on Lac .

 

p028c3-b04/ p029

अलक्तकाङ्क [ alaktaka‿aṅka ]
- a. red-coloured.
 अलक्तकाङ्क   alaktaka̮aṅka red-coloured.

 

Contents of this page

{a.lak~Sa.}

UKT 150301: Pseudo Kha क्ष kṣa is a conjunct which can break up: cf. with Pal-Myan {a.lak~hka.Na}

p028c3-b05/ p029

अलक्षण [ a-laksh-an ]
- n. evil omen; a. lacking marks or characteristics; insignificant; harmful; -ita, pp. unmarked; unobserved: -m, ad.
 अलक्षण   a-laksh-an evil omen; a. lacking marks or characteristics; insignificant; harmful; -ita, pp. unmarked; unobserved: -m, ad.

 

p028c3-b06/ p029

अलक्ष्मी [ a-lakshm ]
- f. evil destiny; a. calamitous; -ka, a. unfortunate.
 अलक्ष्मी   a-lakshm evil destiny; a. calamitous; -ka, a. unfortunate.

 

p028c3-b07/ p029

अलक्ष्य [ a-lakshya ]
- fp. invisible, unobserved; insignificant; -ganma-t, f. insignificant birth.
अलक्ष्य   a-lakshya invisible, unobserved; insignificant; -ganma-t, f. insignificant birth.

 

Contents of this page

{a.la.hka.} : Regular Kha ख kha is a basic akshara and it will not break up.

p028c3-b08/ not online

अलखान [alakhna]
-- m. N. of a prince

 

Contents of this page

{a.la.ga.}

p028c3-b09/ p029

अलगर्द [ ala-gard ]
- m. kind of snake; , f. kind of leech.
अलगर्द   ala-gard , f. kind of leech. 

 

p028c3-b10/ p029

अलघु [ a-laghu ]
- a. clumsy; slow; not insignificant; -bhava, m. no degradation; -sarra, a. fatigued.
 अलघु   a-laghu clumsy; slow; not insignificant; -bhava, m. no degradation; -sarra, a. fatigued.

 

Contents of this page

{a.ln-ka.} / {a.ln~ka.} which stand for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}.

UKT 131025: Skt-Dev speakers did not have a dedicated grapheme for velar nasal r1c5 {nga.}. They had to borrow the r3c3 akshara and add a dot to it:

ड + dot --> ङ

UKT 160824: When there is a need to check a vowel with this akshara, they had to invent the {::tn} to represent the resultant of checking. This is not the case with Bur-Myan which has a dedicated grapheme for r1c5 phoneme. They simply had its intrinsic vowel killed and show the resultant with a {king:si:}. I contend that {a.ln-ka.} is just a form of {a.ln~ka.}. Because of this there is a very noticeable pronunciation difference between Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan (or Pal-Myan).

 

p028c3-b11/ p029

अलंकरण [ alam-kar-ana ]
- n. ornamenting; ornament; -in, a. ornamented; -ishnu, a. fond of dress; adorning (ac.); -tri, m. adorner.
अलंकरण   alam-kar-ana ornamenting; ornament; -in, a. ornamented; -ishnu, a. fond of dress; adorning (ac.); -tri, m. adorner.

 

p028c3-b12/ p029

अलंकार [ alam-kr ]
- m. adornment; ornament, trinket; rhetorical figure; -ka, m. ornament; -vat, f. T. of the 9th Lambaka in the Kath-sarit-sgara; -sla, m. N.
 अलंकार   alam-kr adornment; ornament, trinket; rhetorical figure; -ka, m. ornament; -vat, f. T. of the 9th Lambaka in the Kath-sarit-sgara; -sla, m. N. 

The Kathāsaritsāgara  कथासरित्सागर "Ocean of the Streams of Stories" is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales as retold in Sanskrit by a Shaiva (follower Shaivism) named Somadeva. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 160824

 

p028c3-b13/ p029

अलंकृत [ alam-krita ]
- pp. √kri; -kriti, f. ornament; rhetorical figure; -kriy, f. adorning; ornament.
 अलंकृत   alam-krita √kri; -kriti, f. ornament; rhetorical figure; -kriy, f. adorning; ornament.

