Update: 2017-10-30 03:19 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.mar~} : repha

{a.ma} : the common form is with a {weik-hkya.}-form *

{a.mRi.} : from highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ , misleading called "Vocalic R" even though no <r> sound is involved

{a.m} : vowel /e/ on the left-side of consonant /m/
{a.mau:} : split vowel in Pal-Myan

{a.m~ba.} / {m}


UKT notes :
*UKT 150312: I prefer the the {mauk-hkya.}-form for one-circle glyph, even though the commonly used form is the the {weik-hkya.}-form. However when there are "attachments", I use the {weik-hkya.}-form, e.g. {mau}, {maung}.

Curse of Immortality
Immortals in the ancient Persian Army


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अमधव्य [ a-madhav-ya ]
= अ म ध व ् य  
- a. not worthy of sweetness (i.e. Soma).

UKT 160803: The inclusion of Soma is uncalled for, since म ध व ् य means "sweetness"
{ma.Du.ra.} - UHS-PMD0755
  UKT from UHS: mfn. sweet, pleasantness, pleasant speech. mn. sweet taste


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अमनस् [ -manas ]
= अ म न स ्
- n. lack of intelligence; a. (s) unintelligent; foolish.



अमनस्क [ a-manas-ka ]
- a. foolish; not of good cheer.



अमनुष्यनिषेवित् [ a-manushya-nishevita ]
- pp. uninhabited by men.



अमनोरम [ a-mano-rama ]
- a. not charming.



अमन्तु [ a-mant ]
- a. lacking an adviser, helpless.



अमन्त्र [ a-mantra ]
- n. no spell; a. unaccompanied by Vedic texts; not knowing Vedic formulas.



[amantra-ka], -gna, -vid, a. ignorant of sacred texts; -tantra, a. lacking incantations and spells;  -vargam, ad. not without the requisite texts.



अमन्द [ -manda ]
- a. not lazy, alert; not stupid; plentiful; n. much; -t, f. cleverness, good sense; -hridaya, a. cheerful-hearted.



अमन्यमान [ -manya-mna ]
- pr. pt. unawares.


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अमम [ a-mama ]
- a. lacking self-consciousness; careless about (lc.).


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अमर [ a-mra ]
- a. (, ) immortal; m. god; -garbha, m. divine child; -guru, m. Brihaspati, the planet Jupiter; -tatin, f. river of the gods, Ganges; -taru, m. a certain tree; -t, f., -tva, n. divinity; immortality; -datta, m. N.; -druma, m. tree of the gods, Prigta; -dvish, m. Asura; -paksha-ptin, m. friend of the gods; -pati-kumra, m. son of Indra (Gayanta); -parvata, m. N. of a mtn.; -pura, n., , f. city of the gods; -prakhya, a. like an immortal; -prabha, a. bright as an immortal; -prrthita, pp. wooed by immortals; -mrig-dris, f. Apsaras.


अमर  amara [ a-mra ]
= अमर --> {a.ma.ra.}
Skt: - a. (, ) immortal; m. god; -- Mac025c1
Pal: {a.ma.ra.}
- - UHS-0119

UKT from UHS: mfn. deathless. m. deathlessness, {nt}

UKT 131016, 140725: Since the Bur-Myan {nt} can be ma'nes, gandhavas, and dvas, or simply one that should be worshipped, I cannot translate it as English 'god'. Moreover, since according to the Dhajaggasuttaṃ "Flag Paritta", the dva-soldiers can become afraid during their fight with Asuras, the dvas are not entirely free from "death". Thus, Skt-Dev अमर  should be translated as "deathless" or "deathlessness".



अमरंमन्य [ amaram-manya ]
- a. passing for or thinking oneself a god.



अमरलोक [ amara-loka ]
- a. dwelling in the world of the gods: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vat, ad. like an immortal; as if immortal; -sadas, n. assembly of the gods; -sarit, f. Ganges.



अमरागार [ amara‿agra ]
- n. temple; -‿aṅgan, f. Apsaras; -‿apag, f. celestial Ganges.



अमरावती [ amar-vat ]
- f. city of the gods (Indra's abode).

