Update: 2016-09-24 06:48 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.ri.} : contd

  There are many entries under repha. For a quick chk,
  see - dictall-SktGlos<> / bkp<> (link chk 160823)
  (pdf 018/221 to 019/221)

{ar} / {ar~} repha : {a.} checked by killed {ra.}/ {r}



UKT notes :
Arjuna (dressed as a Myanmar prince)
  & Ulupi (the Naga princess as human) 


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अरिक्थीय [ a-rikthya ]
- a. incapable of inheriting.



अरिजन [ ari-gana ]
- m. coll. enemies; -t, f. hostility.



अरित्र [ ar--tra ]
- a. driving; m. n. oar.



अरिन् [ ar-in ]
- n. wheel (spoked) [UKT: with iron tire.]



अरिनन्दन [ ari-nandana ]
- a. rejoicing one's foes.



अरिंदम [ arim-dama ]
- a. foe-taming, victorious.



अरिप्र [ a-ripr ]
- a. spotless.



अरिमर्दन [ ari-mardana ]
- a. enemy-crushing.



अरिष्ट [ -rishta ]
- pp. unscathed, safe; m. misfortune; a tree (also -ka, m.); ()-tti, f. scathelessness, safety; -ratha, a. whose car is unscathed; -vra, a. whose warriors are unscathed; -sayy, f. bed of confinement.



अरिष्टि [ -rishti ]
- f. scathelessness.



अरिसूदन [ ari-sdana ]
- m. foe-destroyer.



अरिहन् [ ari-han ]
- a. foe-slaying.


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अरीढ -rdha, अरील्ह [ -rlha ]
- pp. unlicked.

(end of old p027-1.htm)

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अरुचि [ a-ruk-i ]
= अ र ु च ि
- f. disgust (at, upari); -ya, a. unpleasant.



अरुज् a-rug, ˚ज [ -ga ]
- a. painless; healthy.



अरुण [ ar-un ]
- a. (ấ; V. also ấ) ruddy; light brown; golden; m. redness; dawn (personified as charioteer of the sun); sun; -kara, m. sun; -t, f. redness; -ps, a. ruddy.

अरुण [ ar-un ]
Skt: अरुण [ ar-un ] - a. (ấ; V. also ấ) ruddy; light brown; golden;
  m. redness; dawn (personified as charioteer of the sun); sun - Mac027c1
Pal: {a.ru.Na.} - UHS PMD0126
  UKT from UHS: mfn. reddish. m. foremost sun-light, early rising sun, {a.roaN}
  Pix on right: the logo on a commercial product depicting the King of Naga paying
  his respects to the rising Sun reciting the Mora Sutta.
  Listen to Mora Sutta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<)) 



अरुणय [ aruna-ya ]
- den. P. redden: pp. ita.



अरुणानुज [ aruna‿anuga ]
- m. Garuda; -‿arkis, m. rising sun.



अरुणी [ arun&isharp; ]
- f. dawn.



[arun-kri ]
- redden



- n. N. of a lake



अरुंतुद [ arum-tuda ]
- a. making a wound; touching a sore; excruciating.



अरुन्धती [ arundhat&isharp; ]
- f. N. of a plant; N. of Vasishtha's wife; N. of a faint star (Alkor) in the Great Bear (conceived as the consort of the seven Rishis).

UKT 160822: It is my conjecture that Vasishtha Rishi and Vishwamitra Rishi were enemies, taking part in Battle of Ten Kings - a battle between the IE speakers and Tib-Bur speakers. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 160822
It is also my conjecture that the leader of the alliance of Tib-Bur tribes was no other than Tagaung Abhiraza. If my conjecture is right it would date the founding of first Tagaung Kingdom as c. 14th century BCE - a thousand years before the time of the Gautama Buddha.


अरुष् [ a-rush ]
- a. not angry, in good humour.



अरुष [ ar-ush ]
- a. (f. rush) red, ruddy; m. sun, day: pl. m. f. flames (Agni's red horses); f. rush, dawn.



अरुष्यत् [ a-rushyat ]
- pr. pt. not angry.



अरुस् [ r-us ]
- a. wounded; n. wound.


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अरूढमूलत्व [ a-rdha-mla-tva ]
= अ र ू ढ म ू ल त ् व
- n. not having taken firm root.



अरूप [ a-rpa ]
- a. formless; deformed; -na, n. no figurative term (ph.); -tva, n. deformity.

(end of old p027-2.htm)

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अरे [are]
- ij. of address, ho! sirrah!



अरेपस् [ a-reps ]
- a. spotless, pure.