Contents of this page

{a.ln~Ga.}

p028c3-b14/ p029

अलङ्घनीय [ a-laṅgh-anya ]
- fp. not to be over taken; not to be overstepped; unapproachable; -ayat, pr. pt. not infringing.
अलङ्घनीय   a-laṅgh-anya not to be overtaken; not to be overstepped; unapproachable; -ayat, pr. pt. not infringing.

 

p028c3-b15/ p029

अलङ्घित [ a-laṅgh-ita ]
- pp. untrodden; untouched, unattained; -prva, a. not infringed before; -‿tman, a. not forgetting oneself.
 अलङ्घित   a-laṅgh-ita untrodden; untouched, unattained; -prva, a. not infringed before; -̮tman, a. not forgetting oneself. 

 

p028c3-b16/ p029

अलङ्घ्य [ a-laṅgh-ya ]
- fp. unfordable; not to be trodden, -touched; not to be infringed.
 अलङ्घ्य   a-laṅgh-ya unfordable; not to be trodden, -- touched; not to be infringed.

Contents of this page

{a.liz~za.}

p028c3-b17/ p029

अलज्ज [ a-lagga ]
- a. shameless; , f. -ness: -kara, a. not disgraceful.
 अलज्ज   a-lagga shameless; , f. -ness: -kara, a. not disgraceful.

Contents of this page

{a.la.ta.}

p028c3-b18/ p029

अलतिका [ a-latik ]
- f. a. creeperless (soil).
 अलतिका   a-latik creeperless (soil). 

 

p028c3-b19/ p029

अलंतराम् [ alam-tarm ]
- (cpv.) ad. highly; with inf. much better; -dhana, a. having sufficient property.
अलंतराम्   alam-tarm highly; with inf. much better; -dhana, a. having sufficient property.

Contents of this page

{a.la.ba.}

p028c3-b20/ p029

अलब्ध [ a-labdha ]
- pp. unacquired, unobtained; -pada, a. having made no impression on (lc.); -vat, pf. pt. act. not having obtained (ac.).
अलब्ध   a-labdha unacquired, unobtained; -pada, a. having made no impression on (lc.); -vat, pf. pt. act. not having obtained (ac.).

Contents of this page

{a.la.Ba.}

p028c3-b21/ p029

अलभमान [ a-labha-mna ]
- pr. pt. not gaining; not making out.
अलभमान   a-labha-mna not gaining; not making out.

 

p028c3-b22/ p029

अलभ्य [ a-labh-ya ]
- fp. unattainable; that cannot be incurred.
अलभ्य   a-labh-ya unattainable; that can not be incurred.

Contents of this page

{a.la.ma.}

p028c3-b23/ p029

अलम् [ lam ]
- ad. enough, sufficiently, thoroughly, adequately, plenteously; highly; sufficient or fit for; equal to, a match for (d.); able to (inf.); enough of, away with (in.); have done w., cease, do not (inf. or gd.=impv.). (See also √kri & √bh.)
 अलम्   lam enough, sufficiently, thoroughly, adequately, plenteously; highly; sufficient or fit for; equal to, a match for (d.); able to (inf.); enough of, away with (in.); have done w., cease, do not (inf. or gd.=impv.). (See also √kri & √bh.)

 

p028c3-b24/ p029

अलमर्थवचस् [ alam-artha-vakas ]
- n. prohibitive word, negative.
अलमर्थवचस्   alam-artha-vakas prohibitive word, negative.

 

p028c3-b25

[alambush],
- f. N. of an Apsaras

Contents of this page

{a.la.ya.}

p028c3-b26/ p029

अलय [ a-laya ]
- a. restless.
अलय   a-laya restless.

 

p028c3-b27/ p029

अलर्क [ alarka ]
- m. mad dog; fabulous animal with eight legs; N. of a plant.
 अलर्क   alarka mad dog; fabulous animal with eight legs; N. of a plant.

Contents of this page

{a.la.la.}

p028c3-b28/ p029

अललाभवत् [ alal-bhvat ]
- pr. pt. rippling.
 अललाभवत्   alal-bhvat rippling.