See my note on the historical city Amaravati अमरावती --> {a.ma.ra wa.ti}

UKT 13101: The city's name, {a.ma.ra}, is spelled with a long vowel. Since in all languages, the meaning can change with a change in the vowel, we need to be careful in translation especially if it is to be in English. Myanmarpr had a capital city with the name Amarapura spelled with a short vowel, {a.ma.ra.} - but that doesn't mean that it was city of immortals or gods: it is now just a suburb of Mandalay!.



अमरेश््वर [ amara‿svara ]
- m. lord of the gods (Indra or Vishnu).



अमरोत्तम [ amara‿uttama ]
- a. chief of gods; -‿upama, a. godlike.


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{a.mar~} : repha


अमर्त [-marta ], अमर्त्य [ -martya ]
Skt: अमर्त -marta - a. immortal. - Mac025c1
Pal: {a.ma.ta.} - UHS-PMD0118
  UKT from UHS: - mfn. undying. n. immortality

UKT 160803: Immortality is not accepted by all Buddhist schools, especially by the Theravada-Buddhism of Myanmarpr.
अमर्त [-marta ], अमर्त्य [ -martya ] : written in repha form
Skt: अमर्त -marta - a. immortal. - Mac025c1
Pal: {a.ma.ta.} - UHS-PMD0118
  UKT from UHS: - mfn. undying. n. immortality



अमर्त्यभाव [ amartya-bhva ]
- m. immortality.



अमर्धत् [ -mardh-at ]
- pr. pt. untiring.



अमर्मन् [ a-marman ]
- n. no vital spot; a. (n) invulnerable.



अमर्याद [ a-maryda ]
- a. having no bounds.



अमर्ष [ a-marsh-a ]
- m. impatience; displeasure; anger; -ana, n. id.; a. impetuous; intolerant; incensed; impatient; -ita, pp. displeased, indignant; -in, a. id.


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अमल [ a-mala ]
- a. spotless, pure; -pakshavihamgama, m. swan; -patatrin, m. goose, swan.



अमलय [ amala-ya ]
- den. P. make pure or white.



अमलिन [ a-malina ]
- a. pure; -dh, a. pure minded.


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अमवत् [ ma-vat ]
- a. impetuous; mighty.


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अमहात्मन् [ a-mahtman ]
- a. not high-minded.



अमहीयमान [ a-mahya-mna ]
- pr. pt. downcast, distressed.

UKT: p025c2-b03 moved to next file
(end of old p025-1.htm)

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{a.ma} : the common form is with a Weik-cha {weik-hkya.}

UKT 150312: I prefer the the Mauk-cha {mauk-hkya.} for the one-circle glyph, even though the commonly used form is the Weik-cha {weik-hkya.} form. However when there are "attachments", I use the Weik-cha {weik-hkya.} form, e.g. {mau}, {maung}.


अमा [ . am&asharp; ]
- ad. at home; homewards.



अमा [ . am ]
- f. night of new moon.



अमांसभक्ष [ a-mmsa-bhaksha ]
- a. eating no meat.



अमाजुर् [ am-gr ]
- f. aging at home, old maid.



अमात् [ . am&asharp;t ]
- (ab.) ad. from home.



अमात् [ . a-mt ]
- pr. pt. having no space in (lc.).



अमात्य [ am-tya ]
- m. inmate; relative; minister.



अमात्रा [ a-mtr ]
- f.: in. excessively, highly.



अमानन [ a-mnana ]
- n. disrespect.



अमानव [ a-mnava ]
- a. superhuman; not descended from Manu.



अमानित [ a-mnita ]
- pp. not highly esteemed.



अमानित्व [ a-mni-tva ]
- n. modesty, humility.



अमानुष [ -mnusha ]
- m. no man; , f. female animal; a. () superhuman, divine; in human; () destitute of men; -loka, m. celestial world.



अमाय [ a-my ]
- a. not clever.



अमाया [ a-my ]
- f. sincerity: in. frankly, honestly.



अमार [ a-mra ]
- m. not killing.



अमार्ग [ a-mrga ]
- m. wrong road, -course.



अमार्जित [ a-mrgita ]
- pp. unwashed.