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अरोग [ a-roga ]
- m. health; a. healthy.



अरोगिन् [ a-rog-in ]
- a. healthy; -i-t, f., -i-tva, n. healthiness.



अरोचकिन् [ a-rokakin ]
- a. lacking appetite; fastidious; pretentious; sensitive.



अरोचमान [ a-rokamna ]
- pr. pt. not shining; unpalatable, nauseous.



अरोहिणीक [ a-rohin-ka ]
- a. lacking Rohin.

(end of old p027-3.htm)

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{ar} / {ar~} repha

UKT 131022, 140802, 160822: To make Romabama a true one-to-one representation of Bur-Myan, the over-all shape of the glyph must be well-defined. The entries in this file is a good exercise on one-to-one representation. The term "akshara" means an "unchanging well-defined representation" -- NOT an "unchanging Atta or God". Thus, terms such as "allophone" has no place in the akshara system of sound-to-script.

{ar} can also be present in repha - the {king:si:}-form
  #1. size of repha <r> small , #2. no ~ between <a> & <r>

{ar} is absent in Bur-Myan: the nearest being {ra.ric}-medial. A medial and a conjunct are not the same. The medial is monosyllabic and is present only in Bur-Myan. A conjunct is usually disyllabic and is the usual form in Skt-Dev. I have not come to a definite conclusion for Pal-Myan.

Bur-Myan has medials as well as conjuncts, whereas there is no medials in Skt-Dev. This is the most important conclusion that I have arrived at in my study of BEPS.

I have to make definite rules for Romabama representation: {ar} & {a~r} . Remember to put in ~ in the {king:si:}-form.

Skt-Dev repha becomes the upper-conjunct akshara in Pal-Myan. e.g. Skt: अर्क  [ ark- ] {ar~ka.} & Pal: {ak~ka.}. However, since it is only that the tenuis (except {ga.}) can be killed, the top akshara of the conjunct is changed. See the case of Skt: अर्थ [ ar-tha ] & Pal: {t~hta.}




अर्क [ ark- ] {ar~ka.}
= अ र ् क
Skt: - m. ray; sun; sun-god; hymn; singer; kind of tree or shrub; -nandana, m. planet Saturn; -pattra, n. leaf of the Arka; -prabh-gla, n. sun-beams; -ripu, m. Rhu; -vrata, n. manner of the sun.


अर्क  [ ark- ] {ar~ka.}
Skt: - m. ray; sun; sun-god; hymn; singer; kind of tree or shrub; -- Mac027c1
Pal: {ak~ka.}
 - - UHS-PMD0004
  UKT from UHS: m. sun,  Calotropis gigantea
Note: Skt-Dev repha becomes the upper-conjunct akshara in Pal-Myan. However, since it is only that the tenuis can be killed, the top akshara of the conjunct is changed. See the case of Skt: अर्थ [ ar-tha ] & Pal: {t~hta.}

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अर्किन् [ ark-n ]
- a. radiant; singing songs of praise.


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अर्गल [ arga-la ]
- m. n. bolt; obstacle.


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अर्घ् [argh] 
= अ र ् घ ्  --> {ar~G}
- i.p. argha , be worth 

UKT: Note the presence of repha as well as {a.t}



अर्घ [ argh- ]
- m. value, price; hospitable reception; honorific gift; -ptra, n. dish in which water is presented to a guest; -‿udaka, n. water presented to a guest.



अर्घ्य [ argh-ya ]
- fp. valuable; worthy of a hospitable reception; n. water presented to a guest.


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UKT 150330: With the following entries I hope to answer my own question of Skt~Dev, similar to Eng~Lat, having only Affricates instead of the Palatal Series, or not.


अर्च्  [ark ]
= अ र ् च ्   --> {ar~c}
-- v. [rik}



अर्चक [ ark-aka ]
- a. honouring, adoring; -ana, n., , f. honouring, adoration: -mani, m. jewel of honour.



अर्चत् [arkat]
= अ र ् च त ् --> {ar~st}
- 3 sg. inpf. of √rik (V.) 



अर्चा [ ark- ]
- f. worship, adoration.



अर्चि [ ark- ]
- m. ray, flame.



अर्चिष्मत् [ arkish-mat ]
- a. radiant, flaming; m. fire.



[ark-s ]
- n. (C. f. also), ray, flame



अर्च्य [ ark-ya ]
- fp. worthy of honour or worship.



अर्छ् [arkh ]
= अ र ् छ ्
- v. rikh


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अर्ज् [arg ]
= अ र ् ज ्
- i.p. arga , procure, acquire; cs. argaya , p.. id. upa , cs. id.