Contents of this page

{a.la.a.}

p028c3-b29/ p029

अलस [ a-las ]
- a. dull, slack; weary; feeble, indolent; -gamana, a. of indolent gait; -‿kshana, a. dim-eyed.
अलस   a-las dull, slack; weary; feeble, indolent; -gamana, a. of indolent gait; -̮kshana, a. dim-eyed.

(end of old p28-3.htm)

Contents of this page

 

----- online : 180812 : p028.htm - search for अर्थोत्सर्ग

 


   

 

Contents of this page

 

UKT notes

Arhat

-- UKT 131025, 140801:

From Theravada Buddhist perspective, Macdonell's translation "Buddhist nun" is simply wrong. A female in the garb of a nun is not an arhat . In our tradition, both men and women can become an arhat only after he or she has realized the Four Noble Truths when the person becomes equal to the Gautama Buddha himself. The Buddha is counted as an arhat: with the distinction that he is first one or {zi.na.}. See UHS-PMD0415 .

It is such mis-translations that has given rise to the problem of Female Monks or {Baik~hku.ni} in Myanmarpr and Thailand. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhikkhuni 131025 . It is a strong point of dissention from the time of the First Buddhist Council in which the Theravada tradition dismiss the Female Order of Monks. The Mahayana tradition still has female monks, because of which the whole Mahayana tradition has been rejected in Myanmarpr. It simply has no connotation of discriminating of women of the country. To many in the country, the Dalai Lama belonging to Mahayana tradition is respected but not accepted as a Buddhist elder. Please note that my personal view on the Mahayana tradition is not necessarily the same as that of the majority in Myanmarpr.

I have been asked of my own view. My answer is simple: I am a down-to-earth scientist - a Skeptical Chemist. I claim myself to be Buddhist only because I hold that the Four Noble Truths, and the Signs of Anatta are scientific. There are no axioms such as the existence of Allah, God and YHVH.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arhat-Buddhism 120119

Arhat (Skt: अर्हत arhat; Pali: arahant), in Buddhism, signifies a spiritual practitioner who has realized certain high stages of attainment. The implications of the term vary based on the respective schools and traditions.

Etymology

The exact interpretation and etymology of words such as arahant and arhat remains disputed. In the Theravada tradition, and in early PTS publications, the word arahant or arhat is interpreted to mean the "worthy one" [1] This has been challenged by more recent research, resulting from the etymological comparison of Pali and early Jain Prakrit forms (arihanta and arahanta). [2] The alternative etymology is "foe-destroyer" or "vanquisher of enemies," which corresponds to the Jain definition. [3] The latter challenges the assumption that the root of the word is Pali araha (cf. Sk. arha); Richard Gombrich has proposed an etymology of ari + hanta, bringing the root meaning closer to Jina (an epithet commonly used of both the leaders of the Jain religion and Buddha). [4]

UKT: The phrase "vanquisher of enemies" is exactly my understanding of the term if the term "enemies" were to mean the inner-enemies such as Greed, Anger, Sensuality, and Pride. These four common-English words are understandable by everyone including my grandsons born and educated in the West.

My personal message to the Bur-Myan Buddhist elders who have their progeny growing up in the areas outside the country of Myanmar: I am finding that the only way to pass the essence of Bur-Myan Buddhism on to my grandsons is to use common English terms. No Bur-Myan or Pal-Myan words would do. They may listen to you out of respect but nothing will sink into their heads. Behind your back they may be complaining about the incessant religious lectures from their senile grandparents! -- UKT120119.

The term arhat was translated into East Asian languages phonetically as a transliterated term, exemplified in the Chinese āluhn (Ch. 阿羅漢), often shortened to simply luhn (Ch. 羅漢). However, the Tibetan term for arhat was translated by meaning from Sanskrit. This translation, dgra bcom pa, means "one who has destroyed the foes of afflictions." [5] This Tibetan translation of the meaning conforms with the Jain definition as well.

Arhat occurs as arhattā in the Rigveda [6] and as the first offer of salutation in the main Jain prayer, the Namokar Mantra. The latter word occurs mostly in Buddhist and Jain texts, but also in some Vaishnava works such as the Bhagavata Purana. [7] Arhattā also occurs in the Vaishnava Srī Narada Pacaratnam. [8]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

Go back Arhat-note-b .

Contents of this page

Lac dye

-- UKT 131025 .