[am-vs- ], -y ,
- f. night of new moon

(end of old p025-2.htm )

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अमि [am-i ]
- the root am



अमित [ -mita ]
- pp. immeasurable; innumerable; -gati, m. N. of a fairy; -guna, a. having innumerable merits; -tegas, a. of immeasurable splendour; -buddhi-mat, a. of immeasurable intellect.



अमितौजस् [ amita‿ogas ]
- a. of immeasurable energy or power.



अमित्र [ . a-mtra ]
- m. enemy: -vat, ad. like an enemy.



अमित्र [ . a-mitra ]
- a. friendless.



अमित्रकर्मन् [ amitra-karman ]
- m. N.; -karsh-ana, a. tormenting enemies; -ghtin, m. slayer of foes; -t, f. enmity; -hn, a. slaying foes.



अमित्राय [ amitrya ]
- den. . behave like an enemy.



अमिथ्या [ a-mithy ]
- ad. not falsely, truly.



अमिनत् [ -mi-n-at ]
- pr. pt. not injuring.


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अमी [ am&isharp; ]
- m. pl. of asau (adas).



अमीतवर्ण [ -mta-varna ]
- a. having undiminished brightness.



अमीमांसस्य [ a-mmmsya ]
- fp. not to be called in question.



  अमीव [ amva ]
- n., , f. pain; plague; disease; -ktana, a. () driving away pain or disease.

(end of old p025-3.htm)

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अमु [ am ]
- prn. stem (nm. sg. m. f. asau, n. ads).



अमुक [ amu-ka ]
- prn. so and so.



अमुक्त [ a-mukta ]
- pp. not let go, -discharged, -liberated.



अमुख [ a-mukha ]
- a. mouthless.



अमुञ्चत् [ a-muk-at ]
- pr. pt. not abandoning or giving up.



अमुतस् [ am-tas ]
- ad. from that (=ab.); thence, there; hence; thereupon.



अमुत्र [ am-tra ] ad. in that (=lc.); here; there, thither; in the other world; -‿artham, ad. for the next world.


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अमुथा [ am-th ]
- ad. thus; w. as, to be lost.



अमुद्र [ a-mudra ]
- a. unequalled.



अमुया [ amuy&asharp; ]
- in. ad. in that way, so; with as or bh, be done for, be lost.


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अमूढ [ a-mdha ]
- pp. not confused, clear minded.



अमूर [ -mra ]
- a. acute, unerring.



अमूर्त [ -mrta ]
- a. bodiless.



अमूल [ a-ml ]
- a. rootless; causeless; not based on a or the text.

(end of old p025-4.htm)

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अमृक्त [ -mrikta ]
- pp. unhurt, intact.



अमृत [ a-mrta ]
- pp. not hvg. died; immortal; m. god; , f. goddess; a herb; n. immortality; world of immortals; nectar; a certain remedy; medicine; remnant of a sacrifice; water; milk; ray; -kara, m. moon; -kirana, m. id.; -tegas, m. N. of a fairy prince; -tv, n. immortality; condition of ambrosia; -ddhiti, m. moon; -drava, a. flowing with nectar; -dhyin, a. sipping --; -pyin, a. drinking nectar = hearing fine speeches; -prabha, m. N. of a fairy; , f. N.; -bhavana, n. N. of a monastery; -bhshana, n. nectar-like speech; -bhug, m. god; -bhogana, a. eating the remnants of sacrifices; -mya, a. () immortal; nectar-like; consisting of nectar; -rasmi, m. moon; -rasa, m. nectar; a. tasting like nectar; -lat, f. creeper yielding nectar; -loka, m. world of the immortals; -varshin, a. raining nectar; -hrada, m. lake of nectar.

UKT 150702, 160806: Now that I am past my 82nd birthday, I need to know more about Immortality or rather the Curse of Immortality.



अमृतांसु [ amrita‿amsu ]
- m. moon; -‿kara, m. N.; -‿tman, a. consisting of nectar.



अमृताय [ amritya ]
- den. . be like immortality or nectar; become nectar.



अमृताहुति [ amrita‿huti ]
- f. a kind of sacrificial offering.