अर्जक [ arg-aka ]
- a. procuring, acquiring; -ana, n. acquisition; -anya, fp. to be acquired; -ita, pp. acquired, gained; -in, a. acquiring.



अर्जुन arjuna [ rg-una ]
-- a. () white, bright; m. N. of a son of Pndu.

UKT 160822: the Third Pandava - the great archer, can be related to Myanmarpr. See my note on Arjuna .


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अर्ण [ r-na ]
- a. surging; m. n. wave, stream, flood; m. N.



अर्णव [ arna-v ]
- m. (n.) wave, stream, flood; sea; -nemi, f. earth; -sarid-srita, (pp.) m. dweller near the sea and rivers.



अर्णस् [ r-nas ]
- n. wave, stream, flood; sea.



अर्णसाति [ rna-sti ]
- f. winning of streams.

(end of old p027-4.htm)

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अर्ति [ . ar-ti ]
- f. pain (= rti).



अर्ति  arti [ . ar-ti ]
- the root ri .


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अर्थ [ ar-tha ]
- n. (V.), m. business, work; aim, purpose; cause; meaning; advantage, profit, use, utility, the useful; reward; gain; property, wealth, money; thing, object; matter, affair; case, suit; a. --, hvg. in view, serviceable for: -m, in., d., lc. on account of, for the sake of, for (--); ab.=that is to say. ayam arthah, this thing; kam artham, what thing? ko x ar thah, what is the use of (in.)? what does (g.) care for (in.)?


अर्थ [ ar-tha ]
Skt: अर्थ [ ar-tha ] - n. (V.), m. business, work; aim, purpose; cause; meaning; advantage, profit, use, ... money ... -- Mac027c2
Skt: अर्थ (artha) = money - dictall-SktGlos
Pal: {t~hta.} - UHS PMD0037
  UKT from UHS: . m. benefit, business, property, meaning, desire. mfn. want. . entry, cessation. . in this case, in this place.



अर्थकर [ artha-kara ] arthacata
- a. () useful; -kma, n. sg., m. du. the useful and the pleasant; a. desirous of wealth; wishing to be useful; -kmya, a. id.; -krsya, n. destitution, poverty; -kilbishin, a. transgressing with money; -krikkhra, n. difficult matter; -krit, a. useful; -kritya, n., , f. accomplishment of an affair; -grahana, n. taking away of money; import of the meaning; -ghna, a. () prodigal; -kitta, a. intent on riches; -kintaka, a. knower of the useful; -gta, n. sg. pl. money; things, objects; -ga, a. understanding the matter or the meaning; -tattva, n. real state of things; fact of a matter; true sense: -tas, ad. for a purpose; for the sake of (--); for the sake of gain; in truth, really, according to the meaning; -trishn, f. thirst for gold, avarice; -tva, n. serviceableness for (--); -da, a. useful; liberal; -datta, m. N. of wealthy merchants; -darsana, n. judging a matter; -dna, n. present in money; -dshana, n. prodigality; unjust seizure of property.


अर्थचित्त [ artha-kitta
= अ र ् थ च ि त ् त
Skt: अर्थचित्त [ artha-kitta ] - a. intent on riches - Mac027c2
Skt: अर्थचित्त - adj. thinking on or desirous of wealth - SpkSkt
*Pal: {a.traic~hsa.} - UHS-PMD0040
  UKT from UHS: mfn. unsatiated, very desirous  [wealth or sex?]


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अर्थना [ arth-an ]
- f. prayer, request.



अर्थनाश [ artha-nsa ]
- m. loss of property; -nirdesa, m. explanation of the sense.



अर्थनीय [ arth-anya ]
- fp. to be required or demanded from.



अर्थपति [ artha-pati ]
- m. rich man; king; -para, a. intent on money, niggardly; -prushya, n. rigidness in money matters; -pla, m. N. of a man; -prayoga, m. usury; -bandha, m. significant words; -matta, pp. purse-proud; -mtra, n., , f. wealth, money.



अर्थय [ arth-ya ]
- den. . (P.), (arthate, E.), endeavour, strive for; ask one (ac., ab.) for (ac.); explain. abhi, ask one (ac.) for (ac., d., lc., or -artham). pra, desire; ask one (ac.) for (ac., lc.); request something (ac.) from (ab.); wish to, ask one to (inf.); woo; have recourse to; . oppose oneself to (ac.). sam, prepare; conclude; judge, think, consider; connect with (in. or prati w. ac.); perceive; contemplate; resolve; cheer up, encourage.