I was familiar with Lac {hkyaip} - used as "sealing wax" - since childhood. My father, U Tun Pe, used to send in his official reports - in English language which he himself typed on his Remington typewriter - in sealed brown manila  envelopes sealed with lac. There were two kinds of sealing wax: the superior kind is bright red, and the lesser kind jet black.

Red is the natural colour. The black kind is made from off-colored lac resin dyed black. Government officers were supplied with both kinds in the form of sticks. For application, the stick is held on to a candle flame when the lac rod catches fire and some drops of the wax can be dropped onto to the envelope.

Then while "the wax" is still hot, the brass-seal - usually worn by the officer as a signet ring - is impressed. When there were more than one envelope, the seal had to be cooled by dipping into water. The burning and molten lac gives off an unmistakable ordour which to me is very pleasant.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lac 131025

Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects, namely some of the species of the genera Metatachardia, Laccifer, Tachordiella, Austrotacharidia, Afrotachardina, and Tachardina of the superfamily Coccoidea, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.

The above-mentioned families are some of the 28 families of scale insects and mealybugs comprising a large group of about 8,000 described species of plant sucking insects, a few of which produce similar natural products (e.g., cochineal and crimson). Thousands of these tiny insects colonize branches of suitable host trees and secrete the resinous pigment. The coated branches of the host trees are cut and harvested as sticklac.

The harvested sticklac is crushed and sieved to remove impurities. The sieved material is then repeatedly washed to remove insect parts and other soluble material. The resulting product is known as seedlac. The prefix seed refers to its pellet shape. Seedlac which still contains 3-5% impurities is processed into shellac by heat treatment or solvent extraction.

UKT 140803: Don't be cowed by the phrase "heat treatment or solvent extraction". It is simply dissolving the solid with hot alcohol produced locally and taking the filtrate. Evaporation of the filtrate gives the purer solid. As a research chemist doing research on "medicinal plants", solvent extraction was my favorite tool. Of course, you can take a sip of the alcohol to relieve you of the tiresome work: but it is not necessary. There is enough alcohol vapor in the air and soon you become sick of the smell.

The leading producer of Lac is Jharkhand, followed by the Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, and Maharashtra states of India. Lac production is also found in Bangladesh, Myanmarpr, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, parts of China, and Mexico.

The use of lac dye goes back to ancient times. It has been used in India as a skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk. In China it is a traditional dye for leather goods. The use of lac for dye has been supplanted by synthetic dyes. It is used in medicine as a hepatoprotective [liver protective] and anti-obesity drug. It is used in violin and other varnish and is soluble in alcohol [denatured spirit or methylated spirit]. This type of lac was used in the finishing of 18th-century fowling guns in the United States.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Lac-note-b

Contents of this page

Pitri - पितृ

UKT note 131024: There is no <s> at the end of the word. The English spelling "Pitris" is therefore not correct.

-- UKT 131024: In Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, an ancestor who died still attached to his family, became a "ghost" or {prait~ta}. The world of {prait~ta} belongs to one of the four classes of undesirable worlds. See Thirty-ones Planes of Existence http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sagga/loka.html

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitrs 131024

The Pitris (पितृ 'the fathers'), are the spirits of the departed ancestors in Hindu culture. They are often remembered annually.

The most complete accounts about the Pitṛs are found in the Vayu Purana and Brahmanda Purana and both are practically identical. The account in the Harivamsha is shorter but agrees closely with them. The similar but brief accounts are also found in the Matsya Purana and Padma Purana. [UKT ]

According to these accounts there are different classes of the Pitṛs and they have different origins, forms, grades and abodes. A broad distinction exists between the devāḥ pitaraḥ (divine Pitṛs) and the manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (Pitṛs who were deceased human beings). Some of the Pitṛs dwell in the heavenly abodes while other dwell in the netherworlds. The former who dwell in the heaven were considered as the gods and the gods were also considered as the Pitṛs.

The Pitṛs are most primeval deities and they never cease to exist. The manuṣyāḥ pitaraḥ (ancestors of human beings) can attain the same level of the divine Pitṛs and live with them in heaven by righteousness.

They are reborn at the end of every thousand mahayugas and revive the worlds. From them all the Manus and all progeny at the new creation are produced.[1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Pitri-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file