[amritik ]
- f. N. of a celestial



[amriti-bh ]
- become immortal



[amrita‿isvara ]
- m. Siva

UKT 131018, 140725: Literally, the above combination means "undyuot;. I suspect this word had been equated to the Hindu-god Siva by the later-day Hindu-religionists, because if we are to go by the number of hymns to Vedic gods, Mahabrahma, Vishnu, & Siva - the present-day Hindu Trinity - were minor gods. I maintain that a language must be religion neutral.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140725



अमृतोपम [ amrita‿upama ]
- a. like ambrosia.



अमृष्यमाण [ a-mrish-ya-mna ]
- pr. pt. not tolerating.

( end of old p025-5.htm)

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अमेध्य [ a-medhy ]
- a. unfit for sacrifice; impure; n. impurity, excrement.



अमेय [ ameya ]
- fp. immeasurable.


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अमोघ [ -mogha ]
- a. not vain, unerring; in fallible; -krodha-harsha, a. not angry or rejoicing in vain; -darsana, a. not appearing in vain, i.e. bringing luck (Pr.); -patana, a. not falling in vain, hitting the mark; -vakana, a. whose word is not idle.



अमोच्य [ a-mokya ]
- fp. not to be let go.


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अमौक्तिक [ a-mauktika ]
- a. containing no pearls.


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UKT 160807: {m} :
Visible Virama or A'thut {a.t} is allowed in both Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev. However in Pal-Myan though it is not allowed, it is still there hidden in most cases as vertical conjuncts Part'hsin {paaHT-hsn.} literally meaning "Pali-vertical-conjunct". Horizontal conjuncts Part'tw {paaHT-tw:} such as {p~a} 'education' are also found. It must be remembered that in Pal-Myan, {p~a} is written as {pa.a.}. The problem must have arisen centuries ago, resulting in two contenders, Nya'l & Nya'gyi, for the cell r2c5. I have resolved the problem by assigning Nya'l as the true occupant of r2c5, and moving Nya'gyi to the Palatal approximant position.

UKT 150313: {m~ba.} in Pal-Myan is "mango" (UHS-PMD0120) which in Skt-Dev is आम्र āmra (SpkSkt). See next page for {m~bu.} अम्बु which indicated that might as well be pronounced as {m~ba.}.


अम्बर [ mbara ]
- n. garment; firmament, sky; -kara, a. moving in the air; m. bird; fairy: -mrga, m. (bird's path), sky; -krin, m. planet; -patha, m. path in the sky; -prabh, f. N. of a princess; -‿adhikrin, m. groom of the robes.



अम्बरीष [ ambar&isharp;sha ]
- m. n. frying-pan; m. N.



अम्बरौकस् [ ambara‿okas ]
- m. god.



अम्बष्ठ [ amba-shtha ]
- m. (, ) child of a Brhman and a woman of the third caste: pl. N. of a people.



अम्बा [ amb&asharp; ]
- f. mother: vc. mbe (V.), mba (V. C.): mba, often mere ij. ah!


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UKT notes

Amaravati अमरावती 

-- UKT 131016: While looking for Amaravati, the city of Indra, I came upon the following Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 131016

The Śātavāhana Empire (Telugu: శాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము, Śātavāhana Sāmrājyaṁ ? , Maharashtri: सालवाहण , Sālavāhaṇa [3]) was a royal Indian dynasty based from Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. [UKT ]

UKT 131016: Since there could be direct sea-links with southern Myanmarpr, this area would have significance in the history of the Mon-Myan peoples of Thaton. At the same time, Magadha kingdom would have over-land connections with Bur-Myans of Pagan.

Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.

 Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, but declared independence with its decline. They are known for their patronage of Hinduism and Buddhism which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) to Amaravati. The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade as well as the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.

They had to compete with the Sungas and then the Kanvas of Magadha to establish their rule. Later, they played a crucial role to protect a huge part of India against foreign invaders like the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with the Western Kshatrapas went on for a long time. The great rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Sātakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and stop their expansion. In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states.

UKT: More in Wikipdia article.