अर्थयुक्त [ artha-yukta ]
- pp. significant; -yukti, f. gain, advantage; -rsi, m. wealth; -ruki, a. avaricious; -lbha, m. acquisition of wealth; -lubdha, pp. avaricious; -lolupa-t, f. love of money; -vat, a. wealthy; significant; intelligible; ad. judiciously: -t, f., -tva, n. significance; -vargita, pp. meaningless; -varman, m. N.; -vda, m. explanation of the purpose; praise; -vdin, a. reporting facts; -vid, a. knowing the sense; -vinsana, a. detrimental; -viparyaya, m. impoverishment; poverty; -vriddhi, f. increase of wealth; -vyavahra, m. pecuniary suit.



अर्थशास्त्र [ artha-sstra ]
- n. treatise on practical life or policy; -sauka, n. blamelessness in money matters; -sr, f. abundance of wealth; -samsiddhi, f. success of a matter; -samgraha, m. accumulation of riches; -samkaya, m. sg. pl. property, wealth; -samdeha, m. doubtful or critical case.



अर्थसंपादन [ artha-sampdana ]
- n. obtainment of an advantage; -sambandha, m. possession of wealth; -samhartri, m. receiver of money; -sdhaka, a. promoting a thing, useful; -sdhana, n. accomplishment of a purpose; means of attaining an object; -sra, m. abundant wealth; -siddha, pp. self-evident; -siddhi, f. acquisition of property; success in one's object; establishment of the sense.



अर्थागम [ artha‿gama ]
- m. substantial income; -‿tura, a. avaricious; -‿tman, m. true nature; -‿adhikra, m. administration of money; -‿antara, n. another thing; different meaning: -nysa, m. adduction of another case, general or particular corroboration (a rhetorical fig.); -‿patti, f. self-evidence; kind of rhetorical figure; -‿abhiprya, m. meaning intended; -‿argana, n. acquisition of property; -‿artham, ad. for the sake of money; -‿arthi-t, f. desire of wealth; -‿arthin, a. interested, selfish; -‿avamarda, m. prodigality; -‿s, f. desire for money; -‿harana, n. accumulation of money; adduction of meanings.



अर्थिक [ arth-ika ]
- a. in need of, desirous of (--); -i-tavya, fp. to be sought; -i-t, f., -tva, n. solicitation; desire of (in.); request; -n, a. busy; eager; desirous of (in., --); needy; amorous, lustful; m. suitor; suppliant, beggar; prosecutor.


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UKT notes

Arjuna & Ulupi

-- UKT 131023, 140801, 160822 

The name Arjuna is of interest to me on three counts:
#1. The Roman-Latin name for the coinage metal silver is Argentum with chemical symbol Ag .
#2. I was introduced to Bhagava Gita by one of my older cousins U Nyein Maung. The Bhagava Gita enshrines the philosophy of a branch of modern Hinduism: Vaishnavism 'Vishnu-dva worshipers', where Shiva is just one of the Hindu Trinity. The other main branch, which is now the dominant form in India, Shaivism 'the worshipers of Shiva as the supreme Creator-God' has nothing to do with Bhagava Gita. It is in Vaishnavism that we find Bhagava Gita in which Sri Krishna preached Arjuna the philosophy on the battle field in Mahabharata war.

UKT 160822: To check my view, I surfed the Net with the search string "Bhagava Gita and Shaivism", 
and I found that while there are those who agree with me, there are others who do not. Example:
- http://hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?3542-Shaivism-and-Bhagvad-Geeta 160822
"Reflections: I am guessing it will depend completely on who you ask. This topic was discussed here to some degree before. If you search, you will see what I mean. Personally, I hold that the Gita, strictly speaking is not a Saiva scripture, but when I put that idea forth before. I sort of got scolded, meaning I would be in the minority. I liken it similarly to festivals. Thai Pusam may be dear to my heart, but most North Indians won't have even heard of it. There are many primary and secondary scriptures within the sects/divisions of Hinduism. So let me ask: why are you asking this question? -- Aum namasivaya"

#3. The statue of Arjuna in Bali -- his  dress in the likeness of a Myanmar prince.

Excerpts from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arjuna 131023
[UKT 131023: Note there is no distinction between singular and plural in both Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan. The <s> attached to the ends of nouns does not come into pronunciation.]