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The Curse of Immortality

UKT 150702, 160806:

Now that I am past my 82nd birthday, I need to know more about Immortality or rather the Curse of Immortality. Becoming more and more infirm with age, we should be more concerned with Aging than with  Death. Read an interesting article on Immortality in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immortality 150702, 160806
Read also:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_body 160806
Sambhogakaya sambhoga kāya "body of enjoyment" 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambhogak%C4%81ya 160806

The Sambhogakāya (Skt: "body of enjoyment" [1] [a], Tib: longs.sku ) is the second mode or aspect of the Trikaya. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trikaya 160806
In the above above article we read:
"In the Pāli Canon the Buddha tells Vasettha that the Tathāgata (the Buddha) was Dhammakāya, the 'Truth-body' or the 'Embodiment of Truth', as well as Dhammabhuta, 'Truth-become', 'One who has become Truth' ing god" or "undying lord&q [2] [3]

The Buddha is equated with the Dhamma:

... and the Buddha comforts him, "Enough, Vakkali. Why do you want to see this filthy body? Whoever sees the Dhamma sees me; whoever sees me sees the Dhamma." [4]

In the Aggaa Sutta the Buddha advises Vasettha that whoever has strong, deep rooted, and established belief in the Tathagatha, he can declare that he is the child of Bhagavan, born from the mouth of Dhamma, created from Dhamma, and the heir of Dhamma. Because the titles of the Tathagatha are: The Body of Dhamma, The Body of Brahma, the Manifestation of Dhamma, and the Manifestation of Brahma.

What I could get in UHS-PMD are:
{m~bau:Da.} - UHS-PMD1003
  UKT from UHS: m. knowledge of the Four Noble Truths .
{m~Bau:ga.} - UHS-PMD1005 
  UKT from UHS: m. - enjoyment of togetherness

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Immortals in the ancient Persian Army

- UKT 131018: One of the books I read as a child learning English was "The Book of Knowledge". In the volume of Romance of History, I came across many stories, with specially drawn pictures, I came upon the wars between the Greeks and the Persians. In it was mentioned about the Immortals in the Persian Army. The following is from Wikipedia.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immortals_Persian_Empire 131018

Herodotus describes the 'Immortals' as being heavy infantry, led by Hydarnes, that were kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men. He claimed that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded or sick member was immediately replaced with a new one, maintaining the numbers and cohesion of the unit. [2]

UKT 140725: Whenever you come across an "s" at the end of the word, make sure that it is the plural "s". The above "Hydarnes" is a name and the "s" is not plural. So the word should have been written as "Hydar'nes". Another word of this nature is "Ma'nes" - the equivalent of Bur-Myan {nt}. The following is from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydarnes 140725
   "Hydarnes (Ancient Greek: Ὑδάρνης ; Old Persian Vidarna "the ripper") was an eminent Persian, the commander of the "Ten Thousand Immortals" during the time of king Xerxes invasion of Greece. Hydarnes was a famous soldier and commander loyal to the great Persian Empire. ..."

This elite corps is only called the 'Immortals' in sources based on Herodotus. There is evidence of the existence of a permanent corps from Persian sources, which provided a backbone for the tribal levies who made up the bulk of the Achaemenid armies. These do not however record the name of "Immortals". [1] "Probably, Herodotus' informant has confused the name Aniya ('companions') with Anaua ('Immortals')." [1]

Herodotus describes their armament as follows: wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers, bow and arrow. Underneath their robes they wore scale armour coats. The spear counterbalances of the common soldiery were of silver; to differentiate commanding ranks, the officers' spear buttspikes were golden. [4] [UKT 0182]

The regiment was followed by a caravan of covered carriages, camels, and mules that transported their supplies, along with concubines and attendants to serve them; this supply train carried special food that was reserved only for their consumption. [5]

The headdress worn by the Immortals is believed to have been the Persian tiara. Its actual form is uncertain, but some sources describe it as a cloth or felt cap which could be pulled over the face to keep out wind and dust in the arid Persian plains. [4] [UKT ]

Surviving Achaemenid coloured glazed bricks and carved reliefs represent the Immortals as wearing elaborate robes, hoop earrings and gold jewelry, though these garments and accessories were most likely worn only for ceremonial ceremonial occasions. [6]

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