Arjuna (pronounced /ɐrˈɟunɐ/ in classical Sanskrit) (lit. 'bright' or 'silver' (cf. Latin argentum)) is the third of the Pandavas, the sons and princes of Pandu, who with Krishna, is considered to be the hero of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. [UKT ]

He plays the role of listener in the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita which is a philosophical conversation between Arjuna and Krishna. Arjuna was considered the finest archer and a peerless warrior by many notable figures in the Mahabharata, such as Bhishma, Drona, Krishna, Vidura, Sage Naradha and Dhiritharashtra. He played a key role in ensuring the defeat of the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War. [UKT ]

He was an undefeated hero, until day 16th of Mahabharata, (overpowered by Karna, but was unable to get killed). Arjuna was an avatar of Nara, who along with the avatar of Narayana, Krishna, established Dharma in the Dvapara Yuga. [1]

UKT 131023: It was unknown to Arjuna that Karna was the first born of his own mother Kunti, and therefore Karna was his own brother. All he knew was Karna was fighting on the side of Kaurava and was an enemy. He treacherously killed Karna, and only when his mother insisted that Karna be cremated as hero that Arjuna came to know the secret both his mother and Karna had not told him.

He was the student of Drona. He also learned archery with Kirants of Nepal in a disguise as Kirants were renown archers of that time. Many Hindu Pundits still argue about the claim of Arjuna being the greatest warrior in Mahabarath war, since Karna was considered to be significantly more powerful than Arjuna, according to Lord Krishna, and was only able to be defeated through the numerous misfortunes and ill-fate that had accumulated throughout his life.

--- --- ---

Arjuna started his pilgrimage by visiting the source of river Ganga. [UKT ]

UKT 160822: Since Brahmaputra river could be considered a tributary of River Ganga, Arjuna must have come to the border of India & Burma - probably to Paungsau Pass.

It was here that he accidentally met the Naga princess, Ulupi. She was deeply infatuated by him and the couple were drawn into days of passionate love-making. Before departing, Ulupi granted him the boon of invincibility in water bodies. Iravan was Arjuna's son with Ulupi. [9] [10]

UKT 160822: Brahmaputra river was also called the "red-river"  from one of its names, the Sanskrit derivation Lauhitya translates as the river of blood or red river.
- https://bijitdutta.wordpress.com/2012/06/27/the-brahmaputra-red-river/ 160822

UKT 131023, 140801: Myanmarpr was where the mythical Naga live side by side with the humans, and where Naga as the protector was worshipped. Many place names in the country bear the name Naga. See Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung and my rebuttal in
-- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 160822)

There is another possibility with a scientific explanation. The humans in Myanmarpr, who might very well be the Pyu, were Naga worshippers, and they were described by others as Nagas. Ulupi, a Naga princess mentioned below was a human who belonged to the tribes of Naga worshippers.  See: 
#1. Exotic Tribes of Ancient India
  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 140801
#2. Naga Kingdom
  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom 140801
#3. Naga people of SriLanka
  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_people_Sri_Lanka 140801 

That Ulupi had mated with Arjuna, a human, shows that she must have been a human also, because it is said that a Naga in human form must revert back to the Naga form for sleeping and mating. I base my suggestion on a story told in Theravada Buddhism. Once a male Naga put on the human form and was ordained as a monk. He was very well liked by lay-people. After some time being without sleep to maintain the human form he fell asleep in the Naga form. When his followers came to see him, they found a huge Naga in his little abode and were horrified. The matter was reported to the elders and he was disrobed. From that time on at the ordination of a devotee to enter "monk-hood", we were asked (I had been through the process), whether we were "humans" or not. If Ulupi had been a real Naga, she would have to be in Naga-form, and I couldn't believe that Arjuna would have mated with her.

Though I am a scientist and engineer who like to portray myself as the Skeptical Chemist of Robert Boyle's kind (- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist 131023), I still sometimes like to put on my hat as a story-teller. So let me suggest it was Ulupi the (Myanmar)-Naga princess who dressed Arjuna in the likeness of a Myanmar prince and the statute in Bali was curved after this incident ! Still Arjuna was awed by the powers of the magicians of the valley of Chindwin-Irrawaddy that he dared not come down into the valley.

Arjuna visited other Tirthas in India, including Kalinga and the ashrams of the Saptarishis, Agastya, Vasishta and Bhrigu. Finally he reached the palace of Manipura. Here he met king Chitravahana's daughter, Chitrangadaa. He fell in love with her and requested the king for his daughter's hand in marriage. The king readily agreed on finding out Arjuna's real identity, but sought a promise from Arjuna that their son would remain in Manipura and take over the reins of the kingdom succeeding him. Arjuna agreed, and later spent time in the palace till the birth of his son, Babruvahana. [11] [12] Then Arjuna again visited Manipur and crowned Babruvahana as the king.

Go back Arjuna-note-b

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